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Charles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry Griffin.

The Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 online

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Mahomed Ismail Khan is a member of the District
Board and of the Jhang Municipal Committee. He is a
Zaildar and Lambardar, and has a seat in Viceregal Darbars,
as have also his kinsmen Kabir Khan and Amir Ali,
He is owner of four thousand acres in seventeen villages
of the Jhang and Shorkot Tahsils, and enjoys an income of
about ten thousand rupees per annum. He is held in
the highest esteem by the many district officers who have
known him. His son Kabir Khan, also a Viceregal Darbari^
is a Zaildar. He is not on good terms with his father,



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JHANG DISTRICT. 79

against whom lie has recently brought a suit to contest an
alienation made by the old man in favour of his second wife
and her daughters.

Amir Ali Khan, Viceregal Darbari, son of Inayat Khan, is
the representative of the senior branch. His father was killed
when Amir Ali was an infant. He is in poor circumstances,
and is glad to serve as Darogha of tirni (grazing dues) on a
salary of Bs. 30 per mensem.

Jalal Khan, Viceregal Darbari, died in 1888. His son
Walidad Khan has succeeded him as Zaildar, and has also
taken the seat in Darbar. This branch of the family holds
twelve hundred acres in five villages of the Jhang Tahsil.
They have an annual income of Rs. 2,500, but are said to be
heavily in debt.

Another of the Sials deserving notice is Wariam Beg,
son of the late Khan Beg Bajbana, of Garh Maharaja, who
rendered important help to Edwardes before Multan, and
behaved loyally in 1857. He had a pension of Bs. 600, which
ceased when he died in 1877. Half of this was continued to
his son Wariam, who also enjoys a Zaildari allowance of fifty
rupees. Wariam has always been forward in helping the
authorities, and he is held in high esteem by the local officials.
He is owner of over five thousand acres of land, and is Lam-
bardar in four villages. He is a member of the District
Board and a Provincial Darbari. His brother Kasim Khan
owns about four thousand acres, assessed at Bs. 937.



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MULTAN DISTRICT.



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MAEHDX7M BAHAWAL BAEHSH, EUBBSHI.



ICAHOICID OHAUB.

Bfthftwan Sliah.

KaUrodin.

lUkhdnm Shah Shekh Fir «ti^>»

lUhmnd a. 188S.

». I860. I



BImHmaIxu



Shah BiXAWAi* **

». 1807. BAxmam



> 1866. 5*]2m »«?*^ y*^

a. 1866. a. 1869. Bahawan Haaain

a. 1860. a. 1881.



Bhekh

ICahomed

Shah



■•"^ Maradbasain



ShekhKabir
a. 1878. a. 1880.



In the Multan district, Makbdum Shah Mahmud, descend-
imt of the celebrated Mahomedan saint Bahaudin, is the
foremost man both in rank and influence. He is the hereditary
goardian of the shrines of Bahaudin and of Euknalam
his grandson. His disciples and followers are numerous, both
in the south of the Panjab and in Sind, and his great influence
has always been exerted on the side of law and order. Baha-
udin was bom at Kot Karor in the Leiah district in the year
1170. He was descended lineally from Asad, the son of
Hasham, grandfather of the Prophet. His ancestor, Sultan
Hasain, had come to India with Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni
in one of his many Indian expeditions, and had settled at Kot
Karor. Bahaudin soon left his home and went to E[horasan,
where he became a pupil of Shahabudin Sawardi, and was soon
distinguished for his learning. He then set out on his travels,
and for many years wandered over Tarkistan, Syria and
Arabia. He returned to India in 1222, intending to settle at



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84 THE PANJAB CHIEFS.

