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THE PRINCIPAL SPECIES OF WOOD:
THEIR CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES***


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Transcriber's note:

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[Illustration: Live Oak (_Quercus virginiana_), Louisiana.]


THE PRINCIPAL SPECIES OF WOOD: THEIR CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES.

by

CHARLES HENRY SNOW, C.E., Sc.D.,

Dean of the School of Applied Science, New York University;
Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, etc.

FIRST EDITION.

First Thousand.







New York:
John Wiley & Sons.
London: Chapman & Hall, Limited.
1903.

Copyright, 1903,
By
Charles Henry Snow.

Robert Drummond, Printer, New York.




PREFACE.


The following is a brief untechnical presentation of general features
characterizing economically important species of wood. It is the
result of notes originally brought together from many already
existing sources and later augmented, and verified so far as possible
for the present use, by personal observation. The work of preparation
has not been as simple as the result would indicate, and although
great care has been taken to check each fact, errors do no doubt
exist, although it is not believed that there are important ones.

Engineers while writing upon woods have, save exceptionally,
emphasized strength beyond most other properties. Other works
for expert foresters or botanists are of necessity too special,
voluminous, fragmental, or technical for the casual student. Some
popular books on trees, as distinct from woods, are available. The
present form is distinct from these and is intended for those who are
not foresters or botanists, but who use woods or desire knowledge of
their distinguishing properties. Allusions to trees, historical and
other references, aside from those directly regarding woods, are made
for completeness and in order to mark, distinguish, or separate the
species.

Acknowledgments are particularly due to the publications of the U. S.
Division of Forestry, to Prof. Sargent's studies as set forth in Vol.
IX of the Tenth U. S. Census, to Dr. B. E. Fernow, to Mr. Raphael G.
Zon for suggestions and for technical revision, to the _Northwestern
Lumberman_ and other trade journals, to many dealers, who have been
uniform in their courtesy, and incidentally to Mr. Morris K. Jesup,
whose magnificent collection of woods at the New York Museum of
Natural History has been available to the writer as to others. These,
with other sources of information acknowledged by the writer, and
suggested to others, are suitably arranged in the following list. Of
the 155 illustrations, 138 are original, the drawings having been
prepared under the supervision of the writer from actual specimens by
Mr. Irving T. Worthly of Cornell University and several students of
New York University, and the photographs by Mr. John Hopfengartner,
Jr., of Westchester, New York City. Other illustrations are, so far
as possible, acknowledged in place.




TABLE OF CONTENTS.


PART I.

_INTRODUCTION._

PAGE

Section 1. Wood. Definitions. "Structure." Weights.
Coefficients. Uses. Botanical and Common Nomenclatures.
General Information, etc. 1

PART II.

_EXOGENOUS SERIES._

Section 2. Definitions. Cellular Structure. Annual Rings.
Medullary or Pith Rays. Pith Cavities. Sapwood and Heartwood.
Cross, Radial and Tangential Distinctions. "Quarter Sawn"
Surfaces, Common and Botanical Subdivisions, etc. 7

BROADLEAF OR HARDWOODS.

Section 3. Distribution. Distinguishing Characteristics.
General Information, etc. 10

OAK (Quercus).

Section 4. Distribution. Historical. Structural and Physical
Properties of Wood. Commercial Divisions. Botanical
Characteristics of Trees, etc. 11

_a._ White Oak (Quercus alba) 13

_b._ Cow Oak (Quercus michauxii) 14

_c._ Chestnut Oak (Quercus prinus) 15

_d._ Post Oak (Quercus minor) 16

_e._ Bur Oak (Quercus macrocarpa) 17

_f._ White Oak (Quercus garryana) 18

_g._ Red Oak (Quercus rubra) 19

_h._ Pin Oak (Quercus palustris) 20

_i._ Spanish Oak (Quercus digitata) 21

_j._ Black Oak (Quercus velutina) 22

_k._ Live Oak (Quercus virens) 23

_l._ California Live Oak (Quercus agrifolia) 24

_m._ Live Oak (Quercus chrysolepis) 25

_n._ English Oak (Quercus robur var. pedunculata) 26

ASH (Fraxinus).

