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OXFORD

UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE HISTORIES





ALL SOULS



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LIBRARY

OF THE

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
Class



COLLEGE

HISTORIES

OXFORD



ALL SOULS COLLEGE




From a photograph by Hie]



[Oxford Camera Club'



THE "TYPUS COLLEGII" (1598)



of xforir



COLLEGE HISTORIES



ALL SOULS COLLEGE



BY



C. GRANT ROBERTSON

FELLOW AND DOMESTIC BURSAR OF ALL SOULS COLLEGE



VT\ B R Aj?>

OF THE ;

\ UNIVERSITY )



LONDON
F. E. ROBINSON

20 GREAT RUSSELL STREET, BLOOMSBURY
1899



Printed by BAIXANTYNB, HANSON & Co.
At the Ballantyne Press



VISITATORI ARCHIEPISCOPALI

CUSTODI

ET SOCIIS

DEBITA REVERENTIA






aRAL



PREFACE

To write in two hundred pages an exhaustive history of
All Souls College, the materials for which are so full and
varied, would be a task beyond the power of even the
most skilful pen. With the space at my disposal it has
only ;been possible to indicate, mainly by means of the
Archives and other College Records, an outline of the
chief features of general interest in each successive stage
of the historic development of the College. Nor has any
attempt been made to supply even miniature biographies
of the distinguished men such as Sheldon, Wren, Black-
stone, and many others whom All Souls is proud to own
as her sons, since abler and more learned authorities have
already more than fulfilled the duty in the magnificent
Dictionary of National Biography, not to mention the well-
known volume of Ttie Worthies of All Souls, by Prof.
Burrows. The tenth chapter represents an effort to frame
from internal resources a sketch of the constitutional
evolution of the College in the present century, the story
of which, though a deeply interesting episode in the history
of the modern University, has so far not been narrated in
print. Yet for reasons that will easily be understood the
narrative has been confined to a statement of facts. For a



viii PREFACE

junior Fellow, even if he had the wish, to appreciate or
eulogise the career of any member of All Souls now living
would be either superfluous or impertinent.

To two kind friends I gladly confess I am under special
obligations. The Warden from first to last has done
everything in his power to smooth the difficulties of the
annalist's task. He has allowed me to importune him in
season and out of season : nor have even the arduous
labours of the Vice-Chancellorship prevented him from
reading the following pages in MS. The last chapter,
indeed, could never have been written had it not been for
his aid. Would that the result as a whole proved more
satisfactorily how much I have profited by his knowledge,
criticism, and advice. Prof. Burrows not only put at my
disposal his volume on The Worthies of All Souls, but most
generously handed over to me all the notes he had made
for a second edition. Only those who know how complete
a master Prof. Burrows is of everything relating to the
history of the College, can understand the value of this
assistance. The writer can but hope that some of those
who may turn over the pages of this little book may
be led to increase their knowledge in the ampler and
more sustaining air of Prof. Burrows' Magnum Opus. Yet
gratitude must not be permitted to shift the burden of
the written word. For any statement made, or opinion
expressed, the author is alone responsible.

Notice may perhaps be drawn here to the Frontispiece,
the view of All Souls known as Warden Hovenden's
Typus Cbllegii. It is now published from the Archives for



PREFACE ix

the first time, and the Oxford Camera Club and the
Publisher have spared no pains to make the facsimile a
success, though the difficulties of printing a very reduced
reproduction of an old and singularly detailed drawing
have been almost insuperable.

Finally, my best thanks are due to Mr. G. H. Holden,
the sub-librarian of "the Codrington/' for much timely
help, and to my colleague Mr. H. W. C. Davis, a contributor
to this series, whose criticism and advice, both on the MS.
and the proofs, have saved me from numerous errors and
slips.



C. GRANT ROBERTSON.



ALL SOULS COLLEGE,
March 16, 1899.



