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I could my tribute of respect and affection to my dear friend
General Payot, whose wonderful ability and experience were
given so devotedly to our army whenever required. General
Moseley also paid him a splendid tribute, as did General
Connor who made his speech in excellent French. Connor
always makes good in the army and elsewhere, but I trembled
for him when he tackled this job.

I had opportunity to thank publicly some of those present
for what they had done to help me in my work Van de
Vyvere for the Belgian locomotives; Davidson for himself
and others for the Portugal railroad ties; General Chevalier
for saving our wood situation; Ganne, Oppenheim, and Va-
raigne most important of all, and Doumenc for helping in
motor transport work. I made each get on his feet while I
spoke to him, like a class at school. But I taught a pleasing
lesson. Lieutenant-General Cowans sat at my left and re-
counted in his speech our former differences out of which a
firm friendship had sprung.

Payot announced my citation in the orders by Mar-
shal Foch. The next day I received the notification of the
Marshal through a letter of Weygand, Chief of Staff. 1 The

1 LE MARECHAL

COMMANDANT EN CHEF

LES ARMEES ALLIEES

ETAT-MAJOR Le 6 Juittet, 1919

2 SECTION

PARIS, 4 BIS BOULEVARD
DES INVALIDES

No. 3132.

LE MARECHAL DE FRANCE, Commandant en Chefles Armies Alliees

To BRIGADIER-GENERAL CHARLES G. DA WES, Representative of the Ameri-
can Army on the Military Board of Allied Supply, 104 Ave. des
Champs-Ely sees.
I have decided to cite you to the order of the army, in recognition of

the eminent services you have rendered during the operations to the

Franco- American cooperation and to the general cause of the Allies.



266 JOURNAL OF THE GREAT WAR

Marshal designated Payot to deliver the Croix de Guerre,
which he will do at La Morlaye on the i6th. The citation
as given in Payot's letter is too comprehensive in my own
fair judgment. It is, however, an honor for which it is diffi-
cult for me to express my full appreciation.

The French have increased through Minister Paul Morel
their offer for our army material in France from 1 ,500,000,000
francs to 2,250,000,000 francs. This is still somewhat too low.

Bought to-day at a bookstore De Chambrun's and De
Marenches's book in French, "The American Army in the
European Conflict." Was pleased with their reference to the
work of my department of the Staff. They are both men of

Being obliged to absent myself, I regret not to be able to present to
you myself the Croix de Guerre before your departure.

I have delegated General Payot to present it to you in my name.
By order:

WEYGAND

Chief of Staff

COMMANDEMENT EN CHEF

DBS ARMEES ALLIEES
ETAT-MAJOR GENERAL
DIRECTION GENERALE Le 8 Juilkt, 1919

DES COMMUNICATIONS ET

DBS RAVITAILLEMENTS

AUX ARMEES
No. 578/C.R.

LE GENERAL PAYOT, Directeur General des Communications et des Ravi~
taittements m aux Armees, President du Comite Interallie des Ravitaille-
ments.

To MONSIEUR LE BRIGADIER-GENERAL DAWES, Membre du Comite
Interallie des RavitaUlements.

I have the honor to inform you that by order No. 3127, dated July 6,
1919, the Marshal of France, Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Armies,
has decided to cite you in the orders of the Army.

I am happy to quote you below the motif of your citation:

"In the course of the operations of 1918, has assured a complete union
over the supplies between the American and French Armies. By his
breadth of spirit and his constant effort to put in common the resources
of the two armies, he has permitted to be realized under the best possible
conditions the community of efforts which conducted the Americans and
French together to Victory."

CH. PAYOT




AMERICAN BATTLE FLAGS IN VICTORY PARADE IN PARIS. JULY 14, 1919




MARSHAL FOCH AND MARSHAL JOFFRE AT HEAD OF VICTORY PARADE

General Payot is the mounted officer immediately below the second
standard from the right



VICTORY PARADE IN PARIS 267

unusual ability, and certainly no one saw the American effort
from a closer view than they did.

I expect to sail on July 26th. Paris is a mass of flags and
crowded with people from outside to see the peace parade.
Beman and Bertie left for home Wednesday. I have greatly
enjoyed their visit.