Multao. There was some opposition to this at first, but he
was eventually permitted to do so ; and the fame of his miracles
and his piety spread over the country and gained for him
numerous disciples. While Babaudin was in the zenith of his
fame and power, the saint Shamash Tabrez, with one disciple,
a boy of some thirteen years of age, arrived at Multan from
the west, miraculously crossing the Indus upon the small pray-
ing carpet {musala) used by all Mahomedans. When Bahaudin
heard of his arrival, he sent to him a cupful of milk to
signify that Maltan was already as full of fakirs as it could
hold, and that there was not room for one more. Shamash
Tabrez returned the milk, having placed a flower on its
surface, signifying that not only was there room for him, but
that his fame would be above that of all the holy men who
had honoured Multan with their presence. On this, Babaudin
was much enraged, and ordered that no one should feed or
assist in any way the contumacious saint. He was inde-
pendent himself of food ; but his young disciple soon became
hungry and cried for something to eat ; and at the call of
Shamash Tabrez the does from the wilderness came and
allowed themselves to be milked. In return for their con-
fidence the saint killed one, according to orthodox Mahomedan
procedure, and sent the boy into the city to beg fire with
which to cook it. But Bahaudin was not to be disobeyed, and
all refused ; while one sweetmeat-seller threw a vessel of milk
in the face of the boy, who returned to his master in tears.
Then Shamash Tabrez cried aloud, " sun I from whom I
take my name (Persian, ShamSy the sun), come near, and grant
me the heat to cook my food which these unbelievers deny
me.** The sun descended and cooked the venison, but it
did not return ; and to this day is one spear's length nearer
Multan than any other part of the world. But, in spite of ^
the irritation caused by interlopers like Shamash Tabrez,
Bahaudin lived to be one hundred years of age, and, dying



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MULTAN DISTRICT. 85

in 1270, was buried with great pomp ; and his shrine is still
visited by Mahomedan pilgrims from all parts of India and
Afghanistan.

Buknalam was little inferior in learning or sanctity to his
grandfather Bahaudin. From what remains of his doctrineSi
scattered through the works of his disciples, it appears that
he taught a modified form of metampsyobosis. He asserted
that at the day of judgment the wicked would rise in bestial
forms suitable to the characters they had borne when on earth :
the cruel man would rise a leopard ; the licentious man, a
goat ; the glutton, a pig ; and so on, through the animal king-
dom* Ruknalam was visited by the Emperors of Dehli more
than once, and his name was known throughout Northern
India. He died in 1372, and his tomb was built by the
Emperor Firoz Toghlak in the fort of Multan.

After the death oi Buknalam, Multan passed through
many revolutions, but the family of the saint was always
respected. It was not till 1443, in the reign of Say ad
Mahomed, that Multan ceased to be a tributary of Dehli.
The country^ under the weak rule of the Princes who had
succeeded the able Firoz Toghlak, had fallen into the greatest
disorder, and Multan was specially exposed to attack from
Ghor and Kabul. Under these circumstances, the inhabitants
determined to select a ruler from among themselves. The
choice fell upon Shekh Eusaf, who was famed for his learning
and piety. His reign was a prosperous one. He restored
peace to the country, and increased the revenue by his wise
administration. He was deposed by an Afghan Chief of the
Langa tribe, whose daughter he had married. This man
brought his whole tribe to Multan under pretence of paying
homage to the Governor, but before going himself into the city
he drank a cup of duck's blood. He dined at the Govemor^s
table, and in the course of the evening feigned violent pains in
his stomach and called for an emetic ; after drinking which he



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96 THE PANJAB CHIEFS.

threw up the blood which he had drunk earlier in the evening.
The Sbekh was much alarmed, and aent for the friends of the
Chief from the camp, who, when they had amved, armed to the
teeth, seized and imprisoned Shekh Eusaf, and placed the
traitor on the throne under the name of Kutbudin Mahmud,
The usurper sent his prisoner to Dehli, where he was received
with consideration by Bhalol Lodi, who even gave his
daughter in marriage to the Shekh's son. In the Ain Akbcm,
the reign of Shekh Eusaf is stated to have lasted seventeen
years ; in Farishta's history, only two. The former is more
probably correct, as Eusaf commenced his rule in 1443 ; and
on his deposition he is said to have been received at Dehli by
Bhabl Lodi, who did not ascend the throne tiU 1453.

