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Charles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry Griffin.

The Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 online

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the aoknowledged head^ claiins to be of Eajput descent, and
traces its genealogy up to Baja Karam of the Lunar dynasty,
a famous king of Hastinapur. The Kharals have their chief
settlements in the swampy jungles of the Gogaira district.
There are many of them in Jhang, and they hold some forfy
villages in Lahore, chiefly about Shekhopura. Through all
historic times the Kharals have been a turbulent, savage and
thievish tribe, ever impatient of control, and delighting in
strife and plunder. More fanatic than other Mahomedan
tribes they submitted with the greatest reluctance to Hindu
rule, and it was as much Diwan Sawan Mai and the Sikhs
could do to restrain them ; f or whenever an organized force
was sent against them they retired into the marshes and



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64 THE PANJAB CHIEFS.

thick jungle, Tvliere it was almost impossible to follow them.
Once they rebelled under British rulci during the disturbances
of 1857^ and the lesson taught them at that time will be
sufficient for this generation at least.

Kamal Khan is the first of the tribe whose identity is very
clear. He fotdlddd £^ot J^amalia in the sixteenth 6dntury, some
forty miles to the south of Jhang, where lived the Sials,
whom the Kharals claimed as kinsmen, but with whom they
were always fighting. This claim of kinship was not liked
by the Sials ; and some of the most bitter quarrels between
the tribes arose out of it. Once on a time, a Dehli Prince,
whose name is now forgotten, came to Eamalia, where Sadat
Yar Khan was ruling, and was so mu6h pleased with his
handsome face and gallant bearing that he thought to patch
up the disputes between the Kharals and the Sials by an
alliance ; and proposed that Ghazi Khan, the eighth Chief of
Jhangj should betroth his daughter to Sadat Khan. The
Jhang Chief was irritated beyond measure, and killed the
imfortunate bearer of the proposal^ while he Was himself
murdered some time later by the Prince's followers in
retaliation.

There was yet another betrothal which brought great
troubles upon the Kharals. One Mirza, belonging to the \
Sahi branch of the tribe, fell desperately in love with his
first cousin Sahiba, who was as fond of him, though for long (

betrothed to a young man named Khanzad ; and on the very \

night of the marriage, when all the friends were assembled,
her lover put her on his thoroughbred mare and galbped off \

to Dhanabad. The clan mounted and pursued in hot hitete \ \

and they caught the gallant before he reached home, and
killed him, though he fought hard for his life. Sahiba they i

carried home with them ; and though her betrothed wished I

to spare her life, her parents strangled her. These murders
n^ere the cause of such bloody feuds between the clana that



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MONTGOMERY DISTRICT. 6$

it at length was thonglit inauspicious to have daughters; and
as soon as they were bom they were strangled^ as Babiba had
been; This custom of female infanticide was common among
the Kharals till Colonel Hamilton, Commissioner of Multan^
persuaded them to discontinue it.

Lai Ehan^ the son and successor of Ghazi Khan of Jhang,
was not fonder of Sadat Yar Khan than his father had been.
The Kamalia Chief had called him the son of a dancing girl, and
he gathered his Sials and marched against Kamalia, where
be shut Sadat Khan up in the fort. *' Come out/' said Lai
Khan, " come out and see what entertainment the son of the
danping girl can give you." But Sadat Khan was not to be
tempted ; and Lai Khan returned to Jhang, having plundered
the whole of the Kharal country.

Walidad Khan, the thirteenth Chief of Jbang, was in
favour in Court. He took possession of Kamalia, assigned
the Chief a service jagir, and held his conquest during his
whole rule. His successor, Liayat Khan, was either more
generous or more f oolish, for he restored Kamalia to Mahomed
Tar Khan and Ahmad Yar Khan, the sons* of Sadat Khan.
But in the next generation it was again lost. Sardar
Kamar Singh Nakai conquered it; and on his death it fell
into the hands of Sardar Bam Singh, head of the rivid
Nakai house, whose father, Nar Singh, had been killed in a
fight with the Kharals.

