cunning) in the schools. All pupils in Danish and Swed-
ish school's make things.
In Germany, Dr. Erasmus Schwab published in Vien-
na, in 1873, a book, " The Work School in the Common
School." Bittmeister Claussen Von Kaas, of Denmark,
travelled through Germany and delivered lectures on
manual training, and now there is a considerable agita-
tion of the subject.
In Finland all the country schools are slojd schools.
In 1881 the Legislature of Norway appropriated $1250
for the support of slojd in the schools.
In France a law (1882) makes manual training obliga-
tory, and a school for training teachers " Secole Normale
Superieure de travail Manuel " in which there are about
fifty students. Prof. G. Solicis is the chief supporter of
manual training in France.
In Sweden, in 1876, there were eighty slojd schools.
In 1877 the number had increased to one hundred ; in
1878, to one hundred and thirty ; in 1879, to two hun-
dred ; in 1880, to three hundred ; in 1881, to four hun-
dred ; and in 1882, to five hundred.
HISTORY OF THE MANUAL ELEMENT IN EDUCATION. 363
In Naas, in Sweden, there is a seminary for the train-
ing of slojd teachers.* Of this seminary Otto Salomon is
director. In the slojd schools small articles are made for
use in the house, kitchen, on the farm, etc. The course
of instruction embraces one hundred models. The mate-
rials for the first series of twenty-five models cost about
40 cents ; for the second series of twenty-five the cost is
75 cents ; and for the third series of fifty the cost is $3.25.
The annual expense of the manual training in a Swedish
country school is about ten to eleven dollars.
The technical and mechanic art or trade schools of
Europe, generally, whether public or private, do not
come within the scope of this work, since their purpose
is industrial, not educational.
* "Four young women have graduated from the Slojd Teacher's
Seminary at Naa"s, Sweden, and two of them are now engaged in
teaching manual arts." Letter from John M. Ordway, A.M., Chair
of Applied Chemistry and Biology, and Director of Manual Training,
Tulane University of Louisiana.
Abstract ideas regarded as of more vital importance than things, 185.
Adam, legend of, and the stick, 157.
Adams, Charles Francis, Jr., arraigns the schools of Massachusetts for au-
tomatism, 201 ; declares that, in the public schools, children are re-
garded as automatons, etc., 205.
Adler, Prof. Felix, declaration of [in note], that manual training promotes
rectitude, 142; unique educational enterprise of, in New York City,
336 ; extracts from report of, as to purposes of the " model school," 338,
Age of force, the, is passing away, 299.
Age of science and art, the, has begun, 299.
Agricola, noted for the practice of the most austere virtue, 270 ; after great
services, was retired, 270.
Agriculture, nearly pejishes in the Middle Ages prevalence of famines, 277.
Agricultural colleges, manual training in twelve, of the State, 335.
Alabama, Agricultural and Mechanical College of, adopts manual train-
Alcibiades kept riot his patriotism when he was being wronged, 255.
Alison, his theory of the cause of the decline of Rome, 63.
Altruism, stability of government depends upon, 135.
America, discovery of, the crowning aot of man's emancipation from the
gloom of the Dark Ages, 282 ; gives wings to hope, 283 ; startles the
people of Europe from the deep sleep of a thousand years, 283 ; a
great blow to prevailing dogmatisms, 301 ; completes the figure of the
earth, rendering it susceptible of intelligent study, 301.
America, early immigration to, consisted of Puritans and Cavaliers, Germans,
Frenchmen, and Irishmen, 302 ; destined to become the home of an old
civilization, 302 ; the manner in which the colonists of treated the natives,
showed the Roman taint of savagery, 302 ; European social abuses ex-
aggerated in, 317 ; the eyes of mankind rest upon, alone, with hope, 317.
Americans, are transplanted Europeans controlled by European mental and
moral habitudes, 317 ; will not vote away their right to vote, 318, 319.
Anaxagoras, his characterization of man as the wisest of animals because
he has hands, 152.