[NOTE. Apart from printed sources of information indicated in the
text, reference in the main is made to the following MSS. : (i) The
Archives; (2) The Register, i.e., the Register of Fellows from the
Foundation of the College, which is full of illustrative comments ;

(3) The A eta in Capitulis or Minute Book, which begins in 1609
The earliest Minute Book commences in 1572 under Warden
Hovenden ; but in 1609 it is practically displaced by the fuller Acta;

(4) The Punishment Book ; (5) The Wenman MSS. These two latter
are in the custody of the Warden. The quotations in chapter vii.
are for the most part drawn from The Tanner MSS. in the Bodleian,
vol. 340. Other scattered references to MSS. are explained in the
text.]



CONTENTS



CHAP. PAGE

PREFACE . . . .... . . . vii

NOTES ON THE PLATES . . . . . . xiv

I. THE FOUNDER AND HIS COLLEGE .... I

II. ALL SOULS IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY . .' 3!

III. ALL SOULS DURING THE REFORMATION ... 48

IV. THE AGE OF ELIZABETH AND WARDEN HOVENDEN 66
V. THE AGE OF LAUD AND SHELDON . ; . . 96

VI. CIVIL WAR AND COMMONWEALTH* . . . . Il6

VII. THE RESTORATION AND WARDEN JEAMES . .137

VIII. STORM AND STRESS WARDEN GARDINER . . 156

IX. ALL SOULS IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY . 177

X. ALL SOULS IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY . . 1Q3

MISCELLANEA

THE MALLARD SONG . . . . .211

PORTRAITS IN THE HALL ... . . 212



xii CONTENTS

PAGE

THE CODRINGTON LIBRARY ..... 214

THE MSS. IN THE LIBRARY . . . . . 2iy

THE ARCHIVES * . . . . J . . . 22O

THE COLLEGE PLATE . . , . .'. . 222

THE FOUNDER'S TOMB . . . . . . 224

ATHLETICS . . ... .".'.. 226

INDEX , \ . . . . * . 227



ILLUSTRATIONS

The Typus Collegii OF WARDEN H OVEN DEN. Frontispiece

THE FRONT QUADRANGLE . . . . Facing page IO

THE CHAPEL (EAST END) ."...' 34

THE WARDEN'S QUADRANGLE . . 52

THE OLD LIBRARY . .' . ,, 72

ALL SOULS IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 140

THE CODRINGTON LIBRARY . . .. 170

THE GREAT QUADRANGLE ... 182

THE HALL . . . . . 194



NOTES ON THE PLATES



I. THE FRONTISPIECE.

This is a reduced reproduction of the Typus Colkgii which is the
Frontispiece to the series of maps of the College property drawn up
by Warden Hovenden in 1598. It is the earliest view of the College
in existence. It shows very clearly the original plan as developed
in the sixteenth century (cf. p. 69). To the right of the Front
Quadrangle are the new Warden's Lodgings with garden (" The
Rose Inn"). Notice the pump mentioned p. 73. North are the
Cloisters, and " The Grove," and Orchard. Note that the statues
of Henry VI. and the Founder over the gateway are not
represented.



II. THE FRONT QUADRANGLE.

This is the Tower entrance from the High Street to the Front
Quadrangle as seen from the Chapel door. It practically represents
the original fifteenth century Quadrangle, as beyond refacing of the
Tower it has hardly been touched by restoration. The door in the
left hand corner (S.E.) was the entrance for the first Lodgings (two
rooms) of the Warden, one room of which was above the gateway.
Notice therefore the characteristic position of these apartments,
guarding the incomings and outgoings of the College. The two
windows in the Tower are those of the original Treasury and
Muniment Rooms. The statue of Our Lord over the gateway was
put up in 1895 by Mr. Raleigh to replace the one formerly there,
which probably disappeared in 1649. In the original Quadrangle
there was no central grass plot, but simply paving. The grass was
laid down in the eighteenth century.