No other member of the family ever ruled in Multan ; but
many were distinguished for their learning. Bahaudin, grand-
son of Shekh Eusaf, a follower of the celebrated Haji Abdul
Wahab, was a famous scholar. He was sent in 1523 aa
ambassador to Hasain Argan, Qovernor of Tata, the Lieuten-
ant of Babar Shah, who was marching agaiust Multan. The
embassy, however, failed ; the town was besieged, taken and
sacked ; and four years later Multan became again a province
of the Dehli Empire.

During the Sikh rule the shrines at Multan lost most of
the valuable jagirs that had been assigned for their support.
After Maharaja Ban jit Singh had taken Multan in 1818,
he assigned cash allowances of Es. 3,500 to the shrines.
Diwan Sawan Mai reduced this to Rs. 1,600. Under the
Darbar the revenue in land and cash amounted to Rs. 2,030,
the Tiazarana having been deducted. During the mutiny of
1848-49 Makhdum Shah Mahmud remained faithful to the
Government. He had, it is true, no reason to love the
Sikhs, yet his injluence and the information he furnished
were very valuable ; and on the annexation of the Panjab the
allowances of the shrines were confirmed ; Rs. 700 in land in



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iiULTAN DISTRICT. 87

perpetuity, subject to good behayiour, and Rs. 1,800 cash
for the life of the then incumbent. One-fourth of the village
of Sahinath, which the Makhdum had planted in 1834, was
released to him in perpetuity as a personal grant.

The shrines of Bahaudin and Buknalam had seen many a
siege, but that of 1848 was almost too much for them.
Situated, as both were, within the fort, they werS exposed to
the full fire of the besiegers, and were almost reduced to
ruins. In 1850 the Local Government proposed a grant of
Rs. 10,000 to restore them. This, however, the Supreme
Government did not sanction. Makhdum Shah was, how*
ever, an energetic man, and with tbe help and money of his
disciples he restored them at a great expense to their
former glory.*

In 1857 Makhdum Shah Mahmud rendered excellent ser-
vice to Government. He afforded the Commissioner inf orma*
tion of every important occurrence that came to his knowledge ;
provided twenty men and horses for Ghulam Mustafa
Khan's Rasala, and several for the new police force. He also
supplied men for the police and infantry levies. With twenty-
five horsemen he accompanied Colonel Hamilton against the
insurgents, took upon himself a portion of the camp duties,
and protected the baggage on the line of march. His presence
on that occasion had a great effect on the rebels, who saw
that the most influential man of their own faith was against
them. On the mutiny of the disarmed regiments at Multan,
he joined the Commissioner with his followers for the defence
of the bridge leading to the cantonments. None of his dis-
ciples joined the rebels ; and his conduct presents a strong
contrast to that of the Makhdum of Pak Patau, whose followers

* JnBt opposite the shrine of Bahaudin is the tomh of the gallant Kawab Masafar
Khan. At the distance of some fifty paces is the ancient Hindu temple known as
Karsinghpnra or Pailadpnria, the scene of that incarnation of Vishnu when, taking a
form half man, half tiger, he came forth from the red-hot pillar and tore in pieces
the tyrant Hanakas, who was abool to kill this own son Pailad for ref aaoir to aoknow*
ledge his diTinitj.



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88 THE PAIiJAB CHIEFS.

were prominent in the Gogaira insurrection. Fop his services
Shah Mahmud received a present of Rs. 3,000. The cash
allowance to the shrine was exchanged for a jagir worth
Rs. 1,780, in addition to the eight wells granted in perpetuity,
worth Rs. 550. In 1860 the Makhdum, on the occasion of the
Viceroy's visit to Lahore, received a personal grant of a
garden, wofth Rs. 150 per annum, known as the Bhangiwala
Bagh.

Makhdum Mahmud Shah was the son of Shekh Hasain
Shah, who married Bibi Raji Sahiba, daughter of Shekh
Mahomed Ghaus, nineteenth in descent from Bahaudin. He
died in 1869, and was succeeded by his son Bahawal Bakhsh,
the present Sajada Nashin of the shrines of Bahawal
Hak and Ruknalam. The deceased Makhdum was buried
with great pomp within the shrine of Bahawal Hak. His
fimeral was attended by tens of thousands of Mahomedans,
and the local Courts were closed for the day as a mark of respect
to his memory. The ceremony of dastarbandij or recognition
of the heir, was performed by the Deputy Commissioner, who
conferred a dress of honour upon Bahawal Bakhsh, and
proclaimed him guardian of the shrines. The Makhdum has
married a daughter of Shekh Bahawal Din of Eastern Ahmad-
pur in Bahawalpur. His son Shekh Mahomed Shah is a
student in the Government School at Multan.

