Charles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry Griffin.

The Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 online

. (page 27 of 29)
Online LibraryCharles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry GriffinThe Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 27 of 29)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook




D. 1808.

BiOm Atar Singh

s. 1878.


Bate Hudit Bingh Baba flari Singh Baba Hamam Singh

n. 1870. n. 1886. n. 186S.

8her Singh
B. 18M.

Bndh Singh
B. 1886.


Narain Singh


Nabotav Snrai Jagat Siogh Biahan Singh Amrik Singh Haria Singh
B.1868. B. 1861. B.1864. B. 1868. B. 1878L

This family is of the Bhala Ehatri caste^ descended from
the brother of Amar Das, the third Sikh Guru, formerly of
the Gurdaspur district. Baba Mushtak Singh, brother of
Khushal Singh, migrated to Rawalpindi in the time of Sardar
Milkha Singh Thepuria, and received from him considerable
grants of land. Baba Khushal Singh followed his brother to
Rawalpindi, and established a Gurduara at Saidpur, also called
Bamkund. When Baba Mushtak Singh died, his grandson
Baba Atar Singh occupied the Oadi at Rawalpindi, while
Baba Khushal Singh remained in service at the Sikh Darbar
Sahib at Amritsar. The latter had a great reputation as a
Guru, and was generally known as Baba Bishan.

At the commencement of the British rule Baba Khushal
Singh held jagirs in Rawalpindi estimated to yield Rs, 2,580,
besides rent-free grants in Hazara, of which the annual
revenue was put down at Rs. 1,500, and some petty holdings
in Peshawar. But in Sardar Ohatar Singh's rebellion of 1848,
he did not use the great influence which he then undoubtedly
possessed with the Sikhs in support of the new Government,
pursuing a trimming course, and lending countenance to the
rebel party without giving them open aid. Most of his jagirs
were therefore resumed ; but as he was then seventy-four years

* Not i& the original fldition.

Digitized by



old, and he was looked up to with veneration by the people, the
villages of Dhok Hajat and Dhot Nur and some land near
Rawalpindi, yielding in all Rs. 640 per annum, were released to
him as a compassionate grant for life ; half to be continued to
his son Atar Singh, who was not supposed to have been in any
way leagued with the rebels. On a separate investigation
made into the jagirs held by Baba Atar Singh, the village of
Shahar Bai Cbaragh, estimated to yield Rs. 375, was released
for the life of Atar Singh, on the understanding that he would
not be entitled to the pension originally proposed for him.

In 1857 Baba Khushal Singh, with his son and grandsons,
remained in attendance on the Deputy Commissioner and
behaved loyally. They raised a troop of cavalry, the command
of which was given to Baba Hardit Singh, and the latter ren-
dered faithful service against the wild tribes of the Gogaira
district, showing conspicuous personal gallantry on more than
one occasion.

In 1866 Baba Atar Singh obtained a reconsideration of
the terms on which his jagirs were held ; and the grants men-
tioned above as yielding Rs. 640, but then assessed at Rs. 401 ,
were released in perpetuity to him and his descendants, subject
to the condition that the estate should descend integrally
to the most eligible of the holder's sons ; while the village of
Shahar Rai Charagh, then valued at Rs. 850, was released
to Baba Atar Singh for life, descending on his death to those
of his heirs not in possession of the other holdings.

Baba Atar Singh died in 1878, and his rent-free tenures
descended according to the terms above-mentioned ; the grants
in Dhok Hayat, Dhok Nur and Rawalpindi, amoimting to Rs.
400, falling to Baba Hari Singh, and the village of Shahar Rai
Oharagh, now assessed at Rs. 540, to the sons of Hardit Singh
and Harnam Singh.

Baba Hari Singh, who was admitted to the Viceregal
Darbar of 1864 as the representative of the family, was an

Digitized by



energetic member of the Rawalpindi Mnnicipal Committee,
and also sat on the Bench of Honorary Magistrates. He died
in 1885, and his eldest son, Narotam Singh, has been allowed
to succeed to his seat in Darbar.

After the Mutiny Baba Hardit Singh joined the Police
Department, and did good service as an Inspector at Patna,
where he died. His son Baba Sher Singh has receiyed an
English education, and is a candidate for the post of Munaif,
in which capacity he has officiated seyeral times.