NOTES ON THE PLATES xv

III. INTERIOR OF THE CHAPEL (EAST END).

This represents the Chapel as it is to-day, with the reredos and
hammer-beam ceiling restored to their former design. The centre
of the reredos the faithful rising at the Last Day is the Cruci-
fixion with Henry VI. and Archbishop Chichele on either side.
Over head is our Lord seated in Judgment. The figures are those
of prominent statesmen and ecclesiastics in the fifteenth century.
The last figure in the bottom row to the extreme left is that of Earl
Bathurst,*at whose expense the reredos was replaced. The stalls
are probably those of the original Chapel almost unrestored, the
carved seats of which are fine. The brass eagle and candlesticks
were a gift of G. Clarke's.

IV. THE WARDEN'S QUADRANGLE.

This view represents the new Quadrangle annexed when the new
Warden's Lodgings were built by Warden Warner (1557), and is
taken from the entrance to the Hall. On the right are the windows
of the Old Library (see plate v. p. 72). The door with the steps
leads to the Warden's Lodgings of 1558, the windows on the second
floor being those of the great Dining Room, ornamented by Warden
Hovenden. To the left (not shown) is the Warden's Garden, leading
to the present Warden's Lodgings, built by G. Clarke (1706).

V. THE OLD LIBRARY.

This is the interior of the Old Library (now the large Lecture
Room in the Front Quadrangle). It shows very well the beautiful
" barrel ceiling," the coats of arms, the panelling and carved
chimney-piece introduced by Warden Hovenden.

VI. ALL SOULS IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.

A reduced reproduction of Loggan's print of All Souls (1675). If
compared carefully with the frontispiece a few changes may be
remarked : (a) The statues of Henry VI. and Chichele are in their
niches over the gateway : (b) Warden Hovenden's study has been
added (1606) to the east of the Lodgings ; (c) the Warden's Garden
and "The Grove" have been planted; (d) there have been slight
alterations in the offices to the east of the Hall ; (e) Wren's Dial,
now on the Codrington Library, is in its original position on the



xvi NOTES ON THE PLATES

south wall of the Chapel. Note that the spires beyond the Chapel
are those of the Cloisters, and that the door in the Chapel wall to
the left of the pilaster has been blocked up. The other door leading
by steps down to the crypt is still in existence, but has changed
slightly in structure (probably in the restoration under Warden
Gardiner, 1710).

VII. THE CODRINGTON LIBRARY (INTERIOR).

Taken from the west end, and showing the bookcases which run
all round, the gallery and second tier of bookshelves. The statue in
the centre is that of Codrington (Cheere), and that at the east end
of Blackstone (Bacon). Above the second tier of bookcases may be
seen the "bustoes " of Worthies of All Souls, for a list of which see
p. 219. The " Orrery" (p. 216) is just behind the Codrington
statue.

VIII. THE GREAT QUADRANGLE.

This is a view of Hawkesmoor's Quadrangle (1737), occupying the
site very largely of the fifteenth century Cloisters. To the left is the
Chapel, the square end being the antechapel ; to the right the
entrance to the Codrington Library. Between the two are the
Piazza Cloisters and the "Dovecot Gateway," leading from "St.
Catherine " Street. The spire on the left is that of St. Mary's (the
University Church), and the dome is that of the Radcliffe Library.
Between it and the gateway may be seen the spire of All Saints.

IX. THE HALL (INTERIOR).

Taken from the doorway. On the left can be seen one of the new
stained glass windows. The portrait in the centre is that of
Archbishop Chichele (Thornhill), and immediately below that of
Jeremy Taylor, and below again that of The Marquis of Salisbury
(Richmond). To the left of the Marquis are Warden Leighton and
Archbishop Sheldon; to the right Sir W. Heathcote, and above
Wardens Tracy and Isham. Over the fireplace are the two paintings
by Thornhill (see p. 213) ; the bust is that of Reginald Heber.




