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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

SANTA BARBARA

COLLEGE

PRESENTED BY

William E. Roberts






''.







TEE CHICAGO MANUAL TUAINING SCHOOL.



MANUAL TRAINING



THE



SOLUTION OF SOCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS



BY CHARLES H. HAM



NEW YORK
HARPER & BROTHERS, FRANKLIN SQUARE

1886



Copyright, 1886, by HASPER & BROTHERS.



All rij/Mi reiemd.



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
SANTA BARBARA COLLEGE LIBRARY



69119

C ,>

PREFACE.



IN 1879 I read a paper before the Chicago Philosophi-
cal Society on the subject of " The Inventive Genius ; or,
an Epitome of Human Progress." The suggestion of the
subject came from Mr. Charles J. Barnes, to whom I desire
in this public way to express my obligation for an intro-
duction to a profoundly interesting study, and one which
has given a new direction to all my thoughts.

At the conclusion of my labors in the preparation of
the paper, I realized the force of Bacon's remark, that
"the real and legitimate goal of the sciences is the en-
dowment of human life with new inventions and riches."

In tracing the course- of invention and discovery, I
found that I was moving in the line of the progress of
civilization. I found that the great gulf between the
savage and the civilized man is spanned by the seven
hand-tools the axe, the saw, the plane, the hammer, the
square, the chisel, and the file and that the modern
machine-shop is an aggregation of these tools driven by
steam. I hence came to regard tools as the great civil-
izing agency of the world. With Carlyle I said, " Man
without tools is nothing; with tools he is all." From
this point it was only a step to the proposition that(It is
through the arts alone that all branches of learning find
expression, and touch human life; Then I said, The true
definition of education is the development of all the powers
of man to the culminating point of action ; and this pow-



iv PREFACE.

er in the concrete, the power to do some useful thing for
man this must be the last analysis of educational truth.

These ideas are not new. They pervade Lord Ba-
con's writings, are admirably formulated in Rousseau's
" Emile," and were restated by Mr. Herbert Spencer twen-
ty-five years ago. More than this, Comenius, Pestalozzi, and
Froebel attempted to carry them into practical operation
in the school-room, but with only a small measure of suc-
cess. It remains for the age of steel to show how pow-
erless mere words are in the presence of things, and so
to emphasize the demand for a radical reform in educa-
tional methods.

In 1880 my attention was drawn to the Manual Train-
ing Department of the "Washington University of St
Louis, Mo. In that school I found the realization of Ba-
con's aphorism, " Education is the cultivation of a just
and legitimate familiarity betwixt the mind and things."
I made an exhaustive study of the methods of the St.
Louis school, and reached the conclusion that the philos-
opher's stone in education had been discovered. The col-
umns of the Chicago Tribune were opened to me, and
I wrote constantly on the subject for the ensuing three
years. Meantime the Chicago Manual Training School
(the first independent institution of the kind in the world)
was founded and opened, and the agitation spread over
the whole country, and indeed over the whole civilized
world.

This work was commenced two years ago. I found
the labor much more arduous than I anticipated, and its
completion has hence been delayed far beyond the time
originally contemplated for placing it in the hands of a
publisher. It may be summarized briefly as consisting
of four divisions : 1. A detailed description of the vari-



PREFACE. V

ous laboratory class processes, from the first lesson to the
last, in the course of three years. 2. An exhaustive ar-
gument a posteriori and a fortiori in support of the
proposition that tool practice is highly pro motive of in-
tellectual growth, and in a still greater degree of the
upbuilding of character. 3. A sketch of the historical
period, showing that the decay of civilization and the
destruction of social organisms have resulted directly
from defects in methods of education. 4. A brief sketch
of the history of manual training as an educational force.

To Dr. John D. Runkle, of the Massachusetts Institute
of Technology, the founder of manual training as an ed-
ucational institution in this country, I cannot express
too strongly my deep obligation for valuable suggestions
and constant encouragement. To him also am I indebt-
ed for nearly all my illustrations, as also particularly for
the excellent portrait of M. Victor Delia Vos, the found-
er of the new system of education in Russia. I am also
under obligations to Col. Augustus Jacobson, a leading
advocate of the new education, for constant counsel and
support, as also to Dr. Henry II. Belfield, Director of the
Chicago Manual Training School, and Mr. John S. Clark,
of Boston.