Ancients, reverence due them for their art triumphs, 73 ; temples of, re-
mained long as instructors of succeeding generations, 73 ; educational
theory of, contrasted with that of moderns, 123 ; ignorance of, on the
subject of physiology, 153 ; speculative philosophy the only resource of,
153 ; slow growth of, in morals, due to the fact of their neglect of the
education of woman, 360 ; contempt of, for children, 361.
Anossoff, a Russian general, experiments of, in the effort to produce Da-
mascus steel, 72.
Antwerp, Flemish silk- weavers of, flee to England upon the sacking of, 34.
Apollo, bronze statue of, at Rhodes, 47.
Apprentice system, the, gives skilled mechanics to England, 181.
Apprentices better educated than the graduates of schools and colleges,
Architecture, limit of, attained in Greece and Rome, 73.
Aristocracy, alliance of, with the kings, 286.
Arithmetic, automatism in teaching it in the schools of the United States,
as shown by the Walton report, 197; Colonel Parker's declaration in re-
gard to the defective methods of instruction in, 206, 207.
Arnold, John, inventor of the chronometer, 86 ; his ingenious watch, of the
size of twopence and weight of sixpence, 86.
Art, its cosmopolitan character, 12; the product of a sequential series of
steps, 73 ; the preservation of a record of each step essential to prog-
ress, 73 ; printing makes every invention in, the heritage of all the
ages, 282 ; triumphs due to the laborer, 290 ; ignored in educational
Artisan, the, embodies the discoveries of science in things, 13 ; is more de-
serving of veneration than the artist, 74 ; regarded with disdain bj
statesmen, lawyers, litterateurs, poets, and artists, 185; education of,
is more scientific than that of merchants, lawyers, judges, and legisla-
tors, 227; training of, is objective, relates to things, 231; intuitively
shrinks from the false, and struggles to find the truth, 231 ; always in
the advance, 242.
Artists more highly esteemed than civil engineers, machinists, and artisans,
Arts, the fine, not so fine as the useful, 74 ; can exist legitimately only as
the natural outgrowth of the useful arts, 275.
Arts, the useful, finer than the so-called fine arts their processes more in-
tricate, 74 ; no limit to their development except the exhaustion of the
forces of nature, 74 ; neglect of, by all the governments of the world
is amazing, 176 ; Plato's contempt of, 176 ; no instruction in given in
the public schools, 181; slavery's brand of shame still upon, 190; no
such failure of the, as there is of justice, 227 ; the true measure of civili-
zation, 247 ; depend upon labor, 274 ; precede the fine arts, 275 ; unknown
in the Middle Ages, 277 ; stagnation in, is the death of civilization, 279.
Athenians declared that the Spartans were taught to steal, and the Spar-
tans retorted that the best Athenians were invariably thieves, 255.
Atkinson, Edward, declares that the perfection of our almost automatic
mechanism is achieved at the cost not only of the manual but of the
mental development of our men, 201.
Aurelius, Marcus, sublime moral teachings of, 138.
Austria, Emperor of, has a suit of clothes made from the fleece in, eleven
hours, 87 ; increases her debt each year, 292.
Authority, in the Middle Ages, chilled courage, 280.
Automata, of the ancients hint of modern automatic tools in, 8 ; of the
moderns, triumphs of mechanical genius, 86.
Automatism, of mind and body, 191; of mind promoted by the environ-
ment of modern life, 192; promotion of, by the schools, 193; in the
schools of Norfolk County, Mass., as shown by the Walton report, 196 ;
as shown, in the Walton report in grammar, in arithmetic, in reading,
in penmanship, in spelling, and in composition, 197, 198, 199 ; a final
and conclusive test of the prevalence of, in the schools, 204.
Babylon, the hundred brazen gates of, 55 ; influence of ideas of, in full force
in the United States down to the time of the emancipation proclamation
of President Lincoln, 190.
Bacon, Lord, the school he wished for, 2 ; his aphorism, 4 ; his apothegm
on the sciences, 13; condemns the old system of education, 126; his
opinion of the universities, 127 ; his proposal that a college be estab-
lished for the discovery of new truth, 185 ; his proposal to bring the
mind into accord with things, 245 ; foresees the kindergarten and the
manual training school, 245 ; celebrated aphorism of, has had but little
influence upon the methods of our public schools, 319.
