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Charles Frederick Holder.

Life in the open; sport with rod, gun, horse, and hound in southern California online

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California from May to November is often a puzzle to
the stranger. Very briefly, the facts are as follows:
What is known to meteorologists as the North Pacific
cyclone belt is an important factor in producing storms
in Southern California, which are cyclonic disturbances
that rise or are created far to the west on the great Jap-
anese current. The North Pacific cyclone belt, influ-
enced by the sun, moves north in summer and follows
the sun south in winter; hence in summer it is well
north, and the storms which come in from the Pacific pass
east without coming below San Francisco ; but as
winter approaches and the sun retreats to the south the
cyclone belt comes farther south, and passing storms im-
pinge on Southern California ; singularly enough, coming
from the south-east or east, cloud banks creeping along



378 Life in the Open

the Sierra Madre range from that direction being almost
infallible evidence of a coming rain in the San Gabriel
Valley and Southern California in general.

Professor McAdie traced one of these storms by
means of the logs of passing vessels. It began off the
east coast of the Philippines, latitude 15, longitude 150
west, Nov. 2Oth, moving due west to about latitude 20,
longitude 130 west. On the Qth of December the
storm Was off Japan in latitude 39 (approximately),
longitude 150 west. It now turned south-east, and on
the nth of December made a complete turn or loop in
four days ; then passed east along the 3Oth parallel,
where on the 23d of December it began another loop
north of the Hawaiian Islands, and en January 3d
again moving east and north-east, reaching on the 8th
45 north latitude 145 east longitude. Here it di-
vided ; one part went to the north-east, reaching land
about 50 north latitude on the I2th of January, while
another branch went south, then north-east, entering
Northern California at latitude 43 on the I2th of Janu-
ary, then sweeping down across the State, reaching the
latitude of Los Angeles, but to the east, on the i3th of
January.

This storm took a month to pass from near the
Philippines to the latitude of the Hawaiian Islands, and
thirteen days, or about two weeks, more to reach Los An-
geles, where, doubtless, it appeared as a rain-storm com-
ing from a totally different direction, the south-east.
This storm is accurately charted in Chart No. XII.




Pasadena's Varied Climates (continued).

(5) 12.45 P.M. Snow balling. (6)1.30 P.M. At Trout Pool, McNally Ranch, Summer again.
(?) 3-3 P - M - Bathing in the Pacific at Santa Monica. (8) 5 P.M. Back in a Pasadena,
orange grove reading congratulatory telegrams over their feat.



Climate of Southern California 379

in the Report of the Climatology of California, 1903,
and is extremely interesting as showing the devious
paths of rain-storms which reach this favored section.

The rainfall of Southern California for a number of
years is shown in the following table, which tells the
story of minimum dampness and malarial conditions,
and a maximum number of sunshiny days in the year.

Rainfall in Los Angeles :



1878


20.86


1891


T-7 9,4


1879


17.41


1892


T Q .,


1880


i8.6c


1803 .




1881




1804.




1882




i8oc


5 1


1883 .




1896


I2 -55

T T fln


1884




1807 .


14 28


1885




1898


A 8?


1886




1800 .


8 69


1887 ,.




IQOO


T T 7O


1888




lOoi .


II ng


1889 .


. 3^.31


IQO2 .


I 3 12


I8OO .


. 12.60


I OO3 .


. 14. 77











It is not intended here to give an elaborate state-
ment of the climatic conditions, but to present in as few
words as possible the reasons for the various climatic
phenomena that are so conspicuous in Southern Cali-
fornia, and to answer some of the questions that are
often propounded by visitors and sportsmen who are
spending the season in the State.