Of the authors consulted, I cannot forbear mention of
Lord Bacon, Rousseau, and Herbert Spencer, whose great
works constitute the foundation of the new system of ed-
ucation according to nature. Nor can I omit to acknowl-
edge, with all the emphasis of which words are suscepti-
ble, my obligations to Mr. Samuel Smiles. His works*
from the lives of the engineers to the shortest of his bi-
ographies, constitute an inexhaustible treasure-house of
facts from which I have drawn without stint. Mr. Smiles
has traced the springs of English greatness to their true



vi PREFACE.

source, the workshop. I have attempted to continue his
office by showing that the workshop is a great education-
al force, and hence that its educational element ought to
be incorporated in the system of public instruction.

The propositions of the following pages involve an ed-
ucational revolution destined to enlighten, and so ulti-
mately to redeem manual labor from the scorn of the
ages of slavery, and, in the end, to render the skilled la-
borer worthy of high social distinction, thus presenting
at once a solution not only of the industrial question but
of the social question.

CHARLES H. HAM.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.
THE CHICAGO MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOL.

Its Situation on the Boulevard. Its Tall Chimney. The Whir of
Machinery and Sound of the Sledge-hammer. The School that is
to dignify Labor. The Realization of the Dream of Bacon, Rous-
seau, Comenius, Pestalozzi, and Froebel. Established by the
Commercial Club. The School that fitly represents the Age of
Steel Page 1

CHAPTER II.
THE MAJESTY OF TOOLS.

Tools the highest Text -books How to Use them the Test of
Scholarship They are the Gauge of Civilization Carlyle's Apos-
trophe to them. The Typical Hand-tools The Automata of the
Machine-shop. Through Tools Science and Art are United. The
Power of Tools Their Educational Value. Without Tools Man
is Nothing ; with Tools he is All. It is through the Arts alone
that Education touches Human Life 7

CHAPTER in.
THE ENGINE-ROOM.

The Corliss Engine A Thing of Grace and Power The Growth
of Two Thousand Years From Hero to Watt Its Duty as a
School-master. The Interdependence of the Ages. The School
in Epitome 14

CHAPTER IV.
THE DRAWING-ROOM.

Twenty-four Boys bending over the Drawing-board. Analysis and
Synthesis in Drawing. Geometric Drawing. Pictorial Drawing.
The Principles of Design. The ^Esthetic in Art. The Funda-



viii CONTENTS.

mentals Object and Constructive Drawing. Drawing for the
Exercises in the Laboratories. The Educational Value of Draw-
ing The Language of Djawing. Every Student an expert
Draughtsman at the end of the Course Page 16

CHAPTER V.
THE CARPENTER'S LABORATORY.

The Natural History of the Pine-tree How it is Converted into
Lumber, what it is Worth, and how it is Consumed. Where the
Students get Information. Working Drawings of the Lesson.
Asking Questions. The Instructor Executes the Lesson. Instruc-
tion in the Use and Care of Tools. Twenty-four Boys Making
Things As Busy as Bees. The Music of the Laboratory. The
Self-reliance of the Students 21

CHAPTER VI.
THE WOOD-TURNING LABORATORY.

A Radical Change From the Square to the Circle ; from Angles
to Spherical, Cylindrical, and Eccentric Forms. The Rhythm of
Mechanics. The Potter's Wheel of the Ancients and the Turning-
lathe The Speculation of Holtzapffels on its Origin. The Greeks
as Turners. The Turners of the Middle Ages. George III. at the
Lathe. Maudslay's Slide-rest, and the Revolution it wrought.
The Natural History of Black - walnut. The Practical Value of
Imagination Disraeli's Tribute to it; Sir Robert Peel's Want of
it. The Laboratory animated by Steam. The Boys at the Lathes
Their Manly Bearing. The Lesson 30

CHAPTER VII.
THE FOUNDING LABORATORY.