To Bahawal Bakhsh has been continued the jagir in nine
villages and the garden-grant enjoyed by his father. He
also receives a small percentage on the canal grazing-dues
collected in the Mailsi Tahsil ; and one-fourth of the reveuues
of Mouza Sairath in Mailsi have been confirmed to his family
in perpetuity. A dress of honour was conferred upon the
Makhdum at Tjahore in 1880 in public Darbar in recognition
of his services during the Afghan War. He assisted in
collecting camels for transport purposes, and he made the offer
of personal services, which, however, were not required. He



N.



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MULTAN DISTRICT. 89

was appointed an Honorary Magistrate in 1877, and has been
a member of the Municipal Committee for the past five years.
His brother Shekh Hasan Bakhsh is married to a daughter
of Mian Mubarak Ali, late Tahsildar of Multan.

The present value of the jagir is Rs. 3,937, of which all,
except Rs. 100, is perpetual in the family.

Shekh Pir Shah, younger brother of the late Makhdum,
is also a Viceregal Darbari. He is a man of public spirit and
energy, and was for some years Honorary Secretary of the
Municipal Committee of Multan. He holds a small jagir in
three villages of the Mailsi Tahsil. He rendered assistance in
the Transport Department during the late Kabul War, and
his services were acknowledged by the bestowal of a Sanad
under the hand of the Viceroy.

There is another branch of the family living at Ghauspur
which is descended from Fateh Mahomed, a younger brother
of Makhdum Shekh Kasim Mahomed, the great-grandson of
Shekh Eusaf, and is therefore really senior in the male line.
Ruknudin, eldest son of Mahomed Hayat, is the leading
member ; but an individual better known is his uncle Murad
Shah. Both Mahomed Hayat and Murad Shah rendered
assistance in 1857, and received suitable rewards. The shrine
at Ghauspur in their charge is visited by large numbers of
pilgrims, notwithstanding its inaccessible position, about sixty
miles east of Multan. The jagir attached yields only 'fifteen
rupees per annum ; but the offerings of the visitors enable its
guardians to live in tolerable comfort. Murad Shah and
Ruknudin are Viceregal Darbaris. Murad Shah's son Faizula
has settled at Dhamkal in the Gujranwala district.



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THE PAN JAB CHIEFS.
ASHAE MAHOMED KHAN.



KALU.
L

ICahomed Kluau H mi KhMU

fiMbdalKhan.

BaiBJum.

HaliAlNii BOiMi*

Mahomad HAjatXhuu

r

Wall Xahomod Kh«i«

J .



llLlOIIMd



Shah ^•Vrnwl Haji Qhalam y^V>nwfl

I



Mahomed Surftttms Abdul Samaad Hafia Hahomod Khan Jahan B3iaB«

Khan. Khan. BarbUand Xlian. |

I I Qhnlam Haaatn

I I SadOc Mahomed Tn>an

GhnlamKadir Qhalaxn ,5?S ». 1888.

Khan Mohaiudin Khaa »• *"•• ^
]>. 1878. D. 1860.



^ At* Mahomad Fais

I Khan Mahomad

■ j I •• 1888, Khan

MahonadShardU Afsix Havomid DoaiMahomad B.187I.

Khan Kbav Khan

B.189. B.184U B.1M0.