Southern California is not a winter resort alone.
True, it has climatic attractions at this season that are
superior to any in Europe, but to the sportsman who



3 8o Life in the Open

would see the beauties of its splendid mountains, its
cool sea-coast, and its unexcelled sea-fishing, I com-
mend it as a summer resort, as well. From March or
April to December, its life in the open can be enjoyed
without interference, and its resorts along shore will be
found cooler than any on the Atlantic coast of the
United States south of Maine. No storms, no fog in
the daytime, an absence of mosquitoes, cool nights, no
malaria, and the best big game-fish angling in the
world. In winter the land is a garden, and days follow
days almost perfect and beautiful. Golf days, we might
call them, as then the golfer is in the land, and the fine
clubs and links of Santa Barbara, Avalon, Los Angeles,
Pasadena, Riverside, and Coronado are now at their
best The days are " fresh," and snow is not met with
except in the high altitudes. The lower ranges and
their attractive cartons are the winter picnic grounds of
Southern California. Many Eastern visitors bring their
motor-cars, and the roads are filled with life and colour,
from Santa Barbara to Coronado, all during the Cali-
fornian winter of soft winds and flowers.



Appendices



381



Appendices



Los Angeles



Population, 250,000. Annual mean temperature for twenty years, 62. ' For
coldest month, January, 54; warmest, August, 72. Average sunshine, 75 per
cent. Clear days, 317. Number of thunder-storms in twenty-four years, 32.
Average annual rainfall in twenty-four years, 15.71 inches. Prevailing direction
of wind from April to November, south-west and west. November to March,
north and north-east. Prevailing wind, average for twenty-four years, west.
Number of days temperature below 32 in twenty years, 13. (U. S. Station.)

San Diego and Coronado

Average daily change of temperature, 2. Extremes in thirty years, 101" and
32. Temperature has exceeded 90 but nineteen times in thirty years. Four
frosts have occurred in that time. Annual mean, 61.4. In 9496 days there were
9181 days of temperature not above 80, nor below 40. Average humidity for
January, 74.9 ; for August, 85.4. Average number of rainy days per annum, 41.
Annual rainfall, 9.52 inches. Average yearly thunder-storms in eleven years, I.

This also relates to Coronado. Professor McAdie says : " The climate of Coro-
nado is substantially that of San Diego. The differences are slight." The
climatic conditions of these places are remarkable for minimum lack of change
day by day, throughout the year. Coronado temperature average for the year,
61.7. Average daily range, 13.8. Average number of days clear, 239; partly
cloudy, 70 ; cloudy, 56 ; fog, 18 ; rainy, 42.

Riverside

851 feet above level of sea; mean annual rainfall, 10 inches. Mean annual
temperature for 19 years, 62.9. January, 51.1; August, 76.4.

Riverside is famous for its oranges and well-nigh perfect winter climate. The



1 These references to the climate of Southern California towns and cities are
compiled from the reports of Professor McAdie of the U. S. Weather Bureau of
San Francisco.

383



Life in the Open



summers are warmer than at Los Angeles ; nights cool, climate bracing. Sum-
mer heat dry, not debilitating.

Redlands

1,352 feet above sea. Annual average temperature, 64. Relative humidity
low. Annual rainfall (12 years), 14.70 inches. Winters mild and beautiful.
Grand mountain scenery, snow-capped mountains. Summers warmer than Los
Angeles ; heat dry, but not menace to health anywhere in the state.

Pasadena

Stands at head of San Gabriel Valley. Altitude 828 feet ; 25 miles from ocean.
Indiana colony selected locality for town site after examining all Southern Cali-
fornia. Nine miles from Los Angeles, second city in Southern California. An-
nual average rainfall, 13 inches. Mean temperature, 59.8; maximum, 85.8;
minimum, 39.2. Mean for January, 56.2 ; mean for August, 70.6.

COMPARATIVE AVERAGE TEMPERATURES AT CELEBRATED

RESORTS WITH PASADENA AS A TYPE OF SOUTHERN

CALIFORNIA INLAND CLIMATE.



PLACE.


Winter.


Spring.


Summer.


Autumn.


Difference,
Summer
and Winter.