The Iron Age. Iron the King of Metals. Locke's Apothegm. The
Moulder's Art is Fundamental. History of Founding. Remains
of Bronze Castings in Egypt, Greece, and Assyria. Layard's Dis-
coveries. The Greek Sculptors. The Colossal Statue of Apollo
at Rhodes. The Great Bells of History. Moulding and Casting
a Pulley. Description of the Process, Step by Step. The Furnace
Fire. Pouring the Hot Metal into the Moulds. A Pen Picture of
the Laboratory. Thus were the Hundred Gates of Babylon cast.
Neglect of the Practical Arts by Herodotus. How Slavery has
degraded Labor. How Manual Training is to dignify it 45



CONTENTS. ix

CHAPTER VIII.
THE FORGING LABORATORY.

Twenty-four manly-looking Boys with Sledge-hammer in Hand
their Muscle and Brawn. The Pride of Conscious Strength.
The Story of the Origin of an Empire. The Greater Empire of
Mechanics. The Smelter and the Smith the Bulwark of the Brit-
ish Government. Coal its Modern Aspects; its Early History;
Superstition regarding its Use. Dud. Dudley utilizes "Pit-coal"
for Smelting the Story of his Struggles ; his Imprisonment and
Death. The English People import their Pots and Kettles. " The
Blast is on and the Forge Fire sings." The Lesson, first on the
Black-board, then in Red-hot Iron on the Anvil. Striking out the
Anvil Chorus the Sparks fly whizzing through the Air. The
Mythological History of Iron. The Smith in Feudal Times His
Versatility. History of Damascus Steel. We should reverence
the early Inventors. The Useful Arts finer than the Fine Arts.
The Ancient Smelter and Smith, and the Students in the Manual
Training School Page 58

CHAPTER IX.
THE MACHINE-TOOL LABORATORY.

The Foundery and Smithy are Ancient, the Machine-tool Shop is Mod-
ern. The Giant, Steam, reduced to Servitude. The Iron Lines of
Progress They converge in the Shop ; its triumphs from the Watch-
spring to the Locomotive. The Applications of Iron in Art is the
Subject of Subjects. The Story of Invention is the History of
Civilization. The Machine-maker and the Tool-maker are the best
Friends of Man. Watt's Great Conception waited for Automatic
Tools ; their Accuracy. The Hand- made and the Machine-made
Watch. The Elgin (Illinois) Watch Factory. The Interdepen-
dence of the Arts. The Making of a Suit of Clothes. The Ante-
room of the Machine-tool Laboratory. Chipping and Filing. The
File-cutter. The Poverty of Words as compared with Things.
The Graduating Project. The Vision of the Instructor 78

CHAPTER X.
MANUAL AND MENTAL TRAINING COMBINED.

The new Education is all-sided its Effect. A Harmonious Devel-
opment of the Whole Being. Examination for Admission to the
Chicago School. List of Questions in Arithmetic, Geography, and

1*



x CONTENTS.

Language. The Curriculum. The Alternation of Manual and
Mental Exercises. The Demand for Scientific Education its
Effect. Ambition to be useful Page 105

CHAPTER XI.
THE INTELLECTUAL EFFECT OF MANUAL TRAINING.

Intelligence is the Basis of Character. The more Practical the In-
telligence the Higher the Development of Character. The use of
Tools quickens the Intellect. Making Things rouses the Attention,
sharpens the Observation, and steadies the Judgment. History
of Inventions in England, 1740-1840. Poor, Ignorant Apprentices
become learned Men. Cort, Huntsman, Mushet, Neilson, Ste-
phenson, and Watt. The Union of Books and Tools. Results at
Rotterdam, Holland; at Moscow, Russia; at Komotau, Bohemia;
and at St. Louis, Mo. The Consideration of Overwhelming Im-
port 113

CHAPTER XII.
THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN A PRIME NECESSITY.

The Difference between Ancient and Modern Systems of Education.
Plato Blinded by Half-truths. No place in the present order of
things for Dogmatisms. Education commences at Birth. The In-
fluence of Woman extends from the Cradle to the Grave. The
Crime of Crimes Neglect to educate Woman. The Superiority
of Women over Men as Teachers Froebel discovered it. Nature
designed Woman to Teach ; hence the Importance of Fitting her
for her Highest Destiny 123

CHAPTER XIII.
THE MORAL EFFECT OF MANUAL TRAINING.