CHAPTER I

THE FOUNDER AND HIS COLLEGE

THE date of the foundation of All Souls College, 1437
or 1438, according as the facts are interpreted, makes
it the ninth in order of the Colleges of the modern
University, and gives it, in chronology at least, the
honour of being the connecting link between the purely
Mediaeval and the purely Renaissance epoch.

The historical circumstances under which All Souls
started, the character and aim of the Founder, Henry
Chichele, are so clearly marked on the structure that,
even did not pious gratitude enjoin the duty, a brief
glance at his career is necessary to appreciate correctly
not only what All Souls originally was but what it was
intended to become.

Henry Chichele, the son, according to tradition, of
a " broker or draper," was born at Higham Ferrers, in
Northamptonshire, probably in the year 1362. He was
first educated at the College of St. John the Baptist at
Winchester, and then at New College, Oxford, which he
entered as a scholar in 1386, and of which he became a
Fellow in 1392. Thus early in life he was brought
under the influence of the ideas of William of Wykeham,
the greatest, because the most original, of the Founders
of Oxford Colleges, and learned, if nothing else, " the



2 ALL SOULS COLLEGE

noble example of piety and liberality set to the opulent
prelates of our Church." Chichele graduated with
the degree of B.C.L., and though he shortly entered
priests' orders, he seems to have devoted his first years
to the lucrative profession of an ecclesiastical lawyer
with such success that, later, Lyndwood, who dedicated
to him his notable Provinciate, called him lucerna
juris, " the lamp of the law." His energy and abilities
soon made their mark, and with the establishment of
the Lancastrian dynasty on the throne his rise was rapid.
The second phase of his life begins with the year 1405,
when he was entrusted with his first public mission to
Pope Innocent VII. In the same year he was appointed
a Commissioner to treat for peace with France; and
henceforward his life as an ecclesiastic, a lawyer, a
diplomatist, and a staunch adherent of the Lancastrian
House, is indissolubly bound up with all the great
public questions of England in the fifteenth century.
In 1410, and 1413, for example, he was despatched on
embassies to France ; still earlier, in 1409, as Bishop of
St. David's, he had been one of the English representa-
tives at the Council of Pisa. Finally, in 1419, he
attained the highest reward open to an English Church-
man when he succeeded Arundel in the See of Canterbury.
On the accession of Henry V. he became one of the
most influential advisers of the Crown, and after his
master's death continued to occupy an important
position in the Council. In the history of the English
Church, Chichele is perhaps chiefly remembered not
as the Archbishop in whose primacy the alien priories
were suppressed, nor as the man who successfully
resisted the efforts of the Pope to give Cardinal Beau-



THE FOUNDER AND HIS COLLEGE 3

fort precedence over the See of Canterbury, but as the
unhappy Primate who was forced to yield to Cardinal
Kemp, Archbishop of York, the precedence rightly re-
fused to Cardinal Beaufort, and who, worse still, allowed
himself to be coerced by Martin V. and Eugenius IV.
into demanding from King and Parliament the abroga-
tion of the " damnable " statutes of Provisors and
Praemunire. It is this which, together with an unkind
misinterpretation of his policy towards the Lollards,
has earned for him Fuller's harsh verdict that " he was
thoroughpaced in all spiritual Popery." A greater
than Fuller, Shakespeare, has in the play of Henry the
Fifth immortalised the tradition of his most conspi-
cuous contribution to English secular politics. On the
authority of the chronicler Hall, Chichele has been
represented as the advocate for that war " with blood
and sword and fire " against France which was to cause
the downfall of the Lancastrian House. Nor has the
dramatist scrupled to put into his mouth a speech
which he probably never made in a Parliament in which
he did not sit. The question has more than an academic
interest, for All Souls College has been popularly
reputed to be the Archbishop's magnificent expiation
for his " sin " in inspiring an unjust and disastrous war.
Yet the view that Chichele was "the cause" of the
war rests at best on a superficial analysis of its origin
and aim ; it certainly cannot be proved by the evidence
available. The most that can be said is that he cordially
agreed with Henry V.'s war policy, and that, both
as head of the English Church and a responsible
administrator of the Crown, he devoted all his abilities
during Henry's reign and the unhappy years of Regency



4 ALL SOULS COLLEGE

that followed to make that policy a success. With
still less justice then can its ultimate failure be laid at
his door.