56. oo


6l.O7


67 6l


62 31


II 6l


Funchal Madeira


62.88


64.56,


70. 8q


7O I Q


8 IO


St. Michael, Azores


57.83


61.17


68.33


62.11


IO.e,O


Santa Cruz, Canaries


64.65


68.87


76.68


74. 17


12. 01


Nassau, Bahama Islands..
Cadiz Spain


70.67

62. QO


77.67
en q-i


86.00
7o 41


80.33
6? is


15.33
T7 61


Lisbon , Portugal


51. OO


6o.OO


71 oo


62 oo


18 oo


Malta


6,7.4.6


62 76


78 20


71 O1


2O 7 A




55.OO


66.OO


77.00


6o.OO


22.OO


St. Augustine, Florida
Rome Italy


58.25
48.QO


68.69
57.65


80.36
72.16


71.90
6l.q6


22.11
21 26


Sacramento, California. . . .
Mentone


47.92
4Q.5O


59-17
6o.OO


71.19

73.00


61.72
56.6o


23.27
21.6,0


Nice, France


47.88


56.23


72.26


61.63


24.44


New Orleans, Louisiana..
Cairo Egypt


56.00

^8.6.2


69.37

73.58


81.08
85.10


69.80

71.48


25.08
26. 6.8


Jacksonville, Florida


55-02


68.88


8i.93


62.54


26.91



Santa Barbara

Like nearly all the seashore towns of Southern California, Santa Barbara has a
remarkably perfect climate. It stands on the shore, backed by the Santa Ynez
range, protected by the Santa Barbara Islands. The temperature of winter
and spring months approximates 56, summer and fall 63. The annual mean



Appendices 385

temperature is about 60. Average yearly rainfall 16.59 inches. It has all the
charm of the resorts of Southern France and Italy, with none of the drawbacks
cold and hot winds.

Santa Monica

Santa Monica, Redondo, San Buenaventura, Long Beach, Terminal, San Pedro,
Ocean Park, Venice, Playa Del Rey, Newport, Huntington Beach, Naples, San
Juan, La Jolla, Carlsbad, Alamitos, Laguna, and others are seaside resorts which
have cool summers and warm winters ideal conditions. None have government
weather stations, but they vary but little from Santa Barbara as regards extremes
of temperature, and the rainfall is about the same.

San Bernardino

San Bernardino and Colton have about the same conditions of Redlands and
Riverside.

Santa Ana

The climatic conditions of Santa Ana, Tustin, Orange, El Toro, Whittier, San.
Juan Capistrano, and other towns of this region are very similar to those of Los
Angeles. Nearly all are connected by a network of electric roads, and easily
reached from Los Angeles.

Insular Climate of Southern California

The record of a year (1905) at Avalon, Santa Catalina Island, Los Angeles
County, California, illustrating the remarkable uniformity of climate and lack of
decided change between summer and winter in a climate by no means tropical.

TEMP. AIR TEMP. WATER TEMP. AIR TEMP. WATER

2.OO P.M. 4-OO P.M. 2.OO P.M. 4-OO P.M.

Jan. i 62 63 Jf n ' '3 60 63

2 62 63 '4 6 3 64

3 62 63 " 15 63 66

" 4 62 63 " 16 60 63

5 62 65 " 17 61 64

6 62 64 " 18 60 62

7 62 65 "19 60 64

8 63 64 " 20 61 64

9 63 64 " 21 63 65
10 62 63 " 22 59 64

u 62 60 " 23 63

" 12 59 6 3 " *4 6 3 6 5



386



Life in the Open



TEMP. AIR


TEMP. WATER


TEMP. AIR




TEMP. WAT




2.OO P.M.




4.00 P.M.


2.OO P.M.




4.00 P.M.


Jan.


25


65


65


Mar. 1 1


64


65


"


26


62


64


" 12


62


65


"


27


62


65


13


65


65


"


28


61


64


14


63


63


"


2 9


61


65


15


62


63


"


30


61


64


16


61


63


"


31


53


64


17


61


63


Feb.


I


62


63


18


61


66


M


2


53


64


" 19


66


66


"


3


63


62


" 20


66


66


"


4


61


63


" 21


6l


66


"


5


60


64


" 22


61


66


"


6


59


63


23


63


66


"


7


63


63


24


64


66


"


8


63


63


25


64


66


"


9


59


63


26


64


66


"


10


62


63


27


62


65


"


ii


62


63


28


63


62


"


12


57


69


29


62


62


"


13


58


62


3


58


67


"


14


64


63


" 31


64


62


"


15


61


62


Apr. I


62


66


"


16


63


64


2


61


64


"


I?