Ghulam Mahomed Khan cim scarcely be said to have
had any power whatever ; and his son, Sadat Yar Khiui the
SecQnd, was not much more fortunate. For a short time he
recovered his patrimony ; for when in 1798 Shah Zaman
invaded the Panjab, and the Sikhs took to flight, in all
directions, Muzafar Khan, Governor of Multan, thinking the
importunity not to be lost, marched to Kamalia and drove
out the Sikhs after a severe fight. Sadat Yar Khan was
reinstated, but he did not hold his own very lofig; for



1



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6fi THE PANJAB CHIEFS.

in 1893 he was compelled, after a fruitless stamgglei to
submit to Banjit Singh, who annexed Kamalia to Lahore.
Sadat Yar Ehan fled to the protection of Nawab Muzafar
Elhan of Multan. Banjit Singh, however, recalled him, and
gave him proprietary rights over forty villages, in which he
was succMded by his son Muzafar Khan. In 1810 the
Maharaja gave him the village of Mahomed Shah, which he held
through Sawan Mai's administration.

Muzafar Ehan was succeeded by his brother Mahomed
Sarfaraz Ehan, who was an able man and a brave soldier.
He held the family jagir throughout the reign of Banjit
Singh, but Baja Hira Singh reduced them to Bs. 300. This
Chief rendered excellent service at various times to the
British Government. In 1831 he gave ready assistance to
Lieutenant Bumes* embassy when proceeding up the Bavi
to Lahore. In the Second Sikh War of 1848-49 he remained
faithful to Government. Acting on the orders of the Besident,
he raised his clan and attacked the Sikhs, whom, it must be
confessed, he had good private reasons for hating. He
captured from the rebels the fort of Talamba, and garrisoned
it with his own men ; and at the close of the war he was
rewarded with a life pension of Bs. 500 a year. An assignment
of Bs. 275 a year from the town dues of Eamalia was also
allowed him. In September 1857, when a large portion of
his tribe, under Ahmad Ehan, rebelled, Sarfaraz Ehan
remained loyal. It was he who first gave to Captain
Elphinstone information of the intended insurrection, coming
to his house at night, half an hoiu* after the Eharal Chiefs had
fled, and thus enabling that officer to obtain assistance from
Lahore. He was afterwards most useful in procuring
information of the movements of the rebels and, after their
dispersion, in recovering the plunder. For these services he
received the title of Ehan Bahadar, a khilat of Bs. 500, and
a jagir of Bs. 525 for life.



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MONTGOMERY DISTRICT. tj

Sarfaraz Khan died in October 1863, and his jagirs and
pensions, amounting to Bs. 1,775, lapsed to Goyemment, with
the exception of eleven wells released in perpetuity. He left
one son, Mahomed Amir Ali Khan, now at the bead of the
family. He holds a perpetual jagir in Mouza Sayad Musa,
yielding three hundred rupees per annum, under Goyemment
orders passed in 1866 ; also the land attached to eleven wells
in KamaHa and adjacent villages.

Amir Ali Khan is always forward in offers of assistance
to the local authorities ; and bis services have on more than one
occasion been recognized by the grant of Sanads and cash
rewards. He collected and equipped several hundred
camels for service in the late Afghan War, and he made
offer of his personal services, which, however, were not
required. Owing to various causes, some of which were
beyond his control. Amir Ali found bis affairs so involved
that he was obliged in 1884 to ask assistance from Govern-
ment. An arrangement was subsequently made with his
creditors, under which they receive the income of his estates
after a certain sum has been set apart for the maintenance of
the debtor and bis family. Amir Ali Khan is the only
Viceregal Darbari in the Montgomery district.

His cousin Abmad Khan lives at Kamalia. He is a
man of penurious habits, and has the reputation of being fairly
wealthy.



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« THE PANJAB CHIEFS.

UTAM SINGH, NAKAI.



CHATTDHRI IOTA.
Wazir Singh.



Mdluur
HiraS:



Jftimai Singb. Dhani 8ingh« Ffttoh Slxigh.

■j "i Ohama

UtIm Bin* SijgJ

Bzvas Singh »• !»»•

B. 184B. B. 186d.

I



T^a Singh Labh Singh Yftriam Singh
B. 1671. B. 1870. B. 1880.