Mental Impulses are often Vicious ; but the Exertion of Physical
Power in the Arts is always Beneficent hence Manual Training
tends to correct vicious mental Impulses. Every mental Impres-
sion produces a moral Effect. All Training is Moral as well as
Mental. Selfishness is total Depravity; but Selfishness has been
Deified under the name of Prudence. Napoleon an Example of
Selfishness. The End of Selfishness is Disaster; but Prevailing
Systems of Education promote Selfishness. The Modern City an
Illustration of Selfishness. The Ancient City. Existing Systems
of Education Negatively Wrong. Manual Training supplies the
lacking Element. The Objective must take the Place of the Sub-
jective in Education. Words without Acts are as dead as Faith
without Works . . .130



CONTENTS. xi

CHAPTER XIY.
THE MIND AND THE HAND.

The Mind and the Hand are Allies ; the Mind speculates, the Hand
tests its Speculations in Things. The Hand explodes the Errors of
the Mind it searches after Truth and finds it in Things. Mental
Errors are subtile; they elude us, but the False in Things stands self-
exposed. The Hand is the Mind's Moral Rudder. The Organ of
Touch the most Wonderful of the Senses; all the Others are Pas-
sive; it alone is Active. Sir Charles Bell's Discovery of a "Muscular
Sense." Dr. Henry Maudsley on the Muscular Sense. The Hand
influences the Brain. Connected Thought impossible without Lan-
guage, and Language dependent upon Objects; and all Artificial
Objects are the Work of the Hand. Progress is therefore the Im-
print of the Hand upon Matter in Art. The Hand is nearer the
Brain than are the Eye and the Ear. The Marvellous Works of
the Hand Page 144

CHAPTER XV.
THE POWER OF THE TRAINED HAND.

The Legend of Adam and the Stick with which he subdued the Ani-
mals. The Stick is the Symbol of Power, and only the Hand can
wield it. The Hand imprisons Steam and Electricity, and keeps
them at hard Labor. The Destitution of England Two Hundred
and Fifty Years ago: a Pen Picture. The Transformation wrought
by the Hand: a Pen Picture. It is due, not to Men who make
Laws, but to Men who make Things. The Scientist and the In-
ventor are the World's Benefactors. A Parallel between the Right
Honorable William E. Gladstone and Sir Henry Bessemer. Mr.
Gladstone a Man of Ideas, Mr. Bessemer a Man of Deeds. The
Value of the latter's Inventions. Mr. Gladstone represents the Old
Education, Mr. Bessemer the New 157

CHAPTER XVI.

THE INVENTORS, CIVIL ENGINEERS, AND MECHANICS
OF ENGLAND, AND ENGLISH PROGRESS.

A Trade is better than a Profession. The Railway, Telegraph, and
Steamship are more Potent than the Lawyer, Doctor, and Priest.
Book-makers writing the Lives of the Inventors of last Century.
The Workshop to be the Scene of the Greatest Triumphs of Man.
The Civil Engineers of England the Heroes of English Progress.



xii CONTENTS.

The Life of James Brindley, the Canal-maker; his Struggles and
Poverty. The Roll of Honor. Mr. Gladstone's Significant Admis-
sion that English Triumphs in Science and Art were won without
Government Aid. Disregarding the Common-sense of the Savage,
Legislators have chosen to learn of Plato, who declared that "The
Useful Arts are Degrading. " How Improvements in the Arts have
been met by Ignorant Opposition. The Power wielded by the
Mechanic Page 170

CHAPTER XVII.
POWER OF STEAM AND CONTEMPT OF ARTISANS.

A few Million People now wield twice as much Industrial Power as
all the People on the Globe exerted a Hundred Years ago. A
Revolution wrought, not by the Schools and Colleges, but by the
Mechanic. The Union between Science and Art prevented by the
Speculative Philosophy of the Middle Ages. Statesmen, Lawyers,
Litterateurs, Poets, and Artists more highly esteemed than Civil
Engineers, Mechanics, and Artisans. The Refugee Artisan a Pow-
er in England, the Refugee Politician worthless. Prejudice against
the Artisan Class shown by Mr. Galton in his Work on " Hereditary
Genius." The Influence of Slavery: it has lasted Thousands of
Years, and still Survives 184

CHAPTER XVIII.