62


63


3


63


66


"


18


61


63


4


60


65


"


19


62


63


5


62


64


"


20


62


64


6


60


65


"


21


65


64


7


61


60


ii


22


70


63


8


61


62


"


23


63


63


9


61


62


"


24


60


64


" 10


61


63


"


25


60


64


" ii


60


64


"


26


63


65


" 12


62


63


"


27


63


65


" 13


64


66


"


28


63


65


14


62


65


Mar.


I


65


66


15


64


63


ii


2


72


67


16


63


66


"


3


68


70


17


62


64


"


4


60


64


18


65


64


M


5


63


65


" 19


64


63


"


6


63


67


" 20


65


64


"


7


64


67


" 21


61


62


"


8


64


66


" 22


66


64


'


9


64


65


23


66


64


"


TO


64


65


24


66


65



Appendices



387



TEMP. AIR

2.OO P.M.

Apr. 25
26


63
62


TEMP. WATER

4-00 P.M.
6 4


TEMP. AIR

2.OO P.M.

June 9


65


TEMP. WATER

4-00 P.M.

69


27


62


66


'' 10


6 4


72


28


64


65


ii


73


72


29


62


64


12


66


71


30


66


*f


" 13


67


71


May i

2

3
4
5


64
63

63

62
66


64
63
64
64
64


14
15

" 16

" 18


64
63
63
66
64


76
69

71
66
67


6


65


V *T

66


" 19


64


69


7


62


66


" 20


67


72


8


62


64


" 21


66


70


" 9
" 10


62
66


Wt T

64
6-?


" 22

" 23


65
63


68
70


" ii


64


W J

66


24


67


69


" 12

" 13


61
62


65

68


26


64
66


70
69


15

16
17

18
19
" 20

" 21
" 22


68
70
65
62
67
64
64
60
64


68
69
64
68
67
67
65
67
66


" 27
28
" 2 9
30
July i
" 2
3
4
5
6


66
66
65
65
66
68
68
68
67
68


72
70
72
7i
69
7i
70
72

73
71


23
24
25
" 26
27
28


67
68
64
64

65
62


68
66

67
64

67
67


7

8

9

" 10

" ii

" 12


68
69
70
70
69
70


/
74
73
74
69
72
73


2 9


64


69


13


70


74


30


65


70


14


68


74


31
June i
" 2

3


66
67
66
66


68
67
68
68


15

16
17

18


69
69
69
68


74
73
74
72


4


66


69


19


68


74


5


66


62


" 20


68


74


6


63


69


" 21


65


72


7


65


68


" 22


68


76


8


67


69


" 23


67


73



388



Life in the Open



TEMP. AIR

2. ix) P.M.
July 24

25

" 26
" 27
" 28
" 29

30

" 31

Aug. I

" 2

3
4
5
6

7
8

9
10
ii

" 12

" 13
14

" 15
16

" 17
18

" *9

" 20

" 21

" 22

" 2 3

" 24

" 25

" 26

27

" 28

29

30

" 31



Sept.



TEMP. WATER TEMP. AIR TEMP. WATER




4.00 P.M.


2.00 P.M


.


4.OO P.M.


72


72


Sept. 7


72


73


65


73


8


72


76


66


73


9


69


72


66


72


" 10


67


73


66


7i


" ii


67


73


67


72


" 12


70


76


es


72


13


71


76


66


72


14


71


74


68


72


15


70


74


66


70


16


70


74


67


72


17


70


74


66


71


18


70


72


68


71


19


70


75


68


72


" 20


70


75


67


73


" 21


71


72


70


72


" 22


71


72


67


76


23


71


72


67


76


24


71


72


67


76


" 25


67


70


68


71


26


67


70


68


73


27


70


72


67


7i


28


72


73


66


73


" 29


81


73


66


73


" 30


73


71


67


72


Oct. i


73


72


69


71


44 2


72


72


71


72


3


73


72


68


72


4


70


7i


68


71


5


7i


7i|


69


71


6


6?i


71


64


73


7


67


72


67


73


8


69


7i


69


73


9


72


70


69


74


" 10


69


69


72


74


" ii


68


70


74


75


" 12


66


69


74


76


13


65


69


72


74


14


66J


69


72


76


15


66


68


72


75


16


66


69


72


75


17


65


68


71


75


18


64


68


71


75


" 19


64


69


71


75


" 20


65


69


71


73


" 21


64


98



Appendices



389



TEMP. AIR


TEMP. WATER


TEMP. AIR


TEMP. WATER


2.OO P.M.