Digitized by VjOOQIC





^f.'ni Baqu Dluuii wun*

Magw Mai



ICftSt Ram Baton Cband Brahm Dat

D. 1870. B. 1864. D. 1874.

Kataal Bam Bisbav Dai
B. 1863. B. 1843.


Thakar Parma ChetBam Tolsl Daa Pirthmi
Das Kand B. 1867. B. 1888. Chaad

B. 1831 B. 1866. B. 1886.

Saidpur is said to have been named after Said Ehan, the
third son of Sultan Sarang Khan Gakhar^ to whom the
Emperor Akbar gave Eawalpindi when he divided the Gakhar
country among the rival Chiefs, and this same Said Khan
brought an ancestor of Chaudhri Bishan Das from Lora,
a village in Tahsil Haripur, made him his mashir or councillor,
and gave him the farm of certain villages. The Chaudhri
continued to act as mashir^ and received rent-free grants
from the Gakhars, which were maintained in their favour by
the Sikhs ; and in this manner and by money-lending they
acquired considerable influence and wealth.

At annexation Chaudhri Batan Chand represented the
family in Saidpur, and in 1853 he rendered valuable service
by procuring the release of Sardar Nahal Singh Chachi and
of Nand Singh from Nadar Khan Gakhar when the latter
had attempted to raise an insurrection and had seized the
Sardars who bad* been sent by the Commissioner to induce
him to surrender. In 1857 Eatan Chand and his nephew
Gurdas Mai showed their loyalty by warning the authorities
of the attack which the Dhunds were about to make on Murree.
Their services were commended by the local authorities, and
Batan Ohand received a jagir of Rs. 400^ of which half was

Digitized by



for liis life, and the remainder, in Mauza Becha, in perpetuity ;
while Gurdas Mai was rewarded with a pension of Rs. 100
and a khilat worth Bs. 200.

Batan Cband died in 1864, and Bishan Das was admitted
to his seat in the Viceregal Darbar in 1864. He has succeeded
to his father's jagir, and holds a prominent position in the
district. He is an active member of the District Board, and
renders yaluable assistance in the spread of education, the
promotion of horse-breeding, and other matters connected
with the public welfare.

Digitized by



Digitized by


Digitized by








IsLr M.R.8her



9. 1869.

Prince PMhora KMbmin MuUana M. R. Dalip


9. 18ii.


9. 1848.


9. 1848.

S. Jftgjodh Singh Fateh

9. 1844.

8. Anuir Singh
9. 1878.

9. 1873.

9. 1887.



"gtafi^n Singh
9. 1840.

Kesr% Singh


Utem Singh.

Arjan Singh
9. 1881.

Hart Singh.


8. Bftkhahith
Singh (adopt-
ed br the

Partab Dara Shahdeo

Singh Singh Singh

9. isa 9. 1874 9. 1848.

(byhtBwife (by the I

Rani Parem Rani (}hand Baadeo

Kanr, who Kanr). Singh.



S. Narain


Narain Singh

(adopted by

Rani Parem





9. 1879.

Thakar Singh Karam

(adopted Singh

by Rani (adopted

Partab BTaor) by Rani

9. 1847. Dharam

9. 1888.

In the present work frequent mention has been made of members,
real or reputed, of the royal family of Lahore. A short notice of
them 18 accordingly given here. The history of many of them is
the history of the Pan jab itself during many eventful years, and has
been already written by various hands; but no work hitherto pub-
lished fi^'ves any correct account of the wives and children of the
great Maharaja.

Sardar Mahan Singh, father of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, killed,
with his own hands, his mother Mai Desan, who had been de-
tected in an intrigue with a Brahman, Misar Jai Ram. Following
his father's example, Ranjit Singh put to death, with his own
hands, his mother Mai Malwai for adultery with one Laik Misar.
Both these ladies, however, had more than one lover, and it is
doubtful whether Mahan Singh was the son of Charat Singh, or
Banjit Singh the son of Mahan Singh. With such antecedents,