AUTOMATIC CONTRASTED WITH SCIENTIFIC
EDUCATION.

The Past tyrannizes over the Present by Interposing the Stolid Re-
sistance of Habit. Habits of Thought like Habits of the Body
become Automatic. There is much Freedom of Speech but very
little Freedom of Thought : Habit, Tradition, and Reverence for
Antiquity forbid it. The Schools educate Automatically. A glar-
ing Defect of the Schools shown by Mr. John S. Clark, of Boston.
The Automatic Character of the Popular System of Education
shown by the Quincy (Mass.) Experiment. Several Intelligent
Opinions to the same Effect. The Public Schools as an Industrial
Agency a Failure. A Conclusive Evidence of the Automatic
and Superficial Character of prevailing Methods of Education in
the Schools of a large City. The Views of Colonel Francis W.
Parker. Scientific Education is found in the Kindergarten and
the Manual Training School. "The Cultivation of Familiarity
betwixt the Mind and Things." Colonel Augustus Jacobson on
the Effect of the New Education. . . 191



CONTENTS. xiii



CHAPTER XIX.

AUTOMATIC CONTRASTED WITH SCIENTIFIC EDU-
CATION Continued.

The Failure of Education in America shown by Statistics of Rail-
way and Mercantile Disasters. Shrinkage of Railway Values
and Failures of Merchants. Only Three Per Cent, of those en-
tering Mercantile Life achieve Success. Business Enterprises
conducted by Guess : Cause, Unscientific Education. Savage
Training is better because Objective. Mr. Foley, late of the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, on the Scientific Character
of Manual Education Prof. Goss, of Purdue University, to the
same Effect also Dr. Belfield, of the Chicago Manual Training
School. Students love the Laboratory Exercises. Demoralizing
Effect of Unscientific Training. The Failure of Justice and Leg-
islation as contrasted with the Success of Civil Engineering and
Architecture Page 210



CHAPTER XX.

AUTOMATIC CONTRASTED WITH SCIENTIFIC EDU-
CATION Continued.

The Training of the Merchant, the Lawyer, the Judge, and the Leg-
islator contrasted with that of the Artisan. The Training of the
Merchant makes him Selfish, and Selfishness breeds Dishonesty.
Professional Men become Speculative Philosophers, and test their
Speculations by Consciousness. The Artisan forgets Self in the
Study of Things. The Search after Truth. the Story of Palissy.
The Hero is the Normal Man ; those who Marvel at his Acts are
abnormally Developed. Savonarola and John Brown. The New
England System of Education contrasted with that of the South.
American Statesmanship its Failure in an Educational Point of
View. Why the State Provides for Education ; to protect Prop-
erty. The British Government and the Land Question. The Thor-
oughness of the Training given by Schools of Mechanic Art and In-
stitutes of Technology as shown in Things. Story of the Emperor
of Germany and the Needle-maker. The Iron Bridge lasts a Cen-
tury, the Act of the Legislator wears out in a Year. The Cause
of the Failures of Justice and Legislation. The best Law is the
Act that Repeals a Law; but the Act of the Inventor is never Re-
pealed. Things the Source and Issue of Ideas; hence the Neces-
sity of Training in the Arts 229



xiv CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXI.
EDUCATION AND THE SOCIAL PROBLEM HISTORIC.

EGYPT AND GREECE.