Bacon, Roger, his daring prediction of mechanical wonders to be accom-
Ballot, power of, in the United States, 318.
Baltimore, Md., manual training in, 336.
Bamberger, Mr. G., Principal of the Workingman's School, New York City
extracts from report of, on purposes of the school, 337, 338.
Barnesville, 0., manual training in, 336.
Belfield,Dr. Henry H., Director of the Chicago Manual Training School, 340 ;
his early appreciation of the mental value of manual training, 342 ; ex-
tracts from the inaugural address of, 342, 343, 344, 345.
Bell, Sir Charles, his great discovery of the muscular sense, 146 ; his defi-
nition of the office of the sixth sense, 146.
Bells, that of Pekin, China, 47 ; that of Moscow, 47 ; they show an inti-
mate knowledge of the founder's art, 48.
Bernot, M., inventor of file-cutting machine, 91.
Bessemer, Sir Henry, his birth and early training, 162; his appearance in
London, a poor young man his first invention, 162 ; as young Glad-
stone enters the Treasury, he retires an unsuccessful suitor for the just
reward of genius and toil, 163 ; his burning sense of outrage, 163 ; an-
nouncement of his discovery of a new process in steel-making, 164 ; hia
declaration that he could make steel at the cost of iron received with
incredulity, 165; his process of steel -making a complete success in
1860, 165 ; compared with Mr. Gladstone, 165, 166 ; description of the
process that revolutionized the steel manufacture, 166, 167; value of
process of, 167 ; the government of England slow in honoring him, 168 ;
comparison between the life and services of, to man, and those of Mr.
Gladstone and Mr. Disraeli, 168, 169 ; stands for the new education, 169.
Black-walnut, its natural history studied in the wood-turning laboratory, 36 ;
its structure, growth, and uses, 37 ; the poet Bryant's great tree, 37.
Blatchford, E. W., President of the Chicago Manual Training School Asso-
Blatchford Literary Society, an organization of students of the Chicago
Manual Training School, 342.
Blow, Miss S. E., in formulating the theory of the kindergarten, describes
the method equally of the savage and the manual training school, 218,
Board of Trade, of Chicago, the speculative trades in futures on, are fifteen
times more than the sales of grain and provisions, 316.
Body, contempt of the, by the ancients, led to contempt of manual labor,
Book-makers, the, writing the lives of the old inventors in the temple of
Books, the sure promise of universal culture, 283 ; the precursor of the
common school, 283.
Boston, the streets of, in which patriots had struggled for liberty, now
echoed the groans of the slave, 305 ; manual training in, 336.
Boy, the civilized, is not trained in school for the actual duties of life, 181 ;
is taught many theories, but not required to put any of them in prac-
tice, 181 ; is in danger of the penitentiary until he learns a trade or
Boys, ninety-seven in a hundred, who graduate from the public schools and
embark in mercantile pursuits, fail, 227.
Brain, the, its absorbing and expressing powers diagram illustrating, 193 ;
the healthy education of, consists in giving to the expressing side power
equal to that of the absorbing side, 193, 194; the functions of the ab-
sorbing side extended, while those of the expressing side are restrict-
ed diagram illustrating, 194; functions of the expressing side of, in-
creased by adding drawing and the manual arts, 195.
Bramah, Joseph, inventor of automatic tools, 84.
Breighton helps to solve the steam-power problem, 15.
Bridge, the first iron, across the Severn, one hundred years old, but likely
to last for centuries, 241.
Bridgman, Laura, used the finger alphabet in her dreams, 150.
Brindley, James, sketch of the life of, 172; a common laborer a mill-
wright's apprentice a man of honor an illiterate, but a genius and an
originator of great canal enterprises, 172-175 ; the engineer of the Duke
of Bridgewater, 173 ; his " castle in the air " and " river hung in the
air," 173 ; his obstinacy, poverty, and poor pay for splendid services of
which he was robbed by the duke, 174 ; his life and career typical of a
score of biographies presented in Mr. Smiles's " Lives of the Engineers,"
Bronze, castings of, in the ruins of Egypt and Greece, 46.