Digitized by



it is not inrprisiDg tliat Ran jit Singb sbonld have had bnt vagne
ideas of chastity, delicacy, or hoDOor. Perhaps no Coart in the
world was ever more debauched than that of Maharaja Banjit
Singh, and certainly no one of his coartiers was more immoral
or debauched than he. When he had secured the legitimate
succession in the persons of his son Eharak Singh and his grand-
son Nao Nahal Singh, the intrigues of his wives afforded him
more amusement than disgust. He was not unwilling to be the
reputed father of their children, though he was never deceived as
to their parentage, and on the birth of another and yet another
son would cry, Wah Quru ji, ah ghaihi gola iiton aya 1 (Whence
this mysterious stroke of fortune?) But the secret history of his
harem, though both instructive and amusing, is too scandalous to
be related here.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh married sixteen wives, nine with
the usual rites and ceremonies of orthodox marriage, Bhadi^ or
phera, and seven with the less orthodox of ehadar-dalna, or tir-
fotka, common enough among the Sikhs. The following are the
nine orthodox wives :—

r.— Mabtab Eaur married in 1796. She was the daughter of
Sardar Gurbakhsh Singh and grand-daughter of Sardar Jai Singh
Kanhya. She was the reputed mother of Maharaja Sher Singh and
Tara Singh. She died in 1813.

II. — Raj^Kauran married in 1798. She was the daughter of
Sardar Ran Singh Nakai, a Sindhu Jat, and was the mother of
Maharaja Eharak Singh. She died in 1818. This lady was commonly
known by the name of Mai Nakayan. The Maharaja's aunt, daughter
of Sardar Charat Singh, was also named Raj Eaaran, and to dis-
tinguish between them Mai Nakayan had the name Datar Eaur given
to her.

III. — Rup Eaur was the daughter of Jai Singh, Lambardar,
of Eot Said Mahmud, in Aroritsar. She was married to the Maharaja
in 1815, and at annexation was awarded a pension of Rs. 1,980 per
annum, which she enjoyed until her death in 1878.

IV. — Laobmi was married to the Maharaja in 1820. She was the
daughter of Desa Singh Yadpaga, a Sindhu Jat, of Jogki Ehan,in the
Gujranwala district. She was presented to the Maharaja on his visit
to Ehai by her father.

Her pension was fixed at Rs. 11,200 per annum. She died in

v., VI. — Mahtab Davi and Rajbamso were illegitimate daughters
of Raja Sansar Chand Eatoch, of Eangra. When Anrndh Chand,
son of Sansar Chand, refused to give a sister in marriage to Raja
Hira Singh, and fled across the batlaj to avoid the proposed alliance,
the Maharaja himself, in revenge for the slight to his favourite,
married two of the sisters who had been detained at Lahore. This
was in 1889.

Digitized by



Rani Rajbanso died before the Mabaraja^ aboat the year 1835.
Rani Mahtab Davi became Saii, and was burnt with the Maharaja's
body in 1839.

YII. — QuL Beqam was a lady of doubtful antecedents^ who had
been living in the city of Amritsar. The Maharaja took a fancy to her,
and in the year 1833 married her with great splendour. She died
at Lahore in 1863, and was in receipt of a pension of Rs. 12,380.

VIII. — Ram Davi was the daughter of Kaur Singh, of Chachri-
wala, in the Gujranwala district. The date of her marriage is not
known. Her death took place before that of the Maharaja.

IX. — A daughter of Karam Singh Chinah, a Chinah Jat^ of the
Amritsar district. The date of her marriage is not known.

The seven following Ranis were married by the rites of chadar^
dalna or tir-pakta : —

I. — Rani Davi, daughter of TVazir Nakuda, of Jaswan, in the
Hnshiarpur district. She is living in Amritsar.

II., III.— Ratan Eaur and Daya Eaub, widows of Sardar Sahib
Singh Bhangi, of Gujrat. These ladies were taken into the Maha-
raja's house in 1811, soon kfter the death of their husband. Rani
Rntan Eaur was the reputed mother of Multana Singh, and died in
1866. She had been in receipt of a pension of Rs. 1,000 per annum.
Rani Daya Eaur was the mother of Eashmira Singh and Pashora
Singh. She died in 1843.

IV.— Chand Eaur was the daughter of Jai Singh, Jat, of Chain-
pur, in Amritsar. She was married to the Maharaja in 1815, and
died in the year 1840.