Paris, Saturday, July 19, 1919

I EXPECT to sail July 28th and so I am entering upon my last
week here. What John McCutcheon once said to me, at about
the time America entered the war, is true: "This war is so
great that everything that happens after it in our lives will be
in the nature of an anticlimax." Therefore I feel my usual
disinclination to describe the celebrations of the last week.

The Victory Parade, July 14, which I witnessed from the
stand reserved for the French General Officers, was of course
the most impressive of history and will not lack describers.
Its arrangement and execution from start to finish were per-
fect. Nor did the tribute to the dead fail to reach the per-
fection of that to the living. In this the dear and noble French
people never fail. It has been a privilege to have lived two
years among this heroic and martyred people in such relations
that one gained an understanding of them impossible to the
casual visitor. As I saw them by the tens of thousands quietly
dropping the single flowers before the memorial to their dead,
there formed in my mind the picture of them which shall last
through my own life.

General Pershing and General Harbord left for England
Monday night. On Wednesday noon I went to La Morlaye
General Payot's headquarters where he gave a farewell
lunch in my honor. As I drove up to the building General
Payot and other French and Allied officers were waiting and
several platoons of poilus with trumpeters were drawn up in
a double line. The ceremony of decoration was held immedi-
ately, several others being decorated, among them the son of
Minister Clementel, the latter being present. In the name of



268 JOURNAL OF THE GREAT WAR

Marshal Foch, General Payot gave me the Croix de Guerre
with a palm, reading the citation to the Order of the Army.
We went to the country residence of Baron Rothschild, in
which General Payot and his staff live, where lunch was
served. My friend General Ford and a number of other
English, Italian, and Belgian officers, besides Payot's Staff,
were present, among them General Nation, Lord Pembroke,
Commandant Doumenc, Commandant Lescannes, Colonel
Hodges, my Chief of Staff as American Member of the Board.
Ford had to take a ten-hour motor ride from the British army
line to attend the ceremony an attention which I certainly
appreciate.

Last night, Friday, Mr. and Mrs. Homer Johnson gave a
dinner at the Ritz for some thirty-five guests which turned out
to be in my honor, though I had not been told of it until Mr.
Johnson announced it at the table.

The sale of our surplus supplies to the French is about
agreed upon. No essential difference longer exists. I shall
leave France with a sense of having "stayed through."

Am making every effort to facilitate the gathering of the
final information to complete the great picture of the Allied
armies in France and their supply systems. No one will ever
realize what persistence this has taken on the part of Hodges
and myself for the last nine months. At present there are
already on file documents covering approximately one million
words besides maps, picture charts, etc. Pershing and Har-
bord will see the thing through in the thirty days they remain
after I leave, by supporting Hodges in his work.

Last night received a telegram from Harbord from London
saying John wanted me to come over to-day for the parade
and return with them Thursday and that Beman and Bertie
were still there. It came too late, however, for me to get to
London for to-day. John is unquestionably receiving in
England the public acclaim which no living American has
better earned.



SALE OF SURPLUS ARMY SUPPLIES 269

Paris, July 24, 1919

M. PAUL MOREL, the French Minister of Army Stocks, to-
day formally offered the United States $400,000,000 for our
surplus army supplies in France. This offer will be formally
accepted by our commission. It is advantageous both to the
United States and to France. The offer was foreshadowed by
the discussion which took place at M. Ganne's apartments
Tuesday evening at a dinner which he gave as a farewell to
me. The only other men guests were M. Tardieu, Comman-
dant Oppenheim, Commandant Varaigne, and the members of
our Commission Judge Parker, Senator Hollis, and Mr.
Johnson. In the discussion all the cards were laid on the table
by both sides. We all took part. For six months we have been
engaged in this work. All have participated, but on our side
the work of Judge Parker, our Chairman, has been the most
laborious and the most effective of all of us. Senator Hollis
did a great service under most difficult and embarrassing
conditions in his large sales to the liberated and neutral coun-
tries. From the start the commanding ability, breadth of
view, and eminent fairness of Mr. Johnson, together with his
business knowledge and common sense, made him invaluable
in the negotiations. All these men were strangers to me
except Hollis whom I knew slightly at the beginning of
our work together. Our views were at first divergent at times,
but they were all honest, and as we gained more knowledge
of conditions, steadily approached each other, until after the
six months' association our opinion is now unanimous on all
essentials. I shall always remember my association with
Parker, Hollis, and Johnson with pleasure, and I cherish for
them the highest respect as courageous, constructive, and
sensible men. 1