Brooklyn Bridge, illustrates the necessity of practical training for the civil
Brown, John, Captain, in the presence of his exultant but half -terrified
captors, 235 ; defying the constitution, the laws, and public sentiment in
the interest of the cause of justice, 236.
Bruno, his fate, condemned by the Inquisition and burned as a heretic,
178; persecution of, a link in the chain of progress, 283.
Buckle, Henry Thomas, his testimony to the practical uses of imagination,
38 ; his scathing arraignment of English statesmen and legislators,
160; his declaration that the best English laws are those by which
former laws are repealed, 187; his declaration in regard to the obsti-
nacy and stupidity of English legislators, 242.
Budget, the European, shows that the standing armies are the overshadow-
ing feature of the situation, 286 ; the portion of, that goes to the main-
tenance of the standing armies, 287.
Burgos, manufactures of, destroyed by the expulsion of the Moors from
Caesar preferred to Cato, whose patriotism was above question, 270 ; com-
mentaries of, in all the world's universities, 271.
Caligula, his pleasure in witnessing the countenances of dying gladiators,
Camillus honored in the early days of Rome, 270.
Carlyle, his apostrophe to tools, 7.
Carpenter's laboratory, class of students at the blackboard in, discussing
the history and nature of certain woods, 21 ; working drawings of the
lesson put on the black-board by the instructor in, 25 ; parts of the les-
son executed by the instructor in, 25 ; new tools introduced, and their
care and use explained, 25 ; the students at their benches in, mak-
ing things, as busy as bees, 26 ; a call to order and a solution of the
main problem of the day's lesson, 26 ; a tenon too large for its mor-
Caste, a tendency to, disclosed in all history, 248 ; illustration of, the earli-
est the chief of the brawny arm, 248 ; illustrations of, in savage and
half-civilized communities, 248, 249 ; in Egypt in India, 249 ; in the
United States, 307.
Castile, manufactures of, destroyed by the expulsion of the Moors from
Castle of the Middle Ages, the home of music and chivalry, 276.
Cato a type of Roman persistence in the path of conquest, 260 ; patriotism
and virtue of, 270.
Centennial Exposition, exhibit of models of tool-practice in the Imperial
Technical School, Moscow, Russia, at the, 325.
Charcoal, the forests of England swept away to provide it for the smith's
and smelter's fires, in the early time, 63.
Charlemagne, attempt of, to reconstruct a worn-out civilization, 276 ; neg-
lect of the education of the people the cause of the failure of, 276.
Chatham, Lord, declaration of, that the American colonies had no right to
make a nail or a horseshoe, 203.
Chicago, comparison of, with ancient Rome, 138.
Chicago Manual Training School, description of building, 1 ; its main pur-
pose intellectual development, 3 ; theory of, 4 ; engine-room of, 14 ; en-
gine of, doing duty as a school-master, 14 ; an epitome of, in the engine-
room, 15 ; its purpose not to make mechanics, but men, 38; conditions
of admission to, 106 ; detail of questions used in examination of candi-
dates for first class in, 106-110; curriculum of, 110, 111; optional
studies of, 111; blending of manual and mental instruction in, 111;
missionary character of , 1 1 1 ; the only independent educational institu-
tion of the kind in the world, 339 ; owes its origin entirely to laymen,
339 ; established by an association of merchants, manufacturers, and
bankers, 339, 340; incorporated April 11, 1883,340; corner-stone of,
laid September 24, 1883, 340; opened February 4, 1884, 340; officers
and trustees of association of, 340 ; object of, mental and manual cult-
ure, 341 ; equipment of, 341 ; library of, 341 ; Dr. Henry H. Belfield di-
rector of, 342.
Chicago Tribune, criticism of the methods of the public schools by the,
340 ; columns of, opened to the author, 340; effect of advocacy of man-
ual training by the, 340.
Child, the, becomes father of the man, in the cradle, the nursery, and at
the fireside, 359 ; contempt of, by the ancients, 361.
Chipping, filing, and fitting laboratory, 88 ; course in ti:e, 88 ; the ante-
room to the machine-tool laboratory, 88.
Christian religion, the, its failure to save Rome, 140.
Cicero, his doctrine of the universal brotherhood of man, 139 ; forecasts the
doom of the Roman Republic, but has no remedy for the public ills to
propose, 268 ; without moral courage, 269.