V, — Mahtab Eaub was the daughter of Chaudhri Sujan, an
Uthwal Jat, of Mala, in Qurdaspur. fc>he was married to the Maha-
raja about the year 1822, and was in receipt of an annual pension of
Rs. 1,930 until her death in 1878.

VI. — Saman Eaur was the daughter of Suba Singh, a Jat, of
Malwa, in the Cis-Satlaj States. She was married to the Maharaja
in 1832, and received a pension of Rs. 1,440. She died in 1879.

VII.— Gdlab Eaur was the daughter of a Jat Zamindar, of
Jagdeo, in Amritsar. She died about the year 1838.

The only one of the Maharaja's wives who became Sati was Mahtab
Davi ; but three other ladies, besides slave girls of the rank of
Rani, were burnt on the Maharaja's funeral pile. These were
Har Davi, daughter of Chaudhri Ram, a Saleria Rijput, of Atalgarh,
in Gurdaspur ; Raj Davi, daughter of Padma, Uajput ; and Davno,
daughter of Sand Bbari, a Bhari Chib, of Dava-Vatala, now in Jama

The children of Maharaja Ranjit Singh : —

I. — Eharak Singh was the only child, legitimate or illegitimate,
by a wife or a slave girl, ever born to Maharaja Ranjit Singh. He

Digitized by



was the son of Bani Baj Eaar, and was born in the year 1802. His
history is well known. He sucoeeded bis father in 1839^ and died on
the 5th November 1840 by poison administered under the orders of
his son Nao Nahal Singh and Raja Dhian Singh.

11.^ III.— Shib Sinob and Taba Singh. When Rani Mahtab
Eanr had been married more than ten years ta the Maharaja without
bearing him any children^ it was given out soon after Ran jit Singh's
departure from Lahore on his Cis-Satlaj Campaign of 1807 that the
Hani was pregnant. On the Maharaja's retnrn his wife presented
him with Sher Singh and Tara Singh as her twin-sons. Sher
Singh was the son of a chintz weaver, named Nahala, native of
Mukarian, in Hushiarpur, then in the jagir estates of Mai Sada Kanr,
mother of Mahtab Kaur. Tara Singh was the son of a Mahomedan
woman^ whose mother's name was Manki, a slave girl of Mai Sada

Sada Eanr, an able and unscrnpnioas woman, was aware thai
should her daughter bear sons to the Maharaja her influence would
be much increased, and accordingly purchased these children of their
parents and proclaimed them as the offspring of Mahtab Eaur. Maha*
raja Ranjit Singh was not deceived ; but he acknowledged the children
as his own, and they were always treated as his sons. They bore the
title of Sbahzada.

Sher Singh succeeded Maharaja Eharak Singh in 1841, and was
assassinated by Sardar Ajit Singh Sindhanwalia on the 15th Septem-
her 1843. Tara Singh was an imbecile. He lived for the most
part with his brother Sher Singh, who supported him and his
wives. He married Dharam Eaur, Randhavi, daughter of Jodh
Singh, a Randhawa Jat, of Tara, in Amritsar, and Nand Eanr, known
as Bhitividwali of Bhitivid, in Amritsar, where her father Ohanda
Singh resided. Tara Singh died in September 1859 at Dasnya in

lY. — Ibhar Singh. Rani Mahtab Eaur wisely resolved to father
twins upon the Maharaja in 1807, as she had already experimented with
one son without success. About the year 1804 she had presented
the Maharaja with a son, who was named ishar Singh, but who died
a year and-a-half after bis birth. It is not known from whom this
child was procured, but it is certain that his mother was not Mahtab
Eaur, nor his father Ranjit Singh.

v., VI. — Pashora Singh and Eashmiea Singh. Rani Daya Eaur,
seeing the plot of Rani Mahtab Eaur so successful, determined to
follow her example, and on different occasions procured two boys,
whom she gave out to be her children. These were Pashora Singh
and Eashmira Singh. Both were treated as the sons of the Maha-
raja, and held the llaka of Sialkot, worth Rs. 50,000, in jagir. Eash-
mira Singh took refuge with Baba Bir Singh, a famous Sikh Qura,
when Raja Hira Singh became Minister, and he was killed with

Digitized by



the Baba and Atar Singh Sindhanwalia by the Sikh army in Jaly

Pashora Singh was murdered by Fateh Khan Tawana and Sardar
Chatar Singh Atariwala at AtfcocK in Aagust 1844 by the orders
of Sardar Jawahir Singh^ the Minister. Kashmira Singh left one son^
Fateh Singh^ who died childless in 1873. Pashora Singh left one son,
Jagjodh Singh, born in 1844.