1 In a letter dated June 3, 1920, Judge Edwin B. Parker, Chairman,
wrote me as follows: "On the whole I have heard very little criticism of
the work done by the Commission and quite a number of complimentary
things said about it." The amounts involved in settlement (i.e., claims
against the A.E.F.) aggregated $893,716,093.26, while the amount of all
sales totaled $822,923,225.82.





270 JOURNAL OF THE GREAT WAR

My boxes are packed and my office force and I leave for
Brest on Sunday. The Commander-in-Chief arrived from
London this morning and I took lunch at the house with him,
Harbord, and his aides, including Colonel Collins, who is
going to sail with me. After lunch the General and I had one
of our visits and discussed the near future. Dear old John,
nothing changes him from what he has always been. His feet
are always on the ground.

Payot came in and took dinner with me last night. We
could n't talk to each other having no interpreter, but we just
sat around together and felt bad about separating. I have
had Jo Davidson make a bust of him.

U.S.S. Leviathan At Sea
August 2, 1919

MY last day in Paris, Sunday, July 27, I spent mostly at
General Pershing's house, taking lunch there and having a last
conference with my dear and faithful friend. He has the
power and, what is more, the courage, of severe self-analysis
and criticism. We discussed the future, of course. Several
times during our long visit we both were greatly affected, but
it was when we spoke of the sorrows in our life, not of anything
material that there may be left in it for either of us. Later
in the afternoon Harbord, Frank McCoy, and I went over to
the Louvre, where I wanted to show Harbord some Roman
antiquities and to see again the Winged Victory of Samo-
thrace, the beauty of which I had never fully realized until I
saw the original on the prow of the ship. The figure needs
its setting to fully bring it out.

As usual I spent most of the time among the Roman stat-
ues. Then Harbord and I went to the hotel, where my faith-
ful and dear friend General Payot met us. We three, with
Colonel Ryan of my old regiment, took dinner together. It
was the third time during this last week that Payot had come
in to see me all the way from La Morlaye. At 8.30, after
shaking hands with my friends the waiters at the hotel the



DEPARTURE FOR AMERICA 271

most of them poilus, and many of them wounded we went
to the train. Of my dear friends there to see me off were
General Pershing, General Harbord, General Payot, General
Moseley, Colonel Collins, Colonel Ryan, Commandant and
Mrs. Varaigne, Captain and Mrs. Pesson-Didion, George
Dept (the assistant head waiter at the hotel), and Captain
Frank Pershing. I had with me my faithful and able assist-
ants, Lieutenant-Colonel Roop, Lieutenant Francis Kilkenny,
and Lieutenant Dalton Mulloney, who left with me for
Brest. Harbord had wired ahead to Brest, and when we
arrived there Monday morning our matters were expedited.
Besides my personal staff I have a convoy of five soldiers who
are taking with them twenty-two boxes of my official records.

Colonel Collins arrived at Brest Tuesday morning. We
sailed on the Leviathan Wednesday evening. Major-General
Biddle, Major-General Lassiter, Brigadier-Generals Craig,
McKinstry, and myself are the General officers on board. The
39th Infantry and I2th Artillery of the Second Division,
many casual officers and welfare workers, in all about seven
thousand, make up the passengers.

Lieutenant Morrill (of Chicago), of the Navy, is in charge
of "Boat Drill" which they now call "Abandon Ship Drill."
I had a copy of my old "Boat Drill" and we compared the
two with interest. There has been an evolution in boat drills
so far as I can see only in the preparations for it made by the
navy people which, when the I7th sailed, had to be made by
the regimental commander of boat drill. For instance, the
"Boat Drill" routes from the hold to the decks are fixed
permanently and indicated by painted signs on the wall as
well as in the Drill Book handed the army officers. But one
oversight in the Drill Book of the Leviathan I noticed: no
provision had been made for oil lamps or lanterns to be strung
along the boat-drill routes to be used if the torpedo explosion
should put the ship's dynamos out of commission, leaving
them in darkness.

