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THE PHILIPPINES



UNDER SPANISH AND AMERICAN
RULES



BY

C. H. FORBES-LINDSAY
\\

AUTHOR OF

"India, Past and Present", "America's Insular Possessions",
"Panama, the Isthmus and the Canal", etc.



ILLUSTRATED



PHILADELPHIA

THE JOHN C. WINSTON CO.

1906



Ft



COPYRIGHT, 1906
BY THE JOHN C. WINSTON COMPANY



BeMcatefc

BY PERMISSION TO THE

HONORABLE WILLIAM H. TAFT

First Civil Governor of the Philippines

THAN WHOM NONE HAS LABORED MORE ASSIDUOUSLY
IN THE CAUSE OF THE FILIPINO



907779



PREFACE.

Prior to 1898, when America knocked rudely at her
doors, the Philippine Archipelago was one of the most
secluded portions of the earth. Only within the
present generation have its ports been open to the
commerce of the world. When the Archipelago
passed into the possession of the United States there
was not an American firm in Manila. The Islands
have never been brought within the ever-extending
bounds of tourist travel and are not yet upon a main
steamship route, but are reached by a branch line
from Hong Kong.

Before the Spanish- American War brought us into
intimate relations with the Philippine Islands, little
had been published relating to them in this country
or, indeed, in the English language. It is not strange,
then, that the average American knew almost nothing
about this country which is destined to play an im-
portant part in the history of the United States, until
his newspapers and magazines began to educate him.
Tiv this time we are well awake to the fact that the
Filipinos are not naked savages and that their country
is something more than the place from which we get
Manila hemp. It is beginning to dawn upon us that
the Filipinos and the Philippines represent great pos-
sibilities, but few of us have an adequate conception
of how great they are, or of the vast field for Amer-
ican endeavor and enterprise afforded by them.

In the past few years the Philippines have evoked
a constantly growing interest which most often takes
the form of the concrete query: "Are the people good
for anything and what are the islands worth?" I
have made an effort to answer this question with some
degree of definiteness.



v i THE PHILIPPINES

For my statements regarding industries, resources,
etc., I have depended, in the main, upon the ample
sources of information afforded by the U. S. War
Department, having been taught by experience to
regard them as the most reliable,

I have avoided polemic discussion, because there
are others much better qualified than myself to pass
opinion on the controversial questions connected with
the Philippines ; but that the reader, who will natu-
rally look for some such expressions in a book of this
kind, may be satisfied, I have fully remedied the
deficiency on my part by inserting a chapter of ex-
tracts from public addresses delivered by the Honor-
able William H. Taft, who is recognized as the fore-
most authority on our insular possessions in the
Pacific. These addresses are the most direct, logical,
and consistent statements of the conditions and pros-
pects in the Philippine Islands, as well as the most
clear and unequivocal expression of the policy of the
American Government towards those islands. I much
regret that the quotations are, necessarily, limited to
a few brief extracts and strongly recommend the
reading of the addresses in extenso to all who would
have a clear idea of our relations to the Philippines
and the problems involved in their administration.

I take this opportunity to acknowledge my obliga-
tions to Colonel Clarence R. Edwards, Chief of the
Bureau of Insular Affairs, and the Assistant Chief,
Captain Frank Mclntyre, who have rendered me val-
uable assistance in the preparation of this volume.

Philadelphia, April, 1906.



CONTENTS

THE PHILIPPINES



CHAP. PAGE.

I. GENERAL DESCRIPTION 17

II. THE INHABITANTS 75

III. EARLY HISTORY 119

IV. THE PASSING OF SPANISH DOMINION 161

V. AMERICAN ADMINISTRATION 203

VI. COMMERCE 241

VII. AGRICULTURE 285

VIII. AGRICULTURE ( Continued) 323

IX. PUBLIC LANDS, TIMBER, MINERALS, ETC 357

X. MANILA, OLD AND NEW 393

XI. LUZON 431

XII. THE VISAYAS 463

XIII. MINDANAO AND SULU 491

XIV. VITAL ISSUES 517

INDEX . 561



ILLUSTRATIONS

THE PHILIPPINES



PAGE.

MANILA BAY Frontispiece.

HON. WILLIAM H. TAFT Facing Dedication.