Fundamental Propositions. Selfishness the Source of Social Evil ;
Subjective Education the Source of Selfishness and the Cause of
Contempt of Labor; and Social Disintegration the Result of Con-
tempt of Labor and the Useful Arts. The First Class-distinction
the Strongest Man ruled ; his First Rival, the Ingenious Man.
Superstition. The Castes of India and Egypt how came they
about ? Egyptian Education based on Selfishness. Rise of Egypt
her Career ; her Fall ; Analysis thereof. She Typifies all the
Early Nations : Force and Rapacity above, Chains and Slavery
below. Their Education consisted of Selfish Maxims for the Gov-
ernment of the Many by the Few, and Government meant the Ap-
propriation of the Products of Labor. Analysis of Greek Charac-
ter its Savage Characteristics. Greek Treachery and Cruelty.
Greek Venality. Her Orators accepted Bribes. Responsibility of
Greek Education and Philosophy for the Ruin of Greek Civiliza-
tion. Rectitude wholly left out of her Scheme of Education.
Plato's Contempt of Matter : it led to Contempt of Man and all
his Works. Greek Education consisted of Rhetoric and Logic ; all
Useful Things were hence held in Contempt Page 247

CHAPTER XXII.
EDUCATION AND THE SOCIAL PROBLEM HISTORIC.

ROME.

Vigor of the Early Romans their Virtues and Vices ; their Rigorous
Laws ; their Defective Education ; their Contempt of Labor. Slav-
ery : its Horrors and Brutalizing Influence. Education Confined
to the Arts of Politics and War ; it transformed Courage into
Cruelty, and Fortitude into Stoicism. Robbery and Bribery. The
Vices of Greece and Carthage imported into Rome. Slaves con-
struct all the great Public Works ; they Revolt, and the Legions
Slaughter them. The Gothic Invasion. Rome Falls. False Phi-
losophy and Superficial Education promoted Selfishness. Deifica-
tion of Abstractions, and Scorn of Men and Things. Universal
Moral Degradation. Neglect of Honest Men and Promotion of
Demagogues. The Decline of Morals and Growth of Literature.
Darwin's Law of Reversion, through Selfishness, to Savagery.
Contest between the Rich and the Poor. Logic, Rhetoric, and
Ruin.. . 259



CONTENTS. xv

CHAPTER XXIH.
EDUCATION AND THE SOCIAL PROBLEM HISTORIC.

THE MIDDLE AGES.

The Trinity upon which Civilization Rests: Justice, the Arts and
Labor; and these Depend upon Scientific Education. Reason of
the Failure of Theodoric and Charlemagne to Reconstruct the
Pagan Civilization. Contempt of Man. Serfdom. The Vices of
the Time: False Philosophy, an Odious Social Caste, and Igno-
rance. The Splendid Career of the Moors in Spain, in Contrast.
Effect upon Spain of the Expulsion of the Moors. The Repressive
Force of Authority and the Atrocious Philosophy of Contempt of
Man. The Rule of Italy a Menace and a Sneer. The work of
Regeneration. The Crusades. The Destruction of Feudalism.
The Invention of Printing. The Discovery of America. Investi-
gation. Discoveries in Science and Art Page 274

CHAPTER XXIV.
EDUCATION AND THE SOCIAL PROBLEM HISTORIC.

EUROPE.

The Standing Army a Legacy of Evil from the Middle Ages. It is
the Controlling Feature of the European Situation. Its Collateral
Evils: Wars and Debts. The Debts of Europe Represent a Series
of Colossal Crimes against the People ; with the Armies and Na-
vies they Absorb the Bulk of the Annual Revenue. The People
Fleeing from them. They Threaten Bankruptcy ; they Prevent
Education. Germany, the best-educated Nation in Europe, losing
most by Emigration. Her People will not Endure the Standing
Army. The Folly of the European International Policy of Hate.
It is Possible for Europe to Restore to Productive Employ-
ments 3,000,000 of men, to place at the Disposal of her Educators
$700,000,000, instead of $70,000,000 per annum, and to pay her
National Debts in Fifty-four Years, simply by the Disbandment
of her Armies and Navies. The Armament of Europe Stands in
the Way of Universal Education and of Universal Industrial Pros-
perity. Standing Armies the Last Analysis of Selfishness ; they
are Coeval with the Revival during the Middle Ages of the Greco-
Roman Subjective Methods of Education. They must go out
when the New Education comes in 285



xvi CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXV.
EDUCATION AND THE SOCIAL PROBLEM HISTORIC.

AMERICA.

An Old Civilization in a New Country. Old Methods in a New Sys-
tem of Schools. Sordid Views of Education. The highest Aim
Money-getting. Herbert Spencer on the English Schools. Same



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