Sardar Jagjodh Singh and Sardar Fateh Singh were granted after
annexation a joint jagir of Rs. 20,000 in Baraich, Oudh, now yielding
Bs. 30,000 per annum. Fateh Singh rarely visited his estates. He was
a weak, dissolute man, and never took part in publio affairs. His
mother is living, and Government has continued to her the cash
pension which was first granted to her son, namely, Rs. 1,800 per
annum. His first wife. Rani Lachman Kaur, daughter of Subadar
Jawahir Singh, of Lohian, Gajranwala, is owner of half the assigned
villages in Baraich.

Shortly after attaining his majority Sardar Jagjodh Singh took
up his residence permanently in Baraich, where he now manages
his half of the original jagir. He is chiefly distinguished for his
very high personal character and his liberal and catholic benevo-
lence. During the great Bengal famine of 1874 he devoted the whole
of the income from his private property and assigned estates to the
relief of the sufferers. He is a staunch ally of Oovernraent, and on more
than one occasion, notably during the last Afghan War, he has given
practical proof of his loyalty. He leads the life of a recluse, and rarely
visits the Panjab ; but his name is widely known and respected
throughout the Province. He receives a pension of Rs. 1 50 per men-
sem, which was enjoyed by his mother until her death in 1872.

VII. — MuLTANA Singh was the reputed son of Rani Ratan Kaur,
first the wife of Mul Singh of Doburii, then of Sardar Sahib Singh of
Gujrat, and lastly of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. She procured Multana
Singh from a Mahomedan slave girl in 1819 and declared him her
son. He was acknowledged by the Maharaja, who gave him a small
jagir at Vanyeki, Ajnala, pargana Amritsar, worth Rs. 2,000. He
died in 1846 leaving three sons, Kishan Singh, still alive, drawing
a pension of Rs. 300 per annum ; Kesra Singh, now dead ; and Arjan
Singh, who died in 1881. He served as a Munsif in the Panjab for
some years.

VIII. — Damp Singh was bom in February 1837. His mother was
Jindan, daughter of Mana Singh, an Oulakh Jat, of Char, near
Qujranwala, a trooper in the Maharaja's service. Dalip Singh was
proclaimed Maharaja on the death of Sher Singh in September
1843, and on the 29th of March 1849, and after the Second Sikh War,
was deposed and sent to Fatehgarh, whence in 1851 he was sent to
England. His mother, Rani Jindan, died in England in 1863, aged
forty-six years.

Digitized by




Maharaja Eharak Singh married fonr wiyes : —

I. — Chand Kaur, daughter of Sardar Jaimal Singh Eanfajra, of
Fatehgarh, near Gardaspur. The marriage took place in 1812. It was
celebrated with great splendour, and Sir David Ochterlony attended
from Ludhiana. In 1821 the Rani gave birth to a son, Nao Nahal
Singh. On the death of her husband and son, on the 5th November
1840, she pnt in a claim to the Crown. She was supported by the Sindhan-
walias and betrayed by the Dogras, and was compelled to renounce in
favour of Sher Singh. She was murdered in 1842 by order of Raja
Dhian Singh, who wished to marry her, but whose proposals she had
rejected with disdain.

II. — Khbm Kaub, daughter of Sardar Jodh Singh, Kalalwala, and
grand-daughter of Sardar Sahib Singh of Gujrat, was married i&
1816. She had a jagir of Rs. 12,000 per annum, which was confiscated
by the Lahore Darbar in 1848 in consequence of her complicity in
the rebellion. She was in receipt of a pension of Rs. 12,000 per annum,
which lapsed on her death in 1881.

III. — KiSHAN Eaur, daughter of Chaudhri Raja Singh, Jat, of
Samra, in Amritsar, was married in 1818, and died at Lahore in 1876.
She received an annual pension of Rs. 2,824.