Well, it is all over now, anyway.



APPENDIX A
REPORT

OF

THE AMERICAN MEMBER

OF

THE MILITARY BOARD OF ALLIED SUPPLY

TO

THE COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF

AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES

March 27, 1919



APPENDIX A

March 27, 1919

From: The American Member, Military Board of Allied

Supply.
To: General John J. Pershing, Commander-in-Chief,

American E.F.

IN accordance with your instructions, I submit my report as
the member representing the American Expeditionary Forces
on the Military Board of Allied Supply.

The effort to secure military control of the Allied Service
of Supplies was suggested by the American member of the
Military Board of Allied Supply, during the darkest days for
the Allies of the entire war, in a letter to you dated April 13,
1918, which outlines the situation and remedy therefor.
This letter follows:

Paris, April 13, 1918

From: The General Purchasing Agent, A.E.F.
To: The Commander-in-Chief, A.E.F.
Subject: Military Control Allied Service of Supply.
MY DEAR GENERAL:

From the time that you landed in France you have exerted
an influence for coordination of effort and centralization of
authority in inter-Ally activity which has had the most
far-reaching results. You have exerted this influence among
the Allies during the time that you were creating a co-
ordinating and centralizing system in your command. To
carry out the purpose of the centralization of purchase and
supply in your own army, to become connected with which
effort you called me from St. Nazaire, you have as a matter
of fact devised the plan the extension of which to the entire
Allied operations would seem now vitally essential to Allied
success in the war. What I am to suggest to you arises from
conclusions based upon knowledge and experience gained in
the position in which you have placed me. Even with the



276 JOURNAL OF THE GREAT WAR

conviction which I have of the vital importance of the
matter I would hesitate to call it to your attention, were it
not for your constant demonstration of the desire to sub-
ordinate everything, including your own personal authority
as an independent commander, to the common purpose of an
Allied victory. To willingly sacrifice individual authority
and individual prestige in time of emergency for the sake of
a common cause is the highest test of greatness and one
which, in all your actions over here, you have stood. The
power and influence of the great people of the United States
and their assets in men and material with which to secure
victory are in the hands of the President and yourself, and
you have rightly interpreted their spirit when you notified
General Foch to do with you and your army as he might
desire. In this offer you have already taken the step, the
proper carrying out of which I am going to suggest in this
letter. The peculiar position of the United States in this
situation, including your own relation thereto, is such that
upon the initiative of our Government alone is it possible to
accomplish it.

The general proposition is this: that just as there is now a
unified military command of the Allies at the front, in other
words a merging and consolidation of three distinct inde-
pendent military authorities into one military authority
(General Foch), there must be a corresponding merging of
all separate individual authority of the Allies in reference to
the Service of Supply into one military authority responsible
to the corresponding military authority at the front. One
is just as necessary as the other. In fact, for every argument
for the necessity of the Foch command at the front, there
exist two arguments for a similar authority for supply and
transportation in the rear. I mean by this supplies from
America, supplies from England, supplies from France, and
the land and sea transportation therefor, warehousing and
handling thereof. The Foch command at the front necessi-
tates similar control of the rear, and in this case the rear
means France, England, the United States, and perhaps
Italy. Before discussing the method of accomplishing this
let me illustrate in a manner which has no doubt often oc-
curred to you its overwhelming importance. The United
States is at this time using an immense amount of tonnage
for the purpose of building enormous warehouses and dock-
age facilities. It is doing this notwithstanding the ware-