THE HIGHLANDS OF BENGUET 22

A VISAYAN FAMILY 54

MANILA CATHEDRAL 78

A HEAD HUNTER 110

CHINESE MESTIZOS 126

LOMA CHURCH 150

FILIPINA WOMEN 174

THE YOUNG IDEA 190

OFFICE OF A JUSTICE 214

MANILA HEMP 230

THE BUSY PASIG 254

CLEANING ABACA 270

A ROPE WALK 294

FARMING IN THE PHILIPPINES 310

THRESHING RICE 350

A STREET SCENE 382

TAAL VOLCANO . 390



PRIMITIVE TRANSPORTATION 422

A HUMBLE HOME 430

ANTIQUE DEFENSES 454

A MESTIZA 4G2

A WEAVER 486

A VILLAGE SCENE 510

NATIVE POLICE 522






GENERAL DESCRIPTION









X - i n



THE PHILIPPINES.



GENERAL DESCRIPTION.

Physical Features Luzon Taal Lake and Volcano The
Story of an Eruption Mayon Volcano Rivers of Luzon
Cagayan and Isabela Abra, Lepanto-Bontoc, and Nueva
Vizcaya I locos Norte, I locos Sur and La Union Benguet
Pangasinan Zanibales Bataan Tarlac Pampanga
Nueva Ecija Bulacan Rizal Laguna Cavite Batan-
gas Tayabas Ambos Camarines Albay Sorsogon
Railroad Extension Marinduque The Island of Mindoro
The Visayan Group Masbate Samar Leyte Bohol
Cebu Negros Panay Paragua Mindanao Sulu Tawi
Tawi Fauna Flora Vegetable Products of Commercial
Value Minerals Climate.

The Philippine Archipelago extends from 4 40'
to 21 10' north latitude and lies between the meridi-
ans of 116 40' and 126 34' east longitude. The
chain of islands commences in the north at a point
within one hundred miles of Formosa and terminates
with the Sulu Group, lying close to the northeast
coast of Borneo. The nearest land 011 the east is,
one of the Pelew Islands, in the possession of Ger-
many, five hundred and ten miles distant, and on the
west, Cochin China, distant five hundred and fifteen
miles.

2 (17)



18



THE PHILIPPINES.



The most recent official enumeration gives a total
of 3,141 islands to the Archipelago. Three-fourths
of that number have areas of less than a square mile
each; one-half are unnamed; and by far the majority
are uninhabited. The aggregate area of the islands
is 115,000 square miles; that is, greater than the
combined areas of the States of New York, New
Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware.

In the broadest territorial division, the principal
islands are thus classified:

Island. Area in Sq. Miles. Population.

1. Luzon 40,969 3,798,507

2. Marinduque 352 50,001

3. Mindoro 3,851 28,361

4. Paragua, or Palawan 4,027 10,918

5. Visayan Islands.

Masbate 1,236 29,451

Sauiar 5,031 222,690

Leyte 2,722 357,641

Bohol 1,141 243,148

Cebu 1,762 592,247

Negros 4,881 460,776

Panay 4,611 743,646

6. Mindanao 36,292 499,634

7. Suhi Archipelago.

Sulu, or Jolo 326 44,718

Tawi Tawi 232 1,179



PHYSICAL FEATURES.



The prevailing physical features of the Philippines
are mountain and forest. There are several broad
valleys intersected by numerous streams, but ex-



GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 19

tensive plains and large rivers comparable with con-
tinental standards are not to be found in the islands.
The Philippines have no deserts, nor even barren
lava beds. Everywhere vegetation flourishes in ex-
uberant variety. Very little of the scenery can be
fairly termed grand, but almost everywhere it is made
beautiful by the diversity and abundance of vegeta-
tion which covers the hills and the lower slopes of
the mountains. About seventy per cent, of the entire
surface of the islands is covered with forest, including
some of the most valuable species of trees in the world.

The Archipelago is of volcanic origin, evidences
of which are everywhere to be found in extinct or
dormant volcanoes, at least ten having records of
activity.

To such an extent are the shores of the islands
indented that, although their area is but one twenty-
sixth that of the mainland of the United States, the
coast line of the latter is less than half that of the
Philippine Islands. Such a formation would gen-
erally indicate the presence of a great number of har-
bors, but as a matter of fact there are comparatively
few of present commercial utility. Shoals and reefs ;
the absence of lights and channel buoys; and the
lack of reliable charts render many deep water anchor-
ages impracticable for vessels of heavy burthen.
Most of the anchorages are only available during a
portion of the year owing to the alternating character
of the winds. From June to October the wind sets



20 THE PHILIPPINES.

in from the southwest, and during the remainder of
the year the northwest monsoons prevail. There are,
however, some exceptionally good harbors, that of
Manila, upon which extensive improvements are rap-
idly progressing toward completion, being one of
the very best in the Orient. With the exception of
Bohol, each of the principal islands has at least one
harbor capable of accommodating vessels of the great-
est draft.