The Naka country between Lahore and Grogaira has
given its liiame to two families, that of Sardar Kahan Singh of
Baharwal and that of Dhara Singh of Gogaira. Between
the families there was no relationship; but they were near
neighbours and were engaged in perpetual quarrels.

Kamar Singh, son of Chaudhri Mita, was a bold and
Buccessful Chief, who took possession of Kot Kamalia, Sayad-
wala and the surrounding country. He generally contrived
to hold his own against Sardar Ran Singh of Baharwal ; but
shortly before his death, in 1780, Sayadwala fell into the
hands of the enemy. Wazir Singh, who succeeded his brother^
recovered the town from Bhagwan Singh, son of Ran Singh,
and the fighting between the rival Chiefs went on as fiercely
and with as little result as ever. To strengthen himself
Bhagwan Singh married his sister to the infant son of Mahan
Singh Sukarchakia; but this alliance did him little good, as
in 1783 Sardar Jai Singh Kanhya, who was angry with
Mahan Singh for sacking Jamu and deceiving Hakikat Singh
Eanhya, marched into the Naka country and seized the
territory of both Wazir Singh and Bhagwan Singh with the
greatest impartiality. The Chiefs had however their revenge ;
for two years later they joined the Sukarchakias and Ram-
garhias in the attack on the Kanhyas, when the power of



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MONTGOMERY DISTRICT. 69

that great Oonfederaoy was broken and Sardar GurbaUish
Singh slain.

Sardar Wazir Singh was murdered in 1790 by Dal Singh^
son* of Hira Singh, of Baharwal ; but his death was avenged
on the assassin by a devoted servant, who slew Dal Singh in
his own house and surrounded by his family and clan. Mahar
Singh succeeded to the estate and held it till 1804, when his
brother Mahar Singh excited the indignation of Banjit Singh
by secretly betrothing his daughter to Ishar Singh, the
reputed son of Bani Mahtab Eaur. Banjit Singh knew that
he was not the father of the child ; but Mahar Singh's pre*
sumption gave him a good excuse for seizing all the estates
of the family. This he did, only leaving a jagir worth
Bs. 4,000. The girl Desa was afterwards married to Maha-
raja Sher Singh in 1819.

Sardar Mahar Singh died in 1843. His son Dhara
Singh succeeded him, and daring the Firozpur Campaign ren-
dered himself conspicuous by raising a band of horsemen and
plundering the country in every direction. For this conduct^
on the return of peace, his jagirs were confiscated by the
Darbar. In 1848 he joined Baja Sher Singh, with his sowars,
at Multan. He soon, however, returned to his home ; but
was induced by Ahmad Khan, the celebrated leader of the
Eharal tribe, to fortify Satgarha and make a stand against
the British. Dhara Singh consented ; but his treacherous
friend betrayed him to the Qovemment, and brought a force
against him, which defeated him with considerable loss. He
then fled to the Sikh army, and fought in the battles of
Bamnagar and Qujrat. Some time after annexation, the
Board of Administration, finding him in great poverty^ pro«
cured for him a pension' of Bs. 300.

During the disturbances of 1857, Dhara Singh had an
opportunity of avenging himself upon his old enemy Ahmad
Elhan. This Chief, who had great influence with the Kharals^



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70 TEE PANJAB CHIEFS.

and who bad headed many successful insurrections in his daji
thought the Mutiny of 1857 an opportunity for disturbance
and plunder which it would be criminal to miss, so he called
the tribe to arms and invited Dhara Singh to join him. But
the Sardar thought of his ruined homestead and his plundered
harvest, and gave information to the Government of Ahmad
Khan's intentions. He joined the force under Major Mars-
den and marched against the rebels. He was present in
several engagements, and claims to have shot Ahmad Khan
with his own hand. When the outbreak was crushed, he
gave important information which insured the conviction of
many of the rebels. Whether Dhara Singh was influenced
by loyalty or by revenge his services were equally valuable,
and he received as a reward for them an additional grant of
Bs. 300 per annum, with two villages, Gashghorian and
Maharsinghwala, worth Bs. 200, which had belonged to his
old jagir, in perpetuity.