Khnda Bakhih Abdul Kadar A aon«

B.187I. B.188U

The Badozai tribe, like other Afghans, call themselyes
Bani Israil, or ' Children of Israel/ and claim to have emigrated
from the Holy Land {BaiUul-muhadas) to Afghanistan, where
they settled in the mountains of Qhor and Firoza. The
question of tbe Jewish origin of the Afghans is one that has
been much discussed, and is too lengthy to be more than
noticed here. In physiognomy, in manners, and in their
religious rites, the Afghans much resemble the Jews. Among
them is found the custom of driving the * scape goat,' laden
with the sins of the people, into the wilderness ; the rite of
the passover, offerings for sin and thank-offerings for
deliverance from danger. The Matta^aUanwar, written
about 1510| considers the Afghans originally Egyptians, who^



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MULTAN DISTRICT. 91

after the overtihrow of Pharaoh in the Red Sea, left their
native country, refusing to accept the Jewish faith which others
of the Egyptians adopted. In the Tawarihh 8her Shaki, it
is stated that many years after the death of Solomon, and
during the reign of Asaf , Syria was invaded by Bakht Nasar
(Nebuchadnezzar), who destroyed Jerusalem and expelled the
Afghans who settled in Ghor and Ohazni. This is tbe belief
of all the Afghans at the present day, who consider them-
selves descendants of the captive ten Jewish tribes. The first
converted to Mahomedanism was Kais, son of Ais, an Afghan
Chief, who fought under the Prophet himself and received
from him the title Malik Ahdvl Bashid. Whether this
story be true or false, it is certain that the tribes inhabiting
the Ghor mountains were converted to Mahomedanism very
early, probably between the years 60 and 80 A. H.

The Bani Afghans overran Sistan, Earman and part of
Ehorasan, and attained to great power under Sultan Mahmud,
Shahabudin and Timur Shah, all of whom they accompanied
on their Indian expeditions. The family of Sadik Mabomed
Khan is called Hajizai Badozai, from Haji Zila or Zala, who
made the pilgrimage to Mecca about the year 1600. When
Shah Jahan in 1637 obtained possession of Kandahar, Mahomed
Elhan, son of Haji Zila, retired to Hirat, and did not return
home till Kandahar was recovered by Shah Abbas IL of
Persia in 1648.

At the time of Shah Jahan's invasion, two Sadozai Chiefs,
Hasain Khan and Aladad Khan, who had joined the Emperor,
retired with him to Hindustan, and obtained permission to
settle near Multan, then a province of Dehli, whither many of
their tribe followed them. About 1670 Mahomed Khan
resolved to emigrate to India. Hasain Khan Sadozai
hearing of this intention, and fearing that his influence might
suffer by the arrival of the new Chief at Multan, wrote to
Sherak, chief of the Tarin tribe, to assassinate him while



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9a THE PANJAB CHIEFS.

passing ttrough the Tarin country to Kohat. Sherak accord-
ingly invited Mahomed Khan to an entertainment and poisoned
him. Hasain Khan, his son, was too young to avenge his
father's death ; but his cousin Mian Khan assembled the
Badozais and, attacking Sherak and his tribe, defeated him
and put his family to death ; but that Chief himself escaped
and fled to Dehli, where he entered the service of the
Emperor. Here he was followed by Mian Khan, who stabbed
him in the very presence of Aurangzeb. On the story of
Sherak*s treachery being told the Emperor, Mian Khan was
pardoned for the murder ; but for his insolence in killing his
enemy in open Darbar, he was imprisoned at Dehli for twelve
years. Both the son and grandson of Mahomed Khan remained
at Kandahar ; and it was not till 1 738, when Nadir Shah had
captured the city, that Bai Khan, his great-grandson,
emigrated to Multan. He returned a few years afterwards to
Kandahar, but his son Mahabat Khan remained at Multan.

The family, till the time of Shah Mahomed Khan, were
entirely engaged in agriculture. He was a man of energy,
and took service in the army of Ahmad Shah Durani * in his
several invasions of India. In 1772 he assisted Shuja Khan,
Governor of Multan, to defend the city against Jhanda Singh
and Qanda Singh, the Bhangi Chiefs, who took it after a brave
defence. Shuja Khan soon after died ; and Muzafar Khan
applied for help to Timur Shah, son of Ahmad Shah Durani,
who marched against Multan and recovered it, after a siege of
forty days, from the Sikhs in 1779. Muzafar Khan was
appointed Governor ; and for his services Shah Mahomed re-
ceived a jagir at Dera Dinpana and one at Dera Ghazi Khan,
worth Rs. 10,000. It was not long before Nawab Muzafar
Khan became jealous of the power and influence of Shah Maho-
med, and the latter thought it prudent to retire from Multan,
He joined the army of Timur Shah, then advancing against
Bahawalpur ; and so much distinguished himself at the siege