Section 5. Distribution. Historical. General Properties.
Commercial Divisions. Botanical Characteristics of Trees,
etc. 27

_a._ White Ash (Fraxinus americana) 29

_b._ Red Ash (Fraxinus pubescens) 30

_c._ Blue Ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata) 31

_d._ Black Ash (Fraxinus nigra) 32

_e._ Green Ash (Fraxinus viridis) 33

_f._ Oregon Ash (Fraxinus oregona) 34

ELM (Ulmus).

Section 6. Distribution. Structural and Physical Properties
of Wood. Uses. Landscape Value of Trees, etc. 35

_a._ White Elm (Ulmus americana) 36

_b._ Cork Elm (Ulmus racemosa) 37

_c._ Slippery Elm, Red Elm (Ulmus pubescens) 38

_d._ Wing Elm (Ulmus alata) 39

MAPLE (Acer).

Section 7. Distribution. Structural and Physical Properties
of Wood. Uses. Maple Sugar. Botanical Characteristics of
Trees, etc. 40

_a._ Sugar Maple, Hard Maple (Acer saccharum) 42

_b._ Silver Maple, Soft Maple (Acer saccharinum) 43

_c._ Red Maple, Swamp Maple (Acer rubrum) 44

_d._ Oregon Maple (Acer macrophyllum) 45

_e._ Boxelder, Ash-leaved Maple (Acer negundo) 46

WALNUT (Juglans).

Section 8. Historical. Black Walnut in Gun Stocks. Structural
and Physical Properties of Woods. Burl. White Walnut. English
Walnut. Botanical Characteristics of Trees, etc. 47

_a._ Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) 49

_b._ White Walnut, Butternut (Juglans cinerea) 50

HICKORY (Hicoria).

Section 9. Distribution. Structural and Physical Properties
of Wood. Uses. "Second-growth" Hickory. Pecan. Botanical
Characteristics of Trees, etc. 51

_a._ Shagbark (Hicoria ovata) 52

_b._ Pignut (Hicoria glabra) 53

_c._ Mocker Nut (Hicoria alba) 54

_d._ Pecan (Hicoria pecan) 55

CHESTNUT; Chinquapin (Castanea).

Section 10. Distribution. Structural and Physical Properties
of Wood. Uses. Famous Trees. Nuts. Botanical Characteristics
of Trees, etc. 56

_a._ Chestnut (Castanea dentata) 58

_b._ Chinquapin (Castanea pumila) 59

BEECH, IRONWOOD (Fagus) (Carpinus, Ostrya, etc.).

Section 11. Distribution. Early Uses of Beech. Structural and
Physical Properties of Woods. Uses. Enumeration of Species
Affording "Ironwood." 60

_a._ Beech (Fagus atropunicea) 62

_b._ Ironwood, Blue Beech (Carpinus caroliniana) 63

_c._ Ironwood, Hop Hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) 64

SYCAMORE (Platanus).

Section 12. Confusion of Names. Historical, Structural and
Physical Properties of Wood. Uses. Botanical Characteristics
of Trees, etc. 65

_a._ Sycamore, Buttonball (Platanus occidentalis) 66

_b._ California Sycamore (Platanus racemosa) 67

BIRCH (Betula).

Section 13. Distribution. History and Uses of Bark.
Structural and Physical Properties of Wood. Uses of Wood.
Commercial Divisions of Wood. Botanical Characteristics of
Trees, etc. 68

_a._ White Birch (Betula populifolia) 70

_b._ Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera) 71

_c._ Red Birch (Betula nigra) 72

_d._ Yellow Birch (Betula lutea) 73

_e._ Sweet, Cherry Birch. (Betula lenta) 74

LOCUST; MESQUITE (Robinia, Gleditsia, Prosopis).

Section 14. Confusion of Names. Structural and Physical
Properties of Wood. Uses. Structural Value of Black Locust.
Durability and Peculiarities of Mesquite. Botanical
Characteristics of Trees, etc. 75

_a._ Black Locust, Yellow Locust (Robinia pseudacacia) 77

_b._ Honey Locust (Gleditsia triacanthos) 78

_c._ Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) 79

WHITEWOOD OR TULIP-TREE WOOD; POPLAR OR COTTONWOOD;
CUCUMBER-TREE WOOD; BASSWOOD (Liriodendron), (Populus),
(Magnolia), (Tilia).