Dhara Singh died in 1860 leaving two sons, Utam Singh
and Sher Singh. The former is a Deputy Inspector of Police
in the Lahore district. His brother Sher Singh was convict*
ed and sentenced to seven years' imprisonment for the offence
of attempted murder. They have mortgaged the family
property at Gogaira, but the jagir holding in Gashghori and
Maharsinghwala have been continued to them. Sardar
TJtam Singh has proprietary rights in one-half of Mouza
Mudki in the Lahore district. He has manied into the
Sidhu family of Sardar Karam Singh. He is also connected
by marriage with Sardar Sardul Singh Man, Sardar Narain
Singh Bandhawa, and Sardar Jawahir Singh Sirhaliwala,
Lahore.



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JHANG DISTRICT.



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MAHOMED ISMAIL KHAN, SIAL.



GHAZI.KHAN. RiSHID KHAN.

rkban*



I Iffchmnd. LalKtuui. HalummKhMi* ^ ^^^



JfthuiKhuu

Khftlr Khuu
I.



Walidad Bfthnun Khan. BharKhan. DargahiKhuu

XnajAtnla B3um. BhahaduEh

I y •Jhwimi- Sahib ihaiu



XnajatnlaBSum. flh a h a d at Puuu XSmau



KabirKhuu
p. 1801.



InivalKhaa ILlxoicis



FiMh Shall. Ahmad Ehaa Jahan khan

p. 1810. »• 1870.

— ~— ~""""""~""~^ JalalKhan

P.168B.



9. 1MB. liiun Kma» ,-

a. 1817. '



Amir khan J* I | J

B.188i. KaUrShaa. Walidad BardarEhaa Mania Dad

- Khaa B.180f. Khan



Ahmad



r



.1



Hakim Khan Walidad Khan I |

B.187S. B.186e. AyaaKhan ZakatKhan

J . p. 1878. p. 1878.



Ahmad]



I Khan ICahomedKhan

p. 1887. P. 1884.



The Sials of JhaDg are a Mahomdan tribe of great
antiquity, and until the time of Maharaja Ranjit Singh pos-
sessed great power in the country bordering on the Chanab.
They were originally Rajputs, and their ancestor, Rai Shankar,
was a resident of Dhara Nagar, between Allahabad and Fateh-
pur. He emigrated about the year 1230 to Jaunpur, and
on his death great dissensions arose between the dijSerent
branches of the family ; and his son Sial in 1243, during the
reign of Sultan Alaudin, left Jaunpur for the Fanjab^
which had been two years before overrim by the Moghals.
It seems that, owing to the unsettled state of the lower pro-
vinces, many Rajput families about this time emigrated to



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74 THE PANJAB CHIEFS.

the Panjab, where they sooner or later adopted the
Mahomedan faith. Among them were ancestors of the
tribes known as the EharalSi Tawanas, Ghebas^ Chidars
and the Fanwar Sials.* Sial^ in search of a good place for
settlement, visited Pak Patan, then called Ajudhan, and the
residence of the famous Mahomedan saint Baba Faridudin
Shakarganj. He, with all his family, converted by the
eloquence of the saint, turned Musalman and, renewing his
wanderings, came to Sialkot, a very ancient Rajput settle-
ment, where he built a fort. He soon left, however ; and at
Sahiwal in the Shahpur district married Sohag, the daughter
of Bhao Ehan Maikan, who bore him three sons,t Bharmi,
Kohli and Mahani, each the founder of a Sial clan. Kohli
led his tribe into the unoccupied lands of Chohistan and
Kachi, where for several generations they lived wholly
engaged in pastoral pursuits*

Mahpal, sixth in descent from Sial, about the year 1380,
founded the town of Mankera, afterwards so celebrated ; and
his great-grandson, Mai Khan, founded Jhang Sial, on the
Chanab, in 1462. He was four years afterwards summoned
to Lahore, and granted the territory of Jhang in hereditary
possession, paying revenue to the Moghal Emperors. Both Mai
Kban and his son Daulat Khan were liberal and intelligent
Chiefs, and much improved the district. Ghazi Khan, son of
Daulat Khan, built the fort of Chautra; and his cousin Khewa
Kban the fort of Khewa, ten miles to the north of Jhang.