4.OO P.M.


2.OO P.M.




4.00 P.M.




Oct. 22


65


68


Nov. 27


58


63




" 23


62


67


" 28


64


62




24


64


69


" 29


56


63




' 25


67


69


" 30


6l


64




26


58


68


Dec. i


56


63




27


63


69


" 2


60


62




28


58


67


3


64


63






29


62


69


4


59


6 4




1


30


58


65


5


60


63







31


63


67


6


61


62




N


V. I


62


67


7


63


63*




"


2


64


68


8


62


61







3


62


68


9


63


62







4


65


67


' 10


63


61






5


56




" ii


60


61






6


60




" 12


61


62






7


54


61


i. I;}


61


63






8


67


68


14


60


63






9


64


66|


15


56 (cold wave)


63




10


62


67


16


60


62






ii


63


66


17


58


63






12


61


67


18


60


63






13


61


67


" 19


58


63






14


63


67


" 20


56


62






15


66


67


' 21


56


62






16


63


66


" 22


55


61






17

18

19

20


62
62
61
62


67
66

65*
65


" 23
24
" 25
26


54
51
55
60


(cold wave)
11


63
60
61
62




21
22


53
61


65
62


27
' 28


63

54


ii


63
62




23
24
' 25
' 26


60

63
61

63


63
62
64
65


" 29
" 30
'* 31


56
54
52


ii


61
61

58



390 Life in the Open



Resume

The remarkable features of the insular climate of Southern California.are well
shown in the record of Avalon. January and February are the coldest months
here, and the general average temperature in the shade or under a piazza is about
63 ; the temperature of the ocean, about 64. Notice the lack of extremes day
after day. In August the general average may be said to be about 66 or 67, or
four or five degrees warmer than the average in mid-winter. In a word, here is a
climate having a minimum of changes, a temperate climate, yet allowing a flora of
palm and other tropical forms. The highest temperature in July, 1905, was 72
the lowest 65, which tells the story of a summer much cooler than any on the
Atlantic Coast. The highest temperature in August was 74 ; the highest in Sep-
tember, 81, on one day ; the highest in all other days in September being 74.
The hottest day in October was 73, the coolest 58. The warmest day in
November was 66, the coolest 53. December, 1905. saw the coldest weather
Southern California has experienced in twenty years ; old residents voted it ex-
tremely disagreeable. The lowest temperature at Avalon during this month was
51, the highest 64. The lowest sea (bathing) temperature was 58", the
highest 64.

California State Game and Fish Laws Open Season
1905-1906 For Closed Season Reverse the Dates

BAG LIMIT

Quail, rail, grouse, snipe, curlew, ibis, plover, doves 25 in one day.

Ducks 50 in one day.

Deer, male 2 in one season.

Deer August ist to October 15th.

Doves July ist to February isth.

Mountain quail, grouse, sage hen September ist to February 15th.

Valley quail, ducks, ibis, curlew, plover, rail October isth to February I5th.

Snipe October isth to April ist.

Trout April ist to November ist.

Steelhead Trout October i6th to February ist. April ist to September loth.
Two seasons.

Salmon October i6th to September loth. Above tide water close season ex-
tends to November isth.

Lobster or crawfish (Not less than 9^ in. long) September isth to April ist.

Black bass June ist to January ist.

Crab (No crab taken less than 6 in. across the back) November 1st to
September ist.

N. B. In some counties the open seasons are shorter.

Fine for violation of game laws $25 to $500 and imprisonment. Fine for
violation of fish laws $20 to $500 and imprisonment. Smallest fine for using
explosives to take any kind of fish $250 and imprisonment.



Appendices 39 ,

Los Angeles County Game Laws Changes Made
by County Ordinances in Open Seasons

Deer : August 15 to October i.
Doves : August 15 (only one day).
Mountain quail : September I to October 15.
Valley quail : October 15 to February i.

Santa Barbara County

Deer : August i to September i.

Riverside County

Deer : August i to September 15.
Mountain trout : May i to July r.