There are but three rivers attaining a length of two
hundred miles, namely, the Rio Grande de Cagayan,
of Luzon, and the Rio Grande and Agusan, of Min-
danao. Aside from these, and the Pampanga, the
Agno and the Abra, all of Luzon, there are no rivers
in the islands exceeding a length of one hundred
miles. However, economic importance cannot al-
ways be gauged by figures. The Pasig, one of the
shortest rivers in the country, carries the greatest
commerce. It may be mentioned here as a curious
fact, that the Lanao, of Negros, although only nine
miles in total length, has a width of one thousand
feet and is twenty feet deep.

LUZON.

Luzon is the chief island of the Archipelago, and
has contained the seat of government since the time
of Legaspi. It is paramount in the matters of area,
population and development. Its greatest length
from northwest to southeast is four hundred and



LUZON. 21

eighty-nine miles, and its utmost breadth one hun-
dred and thirty-eight miles. Its principal mountain
range is the Sierra Madre, which, commencing in
the extreme northeast corner of the island, follows
an unbroken course of three hundred and fifty miles
along the eastern coast to the Laguna de Bay. The
general elevation of the Sierra Madre is from 3,500
to 4,500 feet, the latter figures being exceeded by a
few summits. This range forms the eastern bound-
ary of the great valley of the Cagayan, one of the
two large and fertile stretches of comparative level
on the island. Its length is one hundred and sixty
miles and its breadth fifty miles. On the west the
valley is bounded by the conglomeration of elevations
and short mountain ranges styled the Caraballos Oc-
cidentales, covering an area two hundred miles in
length by seventy miles in breadth. This complex
system embraces several peaks exceeding 6,000 feet
in altitude. At the south, as at the north, a sub-
sidiary range effects a junction between the Cara-
ballos Occidentals and the Sierra Madre, so that
these two mountain systems convert the northern part
of Luzon into a basin of which they form the sides.

The Zambales range extends the length of the prov-
ince of that name, closely following the coast. It in-
cludes many summits higher than 5,000 feet, and for
a considerable distance maintains an average elevation
of 4,000 feet. Extending fifty miles eastward from
this range and southward to the distance of one hun-



22 THE PHILIPPINES.

dred and fifty miles from Lingayen Gulf, is a great,
flat depression traversed by the rivers Pampanga,
Agno and Pasig, and by innumerable small streams.
A great deal of the land is alluvial soil. The valley
is extremely fertile, and supports 1,750,000 souls,
being about two-fifths of the population of the entire
island. At the southern end of this valley is Laguna
de Bay, a large, shallow body of water at no point
more than twenty feet in depth. It is the source of
the Pasig, at the mouth of which stands Manila. The
shores of Laguna de Bay are thickly settled. A very
large traffic is carried on amongst the towns and vil-
lages along its littoral and between them and Manila.
Southern Luzon has no defined mountain system,
but grouped summits and isolated volcanic peaks are
scattered over its surface.

TAAL LAKE AND VOLCANO.

Laguna de Bombon, or Lake Taal, is one of the
most curious natural formations in the w r orld. It is
an immense crater, seventeen miles long by twelve
miles in breadth, surrounded, except upon the south-
ern end, by a clearly defined rim several hundred
feet in height, towards which the neighboring coun-
try gradually slopes. Upon the edge of the lake
are several elevations of volcanic character, and from
an island in the center rises, to a height of one thou-
sand feet, an active volcano, several eruptions of
which have been recorded. Different theories have



TAAL LAKE AND VOLCANO. 23

been advanced by scientific observers to account for
the phenomenon of Lake Bombon. Father Zuniga
expressed the opinion that the lake originated from
the collapse of a volcanic cone. Doctor Becker at-
tributes the present formation to the combined action
of eruptions and cataclysms, and concludes that the
peak "Taal itself is the small inner cone of a great
crater of explosion." Mr. II. D. Caskey, B. S.,
says : "My own notes and observations in these prov-
inces tend to the belief that Taal was unquestionably,
at a prehistoric period, very high and of tremendous
activity ; that it stood partly surrounded, if not
wholly, by a stretch of the sea extending from the
Gulf of Batangas to the Lingayen Gulf; that during
its activity large quantities of volcanic ejecta fell into
this island sea, forming the more or less stratified de-
posits of tuff now furnishing much of the rich soil
of the provinces of Batangas, La Laguna, Cavite,
Rizal, and Bulacan ; that an explosion, or a series of
them, blew out the entire upper cone, leaving the rim
of the present boundaries of the Lake Taal; and
that subsequently minor cones were formed and this
region was gradually raised to its present level."
During historic times this volcano has undergone the
most remarkable changes and new craters have been
formed on three or four occasions. Of the several
recorded eruptions of Taal, that of 1754 is the most
notable. The following is from the account of Father
Buenuchillo, the parish priest of Taal at the time :



24 THE PHILIPPINES.



THE STOEY OF AN ERUPTION.