Jalal Khan, the fourth Chief of Jhang, was murdered by
his nephew Pahar Khan, who had founded Paharpiu* in Uch.

* The TiwaDa, Gheb and Sial tribes have a oommon origin. Bai Shankar had
three sonB, Saino, Tena and Ghea From the first have descended the Sials, the Tawanas
from the second, and the Ghebas from Gheo the youngest.

t The story goes that Bharmi, Kohli and Mahani were playing together, when
ehildren, with a clay cow for a toy. Bharmi personated the hosbandman, the owner of
the oow; Mahani was the thief who stole it ; while Kohli was the Chief, and sat in mock
judgment on the offender. This boyi^ play was prophetic ; and in later years the
reigning honse of Sial was from the descendants of Kohli ; Bharmi's sons were simple
peasants; and if news of a strayed boifalo was required, something was generally to be
heud about it in the Mahani olan.



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JHANG DISTRICT. 75

His grandson, Firoz Khan, avenged his death, capturing
Paharpur, and putting to death all the descendants of Pahar
Khan, whom he took prisoners. Kabir Kban, Jahan Khan,
Ghazi Khan, Sultan Mahmud Khan, Lai Khan and Mahram
Khan were the next successive Chiefs. Walidad Khan^
the thirteenth Chief, was the most famous and most powerful.
He disarmed the Bais of Mirak, Shorkot, Kot Kamalia
and Khewa, and assigned them service jagirs. He brought
large tracts of waste land under cultivation, and by his strong
and wise government cleared the * Bar * of robbers. The
Lahore Government, to which he remained faithful, although
he might with safety have thrown off its yoke, granted him
the fort and Ilaka of Chaniot, and he thus became possessed
of the greater part of the country between the Ravi and the
Chanab as far north as Pindi Bhatian, also holding the
country to the west of the Chanab and Jhilam as far as
Mankera. He died in 1747, and was succeeded by his ne-
phew, Laayatula Khan, who had for Minister his first cousin
Shahadat Khan. For two years the cousins remained warm
friends ; but at length, quarrelling, Shahadat Khan took up
arms against Inayat, but was totally defeated and forced to
fly to Kadarpur across the river. Not disheartened, he
raised a fresh force and attacked his cousin, but was again
defeated and slain. Liayat Khan was shortly after this
carried off prisoner to Sayadpur by forty picked sowars
belonging to his kinsmen of that town, who had espoused
the cause of Shahadat Khan ; but after six months he was
released. He was a brave and a successful General, and is
said to have won twenty-two battles. The most important
of these were against the Chiefs of Multan, who were en-
croaching on the Jhang territory, and the recovery of Chaniot
from the Bbangi Sardars.

Inayatula died in 1787, and the rule of his son Sultan
Mahmud, who was an imbecile, did not last long; for his half-



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76 THE PANJAB CHIEFS.

brother Sahib Ehan, son of Inajat Ebaii by a concubinOi
who had sworn allegiance to him on the Koran^ rose in
arms and imprisoned him in the fort of Chautra, where be
was put to death. Sahib Kban was himself assassinated
soon after in the house of Amir Khan, where he had gone
to celebrate his marriage. The next Rais of Jhang, Kabir
Eban, son of Ismail Khan, brought back the direct line which
had gone out with Jaban Khan. He was of a mild and
peaceful disposition, and was much loved by his tribe. After
a rule of eleven years, he abdicated in favour of his son
Ahmad Kban, who was the last of the Sial Chiefs. The
Sikhs had by this time become very powerful ; and Karam
Singh Oulu, a Bhangi Chief, had conquered Chaniot. Banjit
Singh marched against this fort which was held by Jasa
Singh, son of Karam Singh, and captured it. He then turned
towards Jbang, but Abmad Khan agreed to pay Bs. 60,000
yearly ; and the Sikh Chief accordingly returned to Lahore.
This took place in the year 1803. Three years later, how-
ever, the Maharaja again invaded Jhang with a large army,
and after some hard fighting took the fort, Ahmad Khan
escaping to Multan. The district of Jhang was then farmed
to Sardar Fateh Singh Kalianwala for Rs. 60,000 per annum.
Not long after, Ahmad Khan returned with a Pathan force
given him by Muzafar Khan, Nawab of Multan, and recovered
a great part of his old territories ; Ranjit Singh accepting the
former tribute of Rs. 60,000, as he was too fully engaged
with other expeditions to march against Jhang.