A: REPORT TO COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF 277

houses of France and England are being emptied and will
continue . to grow emptier. The French Government has
used to a very large extent private warehouses for storing of
supplies. Owing to the steadily lessening amount of supplies
there is a large amount of French warehouse capacity now
idle, and at the same time we are proceeding, at the heavy
expense of current tonnage, on plans to immensely increase
our warehouse facilities. Who is there, with authority to
act, to determine from a bird's-eye view the relation of ex-
isting English and French warehouse capacity in France to
the present warehousing and transportation projects of the
A.E.F.? It cannot be done, except in a haphazard and in-
efficient way, unless by one man with military authority
extending over all the Allies. This man, for the same reason
that led to the selection of General Foch, must be a French-
man and England and the United States must accept him.
He must be given exactly the same authority toward the
ocean and land transportation, engineering, and supply
activities of the entire Allied forces which you have given
me in connection with purchase and supply and certain
other activities of the A.E.F., his authority being created
by the same method. The position of General Purchasing
Agent, A.E.F., you built up by a system of compelling the
partial cession of independent authority. The weight of
your own great powers and personality was thrown into the
effort of compelling the creation of this authority, and when
any independent head showed signs of not recognizing the
necessity for it or bending to it, you broke him on the cross.
What has made the success of the organization of my office
is its now unquestioned power and authority over inde-
pendent agencies. I never have had a meeting of the General
Purchasing Board except on minor matters such as the dis-
tributing of office space or matters relating to the collection
of information never on the determination of action. Our
organization is military. The reason why our Allied Boards
fail is because action has to be by a board and not by an in-
dividual. The organization of the entire transportation and
supply of the Allies must be military in its nature and not
based upon the principles of either oligarchy or democracy.
I do not have to argue this to a man like you. Some time
after this war is over get Herodotus and read the discussion
of the seven Persian generals when they were riding horse-
back on their way to Persia discussing the best form of



278 JOURNAL OF THE GREAT WAR

government for them to set up in the place of the monarchy
of an assassinated king. If we do not have military manage-
ment and military control we may fail and a German army
at the ports may save us the trouble of unloading some of
our engineering material from ships, thus devoted, which
should have been bringing men and food to have stopped
our enemies where they are now. It may be that our present
plans may not have to be abandoned or materially altered,
but the point I make is that it is impossible with this great
multiplicity of civil boards, crisscross authority between the
Allies, and lack of coordination in supply effort to properly
determine the matter or properly act after its determination.
Take the question of joint supplies. Impelled by the same
emergency pressure that compelled unity of command at the
front, the French and the English are calling upon me for
information as to supplies of our army, with intimations of
the necessity of pooling, etc. I am working the best I can in
coordination with the French and English in all these mat-
ters, but I am in a position where I realize that these ques-
tions can be settled, in time to be of avail, only by military
authority which, gathering its information, acts, and does
not discuss. Who knows to-day, considering the Allied
forces as one army, whether or not the great supplies of
steel, oil, barbed wire, rubber tires, chloroform, sugar, picks
and shovels, forage, clothing, etc., existing in France, Eng-
land, and the United States are being marshaled in Foch's
rear by the quickest routes to proper points, to warehouses
built or to be built, considering both present and future
needs and the present military emergency? In this present
great military emergency shall we again pursue the time-
worn policy of appointing an Allied Board to secure this in-
formation, and then, after long delay, subject the self-evi-
dent conclusions arising therefrom to the discussion of three
separate authorities, influenced by personal or national con-
siderations, personal ambitions, and counter-purposes?

In writing this way I almost feel as if I were insulting your
intelligence, who have been the chief leader and have made
the greatest personal sacrifice in the effort to apply remedies
for this sort of business. If the suggestions herein you cannot
force into adoption with the weight and prestige of your
country and your own personal power, then we must go
back at this time to a new effort to concentrate authority in
a new Board of the Allies to do by common consent and



A: REPORT TO COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF 279

town-meeting methods that which should come at once from
central military authority extending over all. No one knows
better than you what this means in delay, and what delay
may mean in a time like this, in a war like this. Can you not
force the Allies to agree to adopt immediately the principles
involved in the relations of your own Military Purchasing
Board to the entire Service of Supply of your own army
through which this entire Allied supply and transportation
situation shall be placed in the hands of a French military
officer with the same kind of authority over the Generals in
command of the different services of the rear of the Allies
that your General Purchasing Agent has over the separate
purchase and supply services of the American army? The
authority for the French command of these services could
be created by the same method through which you have
placed authority in me for our purchase and supply situ-
ation in the A.E.F. The three Generals in command of the
Allied rear should be coordinated and controlled by French



Online LibraryCharles Gates DawesA journal of the great war (Volume 1) → online text (page 24 of 30)