San Bernadino County

Doves : September 15 (only one day).
Mountain quail : September i to October 15.
Valley quail : October 15 to February i.
Trout : May 15 to November i.

Oceanic Game Fishes in Season

Tuna (summer months best) June, July. Black sea bass June to Novem-
ber. White sea bass April to November. Yellowtail March to December.
Sheepshead, albacore, bonito, rock bass, whitefish all the year. Barracuda
June to September. Sword-fish June to September. Surf-fish, yellowfin all
the year.

LIST OF OCEANIC GAME FISHES
taken with rod and reel in Southern California waters and maximum, weights :

Leaping tuna ( Thunnus thynnus), 250 Ibs. Black sea bass (Stereokpis gigas),
429 Ibs. Whitefish (Caulolatilus princeps), 15 Ibs. Yellowtail (Seriola dorsalis),
50 Ibs. White sea bass (Cynoscion nobilis), 80 Ibs. Albacore (Germo alalunga),
17 Ibs. Yellowfin, albacore (Germo macropterus), 50 Ibs. Bonito (Sarda
thiliensis), 20 Ibs. Sheepshead (Pimelometopon pulcher), 20 Ibs. Barracuda
(Sphyraena argentea), 15 Ibs. Sea trout (Cynoscion parvipinnis), 6 to 10
Ibs. Striped bass (Roceus linneatus), ' 30 Ibs. Montery Spanish mackerel
(Sfomberomorus concolor), 10 Ibs. Fez de gallo (Nematistius pectoralis),
60 Ibs. Common sword-fish (Xiphias gladius), 200 Ibs. Short-sword sword-fish
(Tetrapturus), 150 Ibs. Halibut (Paralichthys californicus), 30 Ibs. Mackerel
(Scomber japonicus), 6 Ibs. Black rockfish (SebastoJes mystinus), 6 Ibs. Orange

1 The striped bass has just begun to appear in Southern California waters, and
was introduced at San Francisco.



392 Life in the Open

rockfish (S. pinniger), 10 Ibs. Yellow rockfish (S. miniatus), 8 Ibs. Red rock-
fish (S. ruttrrimus), 10 Ibs., 2% feet long. Yellow-tailed rockfish (S. flavidus).
Blue-mouth cod (Ophidian elongatus), 40 Ibs. Blue perch (Medialuna californi-
fttsis), 5 Ibs. Rock bass (Paralabrax clathratus), 12 Ibs. Spotted Cabrilla
(Jonnyverde), 5 Ibs. Opah, 50 Ibs. (rare). Oceanic bonito, (Gymnosarda pelagmis)
20 Ibs.

The Lacey Act, Passed by Congress May 25, 1900

Prohibits interstate traffic in birds and game killed in violation of State law,
regulates the importation of foreign birds and animals, and prohibits absolutely
the introduction of certain injurious species ; also makes it unlawful to ship from
one State to another game killed or captured in violation of local laws, and which
require all packages containing animals or birds to be plainly marked so the name
and address of the shipper and the nature of the contents may be ascertained by
inspection of the outside of such packages.

The act also prohibits interstate commerce in game killed in open seasons, if
the laws of the State in which such game is killed prohibit such export. In refer-
ring to these provisions of the act, the House Committee on Interstate Commerce
reported as follows :

4 ' The killing or carrying of game within the limits of a State is a matter wholly
within the jurisdiction of the State, but when the fruits of the violation of State
law are carried beyond the State, the nation alone has the power to forbid the
transit and to punish those engaged in the traffic. The bill will give the game
wardens the very power that they now lack and which will be the most effective
for the purpose of breaking up this commerce. ... In some of the States the
sale of certain game is forbidden at all seasons without regard to the place where
the same was killed. The purpose of these laws is to prevent the sale of game
shipped into the State from being used as a cloak for the sale of game killed within
the State in violation of the local laws."

What Is Always Unlawful

To buy, sell, barter or trade, at any time, any quail, pheasant, grouse, sage hen,

rail, ibis, doves, plover, snipe, or any deer meat or deer skin.

To have in possession doe or fawn skins.

To take or kill, at any time, does, fawns, elk, antelope or mountain sheep.

To take or kill pheasants, or bob-white quail, or tree squirrels.


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