Section 15. Structural Relations. Peculiarities and Uses of
Wood. Confusion of Names. Botanical Characteristics of Trees,
etc. 80

_a._ Whitewood, Tulip-tree or Yellow Poplar (Liriodendron
tulipifera) 82

_b._ Poplar, Large Tooth Aspen (Populus grandidentata) 83

_c._ Cottonwood (Populus deltoides) 84

_d._ Black Cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) 85

_e._ Cucumber-tree (Magnolia acuminata) 86

_f._ Basswood, Linden (Tilia americana) 87

WILLOW (Salix).

Section 16. Distribution. Historical. Properties and Uses of
Wood. Botanical Characteristics of Trees, etc. 88

_a._ Black Willow (Salix nigra) 89

CATALPA (Catalpa).

Section 17. Structural Values. Properties of Woods. Botanical
Characteristics of Trees, etc. 90

_a._ Catalpa (Catalpa speciosa) 91

_b._ Catalpa (Catalpa catalpa) 92

SASSAFRAS; MULBERRY (Sassafras), (Morus).

Section 18. Historical. Properties of Sassafras Wood.
Properties of Mulberry Wood. Botanical Characteristics of
Trees, etc. 93

_a._ Sassafras (Sassafras officinale) 94

_b._ Mulberry, Red Mulberry (Morus rubra) 95

BUCKEYE; HORSE CHESTNUT (Aesculus).

Section 19. Structural and Botanical Relationship.
Localities. Properties and Uses of Wood. 96

_a._ Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) 97

_b._ Ohio Buckeye (Aesculus glabra) 97

_c._ Sweet Buckeye (Aesculus octandra) 98

GUM (Liquidambar, Nyssa).

Section 20. Botanical and Structural Relationships. General
Properties and Uses of Woods. Botanical Characteristics of
Trees. 99

_a._ Sweet Gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) 100

_b._ Sour Gum (Nyssa sylvatica) 101

_c._ Cotton Gum, Tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) 102

HOLLY; BOXWOOD; LIGNUMVITÆ (Ilex), (Buxus Cornus), (Guajacum,
etc.).

Section 21. Structural and Physical Properties; also Uses
of Holly, of Boxwood, and of Lignumvitæ Woods. Sources.
Substitutes for Boxwood, _i.e._, Flowering Dogwood, Mexican
Persimmon and Rose Bay. Botanical Characteristics of Trees,
etc. 103

_a._ Holly (Ilex opaca) 105

_b._ Dogwood (Cornus florida) 106

_c._ Lignumvitæ (Guajacum sanctum) 107

LAUREL (Magnolia, Rhododendron, Arbutus, etc.).

Section 22. Application of Name Laurel. Structural
Peculiarities and Uses of Several Products. 108

_a._ Mountain Laurel (Umbellularia californica) 109

_b._ Madroña (Arbutus menziesii) 110

PERSIMMON; OSAGE ORANGE; CHERRY (Diospyros), (Maclura),
(Prunus).

Section 23. Range. Structural Peculiarities and Uses of
Persimmon Wood, of Osage Orange Wood, of Cherry Wood. 111

_a._ Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) 112

_b._ Osage Orange (Maclura aurantiaca) 113

_c._ Cherry (Prunus serotina) 114

TEAK; GREENHEART (Tectona), (Nectandra).

Section 24. Asiatic Teak. African Teak. Structural
Peculiarities and Uses of Teak Wood. Structural Peculiarities
and Uses of Greenheart 115

_a._ Teak (Tectona grandis) 116

_b._ Greenheart (Nectandra rodiali) 117

MAHOGANY (Swietenia, Khaya, Soymida, Cedrela, etc.).

Section 25. Applications of Name Mahogany. Sources of Supply.
Structural and Physical Peculiarities. Also Uses of Wood,
Veneers, Spanish Cedar, White Mahogany 118

_a._ Mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni) 120

_b._ White Mahogany (Tabeuia Donnell-Smithii) 121

_c._ Spanish Cedar, Mexican Cedar (Cedrela odorata) 122

EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus).

Section 26. Localities. Common Names. Great Size. Rapid
Growth and Sanitary Properties of Trees. Structural
Properties of Jarrah, Karri and Tuart Woods. Botanical
Characteristics of Trees, etc. 123

_a._ Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) 125

_b._ Karri (Eucalyptus diversicolor) 126

_c._ Tuart (Eucalyptus gomphocephala) 127

_d._ Blue Gum, Fever Tree (Eucalyptus globulus) 128

NEEDLELEAF OR SOFT WOODS.