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MULTAN DISTRICT. 93

of Derawar that lie was made by the Prince Governor of
Dera Gbazi Khan with its dependencies, and custodian of the
Derawar fort. Very soon after the departure of Timur Shah,
the Khan of Bahawalpur recovered the fort, and a year later
Shah Mahomed died. Sarfaraz Khan succeeded to his father's
jagirs, but made no effort to keep the Governorship of Mankera
and Dera Ghazi Khan, to which Abdul Nabi, the eaj-Ruler of
Sind, was appointed. He, however, became obnoxious for his
tyranny ; and as he failed to pay the Government dues he was
superseded in favour of Mahomed Khan Sadozai, and the
Governor of Multan and Sarfaraz Khan Badozai were directed
to aid the new Ruler. Abd-uUNabi made a vigorous resistance ;
but near Leiah an action was fought, in which he was defeated
and his son Mian Araf slain. The fort and town of Leiah sur-
rendered to the victors, but Sarfaraz Khan was shot as he was
riding through the city. Mahomed Khan then obtained posses-
sion of the country. He was a wise and beneficent Ruler ; and his
great-grandson is at the present day Nawab of Dera Ismail Khan.

On the death of Sarfaraz Khan, his brothers Abdul
Samad Khan and Hafiz Sarbiland Khan straightway began
to quarrel, and the former contrived to seize the whole estate.
Sarbiland Khan on this went to Kabul to obtain redress
from the Emperor, and received an allowance of Rs. 6,500, of
which Rs. 4,500 was to be paid from the revenues of Multan.
An order was also passed that the estate should be equally
divided between the brothers ; but Abdul Samad Khan would
not hear of division, and it was only the jagir in Multan which
the Nawab was able to obtain for Sarbiland Khan.

The elder brother, Abdul Samad Khan, was engaged in
constant hostilities with Muzaf ar Khan, Nawab of Multan ;
and in 1801, after the fall of Zaman Shah, the influence of
Fateh Khan Barak zai, the new Minister at the Kabul
Court, obtained the nomination of the Badozai Chief as
Governor. Muzafar Khan had no intention of submitting.



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94 THE PANJAB CHIEFS.

He called in the Bahawalpur Chief to his aid, who sent five
thousand troops under Jiwan Bam and Din Mahomed Khan*
These, with the Multan troops under Ghulam Murtaza,
besieged Abdul Samad in his fort at Dinpana. Here he was
joined by one thousand horsemen of Mir Alam, the Governor
of Dera Ohazi Khan, but this reinforcement only enabled him
to prolong his resistance. The fort was eventually stormed
and taken, while Abdul Samad fled to Lahore to induce
Ranjit Singh, then rising to power, to espouse his cause.
Influenced somewhat by his representations, and more by his
own ambition, the Lahore Chief attacked Multan several times,
and at length, in 1818, captured it ; Muzafar Khan and his
five sons dying in the defence.

Hafiz Sarbiland Ehan had always stood high in the
favour of the Multan Nawabs ; and when they fell, he
received, notwithstanding his brave conduct at Multan against
the Sikhs, a command of two hundred horse from Ranjit Singh,
and was sent to watch the frontiers of Bahawalpur. After
the capture of Mankera in 1821 he received a jagir of Rs. 2,000
in the Leiah district, which he retained till 1829, when it was
exchanged for one of the same value in Multan. He served
faithfully throughout the whole Multan Campaign of 1848-49,
and died in 1853, half of his jagir descending to his son
Sadik Mahomed Ehan.

The quarrelsome Abdul Samad Khan was not so
fortunate. Asad Ala Khan Biloch, of Sakkar, who farmed
the customs of Leiah, was his great enemy, and they fought so
continually that the country became impoverished, and Asad
Ala Khan had to throw up the contract, as he could not



Online LibraryCharles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry GriffinThe Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 7 of 29)