These, however, are problems which do not concern
us here. To the chronicler of the annals of All Souls,
Chichele's career and achievements as a lawyer, a dip-
lomatist, a statesman-primate are important mainly
because they show how the splendid use which, as a
" pious benefactor," he made of his wealth, had been
moulded and coloured by the lessons, the bitter lessons,
learned in forty years 1 experience of the affairs of Church
and State.

All Souls College, if the most imposing, was not the
first or only benefaction connected with Chichele's
name. Both at Lambeth and at Canterbury he left his
mark by his buildings and his generosity ; in 1429 he
had founded at his birthplace, Higham Ferrers, a col-
lege for eight priests, seculars be it noted, the head of
which was to be a University graduate, and had en-
dowed the foundation with lands bought from the
properties of the suppressed alien priories. He had
started in the University of Oxford a chest of 200
marks, " Chichele^s hutch," as it was called,* for the
benefit of poor students, and had in 1436 bought five
acres of land " in the suburbs of Oxford and builded a

* Mr. Anstey has recently published (Epistola Academics, Oxf.
Hist. Soc. i. 83) the ordinance for the Chichele Chest, which was
to " relieve poor scholars seeking the priceless pearl of knowledge in
the field of divine learning." As with the similar chest in All Souls,
every borrower was bound to say five times the " Pater Noster " or
" Ave Maria " for the souls of the Founder and all the Faithful
Departed. And Chichele himself was to be reckoned amongst the
Benefactors of the University.



THE FOUNDER AND HIS COLLEGE 5

college house of free-stone quadrantwise," only to hand
it over to "the order of St. Bernard called White
Monks or Pied Monks . . . and it was called Bernarde
College," a foundation which, thanks to the liberality
of Sir Thomas Whyte, was in due time to emerge as
St. John's College.

In the following year, 1437, these tentative efforts
culminated in the erection of All Souls, the date of
whose origin may be claimed for December 14 of that
year, on which day Berford Hall, "vulgarly called
Charleton's Inn, standing at the corner of Cat Street,
directly opposite the eastern end of St. Mary's Church,"
was purchased. Other tenements were shortly acquired,
and the building of a college at once begun. The
foundation-stone was laid on February 10, 1437-38, and
it will not be amiss to note in this connection that in
our own century that day was solemnly observed as the
anniversary of the quattro-centenary of All Souls, and
a great day of thanksgiving. The then Warden, Lewis
Sneyd, has himself recorded how he " preached a special
sermon on a text from Psalm cxxii. 6 and the following
verses," and " the permission of the Visitor, Archbishop
Howiey, was expressly given for lengthening the time
spent in Hall."

The site of the new foundation was a block of tene-
ments, inns and halls, the chief of which, besides Berford
Hall, already alluded to, were Skibbowe's Tenement,
St. Thomas' Hall, Tingswick Inn, " antiently called
Corbet's Hall," and Stodely's Entry fronting west on
Cat Street and south on the High Street. For the
most part these tenements were first rented and then by
degrees purchased outright. Chichele's next step was



6 ALL SOULS COLLEGE

to procure a Royal Charter of Incorporation. This was
issued on the twentieth of May in the sixteenth year
of Henry VI.'s reign (1438). The document makes
it clear that (following the example of " The King's
Hall, 1 ' Oriel College) the Archbishop had "surrendered"
the properties bought to the King, who now, in virtue of
this transfer and by exercise of the royal prerogative,
" founds " and incorporates the College by the titles of
" All Soulen College " or " The Warden and College of
all Faithful Souls deceased of Oxford." In the deed the
Warden and twenty Fellows, who are to constitute the
new society, are named, and to them is delegated the
power to elect co-opt we should say twenty more on
condition that the whole number is not to exceed forty.
Hence it is that Henry VI. has earned the right to
be regarded technically as the Founder of All Souls, for
in the Patent the real author of its existence, Henry
Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury, is merely associated
with the King as Co-Founder.