"It began on May 13th and did not end till the 1st
of December. During this time the intensity and
aspect of the eruption were constantly changing. It
was two hundred days of devastation and ruin for
the inhabitants, to whom the time must have ap-
peared an eternity. During this time the principal
towns of the Laguna of Bombon disappeared, viz.,
Sala, Lipa, Tanuan, and Taal, with the numerous
villages around them. Other towns of the same prov-
ince at a distance, as well as towns of the neighbor-
ing provinces of Balayan, Batangas, and Bauan, also
suffered great damage. Rosario, Santo Tomas, and
San Pablo also felt the effect of the rain of ashes
and scoriae, as also did almost all the provinces below
the center of Luzon. The quantity of ashes and sco-
riae which was sent up by the volcano was so great
that a large quantity of pumice stone appeared on
the surface of the Laguna ; and several villages
around Tanuan and others around Taal, being near
the volcano, and because the wind was east, were
totally destroyed by this rain."

The eruption continued, with greater or less in-
tensity, but continuously, till the 10th of July, when
the nature of the volcanic rain changed, as may be
gathered from the following words :

"There was not a single night throughout the whole
of this month of June till July 10th in which flames



THE STORY OF AN ERUPTION. 25

were wanting on the volcano, or in which there were
not rumbling noises. This went on till July 10th,
when it rained mud over the town of Taal, and the
mud was of so black a character that ink would not
have stained so blackly, and when the wind changed
the mud covered a village called Balele, which is
near Sala, which village was the most fertile of the
whole district. The volcano continued to throw out,
with more or less intensity, flames and black smoke
during July and August and part of September, till,
on the 25th of this last month, it appeared as if the
volcano wished to parade all its forces against us,
because on that date, to the horrible rumblings and
the tremendous flames, was joined a tempest which
originated in the cloud of smoke. The lightnings
which accompanied the storm continued without in-
terruption till December 4th. It is truly marvelous
that the cloud lasted for more than two months. Over
and above this, there was from the same 25th of
September till the morning of the 26th such a copious
rain of pumice stones that we were obliged to abandon
our homes for fear the stones would break through
the roof, as indeed happened in some houses. We
were thus compelled to flee through this hail of stones,
and some were wounded by the stones falling on their
heads. During that one night the ground was cov-
ered with scorise and ashes to the depth of a foot and
a half, thus destroying and drying up the trees and
plants as if a fire had passed over them.



26 THE PHILIPPINES.

"The activity of the volcano continued with short
intervals of quiet during the months of October and
November. On the evening of the feast of All Saints
the volcano again began to vomit forth fire, stones,
sand, mud, and ashes in a greater quantity than ever.
This went on till November 15th, on which date, after
vespers, there commenced a succession of rumblings
so loud as to deafen one, and the volcano began to
vomit forth smoke so dense and black as to darken
the atmosphere, and at the same time such a quan-
tity of large stones fell into the lake as to cause big
waves ; the earth trembled, the houses shook, and yet
this was but the preparation for a fresh rain of
scoriae and ashes which lasted the whole of the after-
noon and part of the night.

"Notwithstanding the disaster that had overtaken
us, I still remained in the said town, together with
the chief justice of the province, till on the night of
the 27th (November) the volcano began once again to
vomit such a quantity of flames that it seemed as if all
that had been erupted during the preceding months to-
gether did not equal that which was thrown forth
during that hour.

"Every moment the violence of the volcano in-
creased so that the whole of the island (that is, the
island in the lake) was covered with fire. This in-
creasing volcanic activity, accompanied, as it was,
by frightful subterranean rumblings and earthquakes,



THE STORY OF AN ERUPTION. 27

caused the unfortunate inhabitants to abandon their
town and at any risk to gain the heights which rise
between it and Santuario de Caysasay.

"Thus passed the 28th, but on the morning of the
29th smoke was observed rising in various points
of the island from Calauit to the crater in a straight
line, just as if a fissure had been opened all along
the line. BetAveen 4 and 6 o'clock of the same even-
ing the horizon darkened, leaving us in complete
darkness, and at the same time it began to rain mud,
ashes, and sand, and although not in such quantities
as before, yet it kept on without interruption the
whole of that night and the morning of the 30th.