Section 27. Localities. Historical. Structural and Physical
Properties. Uses. Botanical Characteristics. General
Information 129

PINE (Pinus).

Section 28. Structural and Physical Properties. Uses.
Botanical Characteristics 130

_Soft Pine._ - Structural and Physical Properties. Importance.
Sources of Supply, etc. 131

_Hard Pine._ - Structural and Physical Properties. Importance.
Source of Supply, etc. 132

_a._ White Pine (Pinus strobus) 134

_b._ White Pine (Pinus flexilis) 135

_c._ Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana) 136

_d._ White Pine (Pinus monticola) 137

_e._ Georgia, Hard, Yellow or Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris)
138

_f._ Cuban Pine (Pinus heterophylla) 139

_g._ Shortleaf Pine, Yellow Pine (Pinus echinata) 140

_h._ Loblolly Pine (Pinus tæda) 141

_i._ Bull Pine, Yellow Pine, Western Pine (Pinus ponderosa)
142

_j._ Norway Pine, Red Pine (Pinus resinosa) 143

_k._ Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida) 144

_l._ Northern Pine, Scotch Pine, Dantzic Pine (Pinus
sylvestris) 145

KAURI PINE (Dammara).

Section 29. Descriptive. Structural and Physical
Characteristics. "Kauri Gum," etc. 146

_a._ Kauri Pine (Dammara australis) 147

SPRUCE (Picea).

Section 30. Localities. Structural and Physical
Peculiarities. Commercial Divisions. Botanical
Characteristics 148

_a._ Black Spruce (Picea nigra) 150

_b._ Red Spruce (Picea rubens) 150

_c._ White Spruce (Picea alba) 151

_d._ White Spruce (Picea engelmanni) 152

_e._ Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis) 153

DOUGLAS SPRUCE (Pseudotsuga).

Section 31. Great Size of Trees. Localities. Structural and
Physical Peculiarities of Wood. Botanical Characteristics 154

_a._ Douglas or Red Spruce or Fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia) 155

FIR (Abies).

Section 32. Sources of Supply. Structural and Physical
Characteristics. Confusion of Names. Botanical
Characteristics 156

_a._ Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea) 157

_b._ Great Silver Fir (Abies grandis) 158

_c._ White Fir (Abies concolor) 159

_d._ Red Fir (Abies magnifica) 160

_e._ Red Fir. Noble Fir (Abies nobilis) 161

HEMLOCK (Tsuga).

Section 33. Distribution. Structural and Physical
Peculiarities of Wood. Botanical Characteristics 162

_a._ Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) 163

_b._ Western Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) 163

LARCH; TAMARACK (Larix).

Section 34. Historical. Sources. Structural and Physical
Peculiarities. Botanical Characteristics 164

_a._ Larch, Tamarack (Larix americana) 165

_b._ Larch, Tamarack (Larix occidentalis) 166

CEDAR (Cedrus, Thuya, Chamæcyparis, Libocedrus, Juniperus).

Section 35. Confusion of Names. Historical. Structural and
Physical Peculiarities of Wood. Uses. Commercial Divisions,
etc. 167

_a._ Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) 169

_b._ Juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) 170

_c._ White Cedar, Arborvitæ (Thuya occidentalis) 171

_d._ Canoe Cedar, Arborvitæ, Giant Arborvitæ (Thuya plicata)
172

_e._ White Cedar (Chamæcyparis thyoides) 173

_f._ Port Orford Cedar, Lawson Cypress (Chamaecyparis
lawsoniana) 174

_g._ Yellow Cedar, Yellow Cypress, Sitka Cypress
(Chamæcyparis nootkatensis) 175

_h._ Incense Cedar (Libocedrus decurrens) 176

CYPRESS (Cupressus, Taxodium).

Section 36. Confusion of Names. Sources. Historical.
Structural and Physical Peculiarities. Commercial Divisions.
Fungus Disease 177

_a._ Cypress, Bald Cypress (Taxodium distichum) 179

REDWOOD (Sequoia).