The building of the College was entrusted to Roger
Keyes, afterwards Warden, as chief architect, and
Robert Druell, elected a Fellow in 1440, as chief over-
seer or supervisor of the works. From the Rationarium
FundatwniS) or book of the building accounts, an elabo-
rate picture of the process and cost of construction
could be made. It must suffice to observe that the
stone employed was brought from the quarries of
" Hedington, Teynton, Sherborn, Henxey and Sun-
ningwell," the timber from the woods of Shotover,
Stowood, Horsham, Eynsham, Cumnor and Beckley.
Twelve trees were presented by the King, twenty by the
Abbot of Abingdon. The wages paid to the workmen



THE FOUNDER AND HIS COLLEGE 7

have been held to prove that " they were the ablest
that could be procured," and, if further proof were
required, the transference per mandatum regis of some of
the stonemasons 'to the repair of Windsor Castle might
supply it. The building was carried on under the eyes
of the Founder, for we are told he " repeatedly " visited
the growing College, residing at the monastery of South
Osney. Another prominent University benefactor,
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, was also, we learn, on
a single occasion " an interested spectator " of the
works.

Five years elapsed before the newly constituted
Fellows could take definite possession. During that
time they were housed, under the headship of their first
Warden, Andrewe, in " a hired hall at the Founder's
expense." The exact date of their entry and the com-
mencement of the corporate life proper of All Souls
cannot be fixed, but it must have been during the year
1442, for on St. Editha's Day in that year the chapel
was solemnly consecrated by the Archbishop himself,
the Bishops of Lincoln, Norwich, Worcester " and other
suffragans " " a day long celebrated in the College by
an annual Feast." Another entry relates how on the
occasion of the first mass " a breakfast was given in the
ante-chapel which cost sixteen shillings and eleven pence."
Finally, in the October of the same year, John Wraby,
afterwards a Fellow, was sent by the Founder to provide
the Fellows, in the absence of proper statutes, with
instructions as to their duties.

While the College was r building, Chichele had seized
every opportunity to strengthen its rights and privileges.
Not content with the Royal Patent of 1438, he had,



8 ALL SOULS COLLEGE

" according to the superstition of the times," despatched
Warden Andrewe himself on a mission to Eugenius IV.
to obtain the Papal ratification and licence. Andrewe
was successful. In a Bull dated June 21, 1439, the
Pope approved of the objects of the foundation and
granted several valuable privileges. The College is
authorised to have an oratory or chapel without the
licence of the Ordinary (the Bishop of Lincoln), the
Vicar of St. Mary's Church (in whose parish it stood),
the Provost of King's Hall (Oriel), or any other who
might claim ecclesiastical jurisdiction ; it is empowered
to possess a cemetery of its own and to bury its mem-
bers and servants within the consecrated precincts ;
during an Interdict divine service may be celebrated in
the chapel " with hushed voice, closed doors and without
peal of bells," provided that no excommunicate person
be present and the College itself be not involved in the
sentence.

The Papal exemption from the possible Rectorial
claims of Oriel College and St. Mary's Church was
completed by an Indenture dated November 1, 1443,
in which, in consideration of 200 marks, the Provost,
Walter Lyhert, and Fellows of Oriel on the one side,
and Roger Keyes, the Warden and Fellows of All
Souls on the other, solemnly ratified the clause in


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