"The rain of mud ceased somewhat at 4: o'clock in
the afternoon. It then measured a meter in depth
in Santuario de Caysasay, which is distant about
four leagues from the volcano. In some places near
the island the depth of the mud, etc., reached more
than three yards. The rain of ashes completely ceased
on the 1st of December, and then a hurricane, which
lasted two days, came to put the finishing touches to
so many disasters by tearing up the little that had
been left standing."

The simple and pathetic narrative of this priest is
one of several similar stories extant of the eruptions
of this and other volcanoes; indeed this was by no
means the only experience of the kind that Father
Buenuchillo survived.



28 THE PHILIPPINES.

MAYON VOLCANO.

With the exception of Taal, Mayon, on the east
coast of the province of Albay, is the most notable
volcano for its activity in the Archipelago. It rises
to a height of 7,916 feet in an almost perfect cone
with a slightly truncated apex, from which it con-
stantly emits smoke and steam. Doctor Becker says :
"It is possibly the most symmetrically beautiful vol-
canic cone in the world, and at times its crater is al-
most infinitesimal, so that the meridional curve of
the cone is continuous almost to the axis." Mayon
has been in eruption on countless occasions since the
discovery of the islands. Father Coronas records
nearly thirty eruptions between the years 1616 and
1897. Some of these were very serious in their con-
sequences. In 1814 about twelve hundred lives were
lost, and in many instances the towns at the base of
the volcano have suffered severely. This has not de-
terred the natives from repopulating the same spots.
At the present time sites on the southern base of
Mayon are occupied by Legaspi, Albay, and Daraga.
At the time of the Spanish conquest one of the most
numerous communities was settled in the vicinity of
Taal, and the district has always been notably popu-
lous.

Earthquakes are frequent, and have often been
very destructive, notably that of December, 1645,
which laid Manila in ruins. One of the most re-



RIVERS OF LUZON. 29

markable seismic disturbances of record began in
Nueva Vizcaya on the 3d day of January, 1881.
During that month, May, July, August, and Septem-
ber the shocks were almost incessant, some of the
waves extending over the entire island of Luzon.
Father Maso, the Assistant Director of the Philippine
Weather Bureau, remarks, with the satisfaction of
the scientist, that "Manila is most advantageously
situated for experiencing almost all the shocks radiat-
ing from the different centers of Luzon." In a long
course of years the average of seismic disturbances
at Manila has been one a month. In the great ma-
jority of instances they have been hardly noticeable
shocks. Since the sixteenth century the capital has
been visited by thirty-two violent earthquakes. The
last destructive shock was in July, 1880, when the
city was considerably damaged.

The northern islands of the Archipelago are sub-
ject to violent cyclones which do immense injury to
standing crops and buildings. The destructive ef-
fects of these natural visitations are decreasing as
the people learn to adopt measures for minimizing
them, and, as in our western States, Nature compen-
sates for occasional turbulence by her serenity and
bounteousness at other times.

RIVERS OF LUZON.

Luzon has three rivers which greatly surpass all
others of the island in drainage basin, length, and



30 THE PHILIPPINES.

navigability ; these are the Cagayan, the Agno, and the
Pampanga.

The Cagayan, popularly called El Tajo (the in-
cision), drains one-fourth of the entire island. Ris-
ing in Caraballos Sur, at the southern boundary of
Isabela Province, it follows a northward course to
its mouth at Aparri, distant upwards of two hundred
miles from its source. It is navigable for native
boats as far as one hundred and sixty miles from the
sea, and rafts may travel to within twenty miles of
its headwaters. Like most of the rivers of the Phil-
ippines, it forms a bar at its mouth which is a serious
obstruction to traffic. Vessels which are excluded by
these impediments would often find beyond them
ample water to carry them far up stream. The Ca-
gayan carries the entire produce, consisting largely
of tobacco, of the provinces of Isabela and Cagayan
to the port of Aparri. This very extensive and im-
portant traffic is fed by the contributions of the
two principal tributaries of the river, which are
navigable, one for twenty miles and the other for
forty miles from the points of juncture.

The Agno rises in the mountains of Benguet Prov-
ince. It flows through the northern portion of the
great central valley of Luzon and reaches the Gulf of
Lingayen through several mouths at important com-
mercial points, carrying a considerable burden of
produce.

The Pampanga, which is second in size to the



RIVERS OF LUZON. 31

Cagayan, has its source in the same mountain range
as the latter, and pursuing an opposite course, along



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