IV. — IsHAs Eaur was the sister of Sardar Mangal Singh Sindhu,
of Soranwali, in ^ialkot. She was married by chadar^alna to
Eharak Singh in 1815, having been sent to him from his father's
sanana. This lady became Salt on the death of Eharak Singh.


Like his father, Nao Nahal Singh married four wives : —

I. — Nakei, daughter of Sardar Sham Singh Atariwala. To the
marriage were invited the Governor-General, the Lieutenant-Gh>vemor
of the North-West Provinces, and other dignitaries ; but Sir Henry
Fane alone was able to attend. It took place in March 1837. The Rani
died in 1856, when her cash pension of Rs. 4,600 lapsed to Government.

11. — Sahib Eaur, a daughter of Sardar Gurdit Singh, Gilwali-
wala,in Amritsar. She died in 1841.

III. — Bhadauran, daughter of a Sardar of Bhadaur^ Cis*Satlaj
States. She became 8ati on her husband's death.

IV. — Eatochan, daughter of Rai Singh, son of Fateh Singh, of
Lambagraon, a Eatoch Rajput. This lady also became Salt.


Maharaja Sher Singh married four wives : —

I. — Desa, daughter of Sardar Mohar Singh Nakai. She was
married in 1819, and died two years later^ leaving no issue.

Digitized by



11. — Parbm Eaub, daughter of Hari Sin^b, a Yaraich Jat,
Lambardar of Ladbewala in the Gajranwaladistnot. She was marri-
ed to Sher Singh 1822. In 1831 she gave birth to Partab Singh, who
was brutally murdered by Sardar Lahna Singh Sindhanwalia on the
15th September 1843. Rani Parem Kaur died in 1874 at the age
of sixty-five years. She had been in receipt of an annual pension of
Bs. 7,200. She has adopted a son, Narain Singh, son of Atar Singh,
of Bhano Bhindi, in the Sialkot district, who is a Munsif in the
Panjab, and who receiyes a political pension of Bs. 2,400 per annum.

III. — Partab Eaur, daughter of Sardar Jagat Singh, of Eot
Eapura, was married to Sher Singh in 1825. She died on the 23rd of
August 1857, leaving an adopted son, Thakar Singh^ the son of Bani
Partab Eaur's cousin, Oaja Singh. She adopted him in 1847, and
on her death he was granted a pension of Bs. 1,800 per annum, which
he still enjoys. He served for some years as a Munsif, and now lives
with his brother-in-law the Baja of Faridkot.

lY. — Daeno was the daughter of a Chang Zamindar of Jhujian^
near Lambagraon, in Eangra. She was married to Maharaja Sher
Singh in 1842. In 1843 she gave birth to Shahdeo Singh. Both
mother and son accompanied Maharaja Dalip Singh to Fatehgarh
in November 1849, and are now living at Bareily in the North-West
Provinces. Shahdeo Singh married in 1860 the daughter of Fateh
Singh, a small Sardar and Jagirdar of Suga in Thanesar. He has one
son, Basdeo Singh, who owns a small talukdari property in Ondh.

Besides these wives, Maharaja Sher Singh lived with Dharam
Eaur and Ohand Eaur, the wives of his reputed twin-brother Tara
Singh. On Sher Singh's accession to the throne in 1841 Tara Singh
went to his new jagirof Dasuya in Hushiarpur, and his two wives
came to Lahore and lived with Sher Singh till his death. Previous
to 1841 Tara Singh had lived with his brother, and in 1838 Bani
Chand Eaur had given birth to a son, Dava Singh, of whom Sher Singh
was the father. Both the ladies were called Sarkars, like the other
wives of Maharaja Sher Singh. They were considered as his wives,
and had separate provision in cash and land assigned to them. Bani
Chand Eaur died in 1843. Dava Singh was always considered the
son of Maharaja Sher Singh, and was in receipt of an annual pension
of Bs. 7,200. He died in 1874. Bani Dharam Eaur also receives
a pension of Bs. 7,200. She adopted in 1 838 Earam Singh, son of
a zamindar of Mukerian in Hoshiarpur, who is still living.

The Bani Zebo was another of the ladies of Maharaja Sher Singh.

Online LibraryCharles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry GriffinThe Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 27 of 29)