Section 37. Locality. Peculiarities of Trees. Structural and
Physical Qualities of Wood. Uses. Mammoth Trees 180

_a._ Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) 182

_b._ Giant Redwood (Sequoia washingtoniana) 182

PART III.

_ENDOGENOUS SERIES._

Section 38. Definitions. Cellular Structure. Structural and
Physical Peculiarities of Endogenous Wood. Uses. General
Information 183

PALM (PALMACEÆ).

Section 39. Localities. Structural and Physical Peculiarities
of Wood. Uses. Botanical. Characteristics 185

_a._ Cabbage Palmetto (Sabal palmetto) 186

_b._ Washington Palm (Washingtonia filifera) 187

YUCCA (Yucca).

Section 40. Localities. Structural and Physical Peculiarities
of Wood. Uses, etc. 188

_a._ Joshua Tree, Yucca (Yucca arborescens) 189

BAMBOO (Bambusæ).

Section 41. Botanical Characteristics. Structural and
Physical Peculiarities of Wood. Growth. Uses in the Orient.
Possibilities in America, etc. 190

_a._ Bamboo (Bambusæ vulgaris) 192




LIST OF PLATES.


Frontispiece. Live Oak (Quercus virginiana).

Plate 2. EXOGENOUS STRUCTURE IN WOOD - Yearly Rings or Layers.

Plate 3. EXOGENOUS STRUCTURE IN WOOD - Medullary or Pith Ray.

Plate 4. EXOGENOUS STRUCTURE IN WOOD - Cross-sections Enlarged.

Plate 5. Oak (Quercus alba).

Plate 6. Ash (Fraxinus americana).

Plate 7. Elm (Ulmus americana).

Plate 8. Maple (Acer saccharum).

Plate 9. Walnut (Juglans).

Plate 10. Hickory (Hicoria ovata).

Plate 11. Chestnut (Castanea dentata).

Plate 12. Beech (Fagus).

Plate 13. Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis).

Plate 14. Birch (Betula).

Plate 15. Locust (Robinia, Gleditsia).

Plate 16. Whitewood (Liriodendron tulipifera).

Plate 17. Black Willow (Salix nigra).

Plate 18. Catalpa (Catalpa).

Plate 19. Sassafras (Sassafras officinale).

Plate 20. Horse Chestnut (Æsculus hippocastanum).

Plate 21. Sweet Gum (Liquidambar styraciflua).

Plate 22. Holly, Boxwood, Lignumvitæ (Ilex), (Buxus, Cornus),
(Guajacum).

Plate 23. Persimmon, Osage Orange, Cherry (Diospyros), (Maclura),
(Prunus).

Plate 24. Teak, Greenheart (Tectona), (Nectandra).

Plate 25. Mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni).

Plate 26. Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus).

Plate 27. Pine (Pinus).

Plate 28. Kauri Pine (Dammara australis).

Plate 29. Black Spruce (Picea nigra).

Plate 30. Douglas Spruce (Pseudotsuga taxifolia).

Plate 31. Hemlock (Tsuga).

Plate 32. Larch, Tamarack (Larix).

Plate 33. Cedar (Cedrus, Thuya, etc.).

Plate 34. Cypress (Cupressus, Taxodium).

Plate 35. Redwood (Sequoia).

Plate 36. ENDOGENOUS STRUCTURE IN WOOD.

Plate 37. Palm (Palmaceæ).

Plate 38. Yucca (Yucca).

Plate 39. Bamboo (Bambusæ).




BIBLIOGRAPHY.


NAMES AND LOCALITIES.

"Check List of Forest Trees of the United States, their Names and
Ranges," Sudworth. (U. S. Forestry Bulletin No. 17.)


FEATURES OF TREES, BOTANIES.

Prof. Sargent's "Silva of North America"; Michaux and Nuttall's
"North American Silva"; _Apgar's_ "_Trees of Northern United
States_"; Publications U. S. Forestry Division; "_Our Native Trees_,"
_Keeler_; "Familiar Trees," Mathews; "Timber Trees and Forests of
North Carolina," Pinchot & Ashe (N. C. Geological Survey Bulletin No.
6); "Report on Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts," Emerson; "Manual


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Online LibraryCharles H. (Charles Henry) SnowThe principal species of wood: their characteristic properties → online text (page 1 of 13)