After the Maharaja had unsuccessfully attacked Multan
in 1810, he visited his chagrin on Ahmad Khan, whom he
suspected of favouring Muzafar Khan, and having captured hiyn
at Serai Sidhu took him to Lahore, while his son Inayat Kban
fled to Haidarabad in Sind. Ranjit Singh feared that Inayat
Khan would excite the Sind Amirs against him, and promised
Ahmad Khan his release from prison if he would recall hjs



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JHANG DISTRICT. y?

Bon and leave him at Lahore as security for his good behayionr.
This was done, and Ahmad Eban received a jagir of Bs.
12,000 at Mirowal in the Amritsar district. After Banjit
Singh had taken Multan in 1818, he granted Inayat Khan a
jagir of Bs. 3,000, and on the death of Ahmad Ehan in 1820
the son succeeded to the jagir. This was in 1823 exchanged
for one of the same value at Sarai Sidhu in the Multan
district, and in 1830 this was again exchanged for a jagir at
Mustanwali in Leiah. In 1838 Inayat Ehan was killed near
Basulpur, fighting on the side of Diwan Sawan Mai against
Baja Gulab Singh. His brother Ismail Ehan went to Lahore
to endeavour to obtain the confirmation of the jagir in his
favour, but the Maharaja was paralytic, and Gulab Singh his
enemy, in the ascendant, and he only obtained a pension of
Bs. 100 a month. He remained at Lahore four years till his
pension was discontinued, and he then returned to Jbang,
where he lived upon an allowance of Bs. 41 a month granted
to the family by Sawan Mai. This was raised in 1848 to
Bs.60.

In October 1848, Major H. Edwardes wrote to Ismail
Ehan directing him to raise troops in behalf of Government
and to collect the revenue of the district. The poor Chief,
}ioping the time was come when loyalty might retrieve his
fortunes, raised a force and, descending the river, attacked
and defeated a rebel Chief, Ata Mahomed, at Mikokara.
Afterwards, when Sardar Sher Singh Atariwala had passed
through Jbang, and had left Deoraj in command of one
thousand men there, Ismail Eban attacked this detachment
several times with varying results. His Jamadar, Pir Eamal,
of Isa Shah, captured at the fort of Taruka another rebel
Chief named Eahan Das. Tbus Ismail Eban, the representa-
tive of a long and illustrious line of Cbiefs, stood out bravely
on the side of the Govermrient. His influence, which
was great in the district, was all used against the rebels, and



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78 THE PANJAB CHIEFS.

bis services were especially valuable at a time wben it was
inexpedient to detacb a force against tbe petty rebel leaders.
After annexation Ismail Khan was made Basaldar of the
J hang Moimted Police ; but his services were, through inad*
vertence, overlooked, and it was not till 1856 that he
received a pension of Rs, 600 for life. Three wells were
also released to him and his male heirs in perpetuity.

In 1857 the services of the Chief were conspicuous. He
aided in raising a force of cavalry, and served in person
against the insurgents. For his loyalty, he received a
khilat of Bs. 500 and the title of Khan Bahadar ; and his
yearly grant of Bs. 600 was raised to Bs. 900, with the addi-
tion of a jagir of Bs. 950 for life. In 1860 his pension was,
at his own desire, exchanged for a life jagir.

In 1879 Ismail Khan's case again came under the con*
sideration of Government. Having regard to the position and
influence of the Sial famQy, and to the steadfast loyalty and
good conduct of its Chief, Sir Bobert Bgerton recommended
that the life jagir be raised to Bs. 2,000 and continued to a
selected heir during the pleasure of Government. The jagir
allowance was duly increased ; but with regard to the second
proposition, the Supreme Government deemed it advisable
merely to lay down that it should receive consideration on
the death of the present incumbent.



Online LibraryCharles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry GriffinThe Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 6 of 29)