Cincinnatus found at the plough, 264.
Cities, rapid concentration of population in, 137 ; plague-spots on the body
politic, 137 ; dominated by selfishness, 137 ; statistics of increase of
population in, 307, 308 ; the chief sources of societary disturbances,
City, the modern, the despair of the political economist, 137 ; the centre of
vice, 137; pen-picture of its vices and crimes, 140; picture of vice in,
City of New York, College of, manual training in, 346 ; first report of the
industrial educational association of, gives a list of thirty-one schools
in, where industrial education is furnished (note), 346.
Civil engineer, the modern, must be familiar with all the processes of the
machine-tool shop, 97 ; his works may be amended, but never repealed,
187; more competent than the railway president, the lawyer, the judge,
or the legislator, 225 ; trained in things, 225.
Civilization, progress of, depends upon progress in invention and discovery,
65 ; a growth from the state of savagery, 131 ; evils of, flow from men-
tal development wanting the element of rectitude, 132; contrast pre-
sented by that of Italy in the fifteenth century, and that of America in
the nineteenth, 234 ; difference between, and barbarism, 244 ; the use-
ful arts the true measure of, 247 ; the product of education, 248 ; of
Greece sprung from mythology and ended in anarchy, 254 ; languishes
in an atmosphere of injustice, 274 ; the trinity upon which it rests is
justice, the useful arts, and labor, 274 ; American, has not borne new
social fruits, 317.
Clark, John S., his elaborate exposition of the defects of existing educa-
tional methods, 193, 194, 195.
Claudius, under the favor of, Seneca amassed a vast fortune, 269.
Clement, Joseph, great English inventor of the eighteenth century, 84 ; his
two improvements in the slide - rest, and the medals he received for
Cleveland, 0., manual training in, 336.
Coal, subject of production, cost, demand, and supply discussed in forging
laboratory, 62 ; history of application of, to useful arts, 63 ; prejudice
against use of mineral, in the beginning of the seventeenth century, 64 ;
smelting with mineral, successfully introduced in England in 1766, 66.
Coalbrookdale Iron-works, mineral coal first used at, for smelting purposes,
Columbus, in proving that the world is round, frees mankind, 282 ; sounds
the death-knell of intellectual slavery, 282, 283.
Comenius, the school he struggled in vain to establish, 2 ; his theory of
learning by doing, 13; condemns the old system of education, 126;
his definition of education, 127; foresees the kindergarten and the
manual training school, 245.
Commercial Club, the, founds the Chicago Manual Training School, 2 ; guar-
antees $100,000 for its support, 3; meeting of, March 25, 1882, 340.
Commerce, early, of America, so insignificant that in 1784 eight bales of
cotton shipped from South Carolina were seized by the custom authori-
ties of England on the ground that so large a quantity could not have
been produced in the United States, 203.
Common-school system of the United States, glaring defects of, shown by
the Walton report, 197, 198, 199.
Composition, automatism in teaching, in the schools of the United States,
as shown by the Walton report, 199.
Compton, Prof. Alfred G., on the exacting nature of the demands made
upon instructors by the new education, 346.
Concrete, progress can find expression only in the, 151,152; a lie always
hideous in the, 224.
Connecticut, manual training in State Normal School, 336 ; legislature of,
adopts manual training as part of the course of public instruction, 354.
Contempt, in the Middle Ages, withered hope, 280.
Convent, of the Middle Ages, the home of religion and of art, 276.
Cook County Normal School, 111., manual training in, 336.
Cooley, Lieut. Mortimer E., letter of, to the Author on effects of manual
training in the University of Michigan, 357.
Cordova the abode of wealth, learning, refinement, and the arts, 278.
Corporate power, unduly promoted by reckless legislation on the subject of
land in the United States, 314.
Corporations, a creation of yesterday, the product of steam, 314; almost as
indestructible as landed estates, 314; men trained from generation to
generation to the care of, 314.
Cort, Henry, an English inventor of the eighteenth century, 84 ; experi-
ments of, with a view to the improvement of English iron, 115.
Cotton-gin, the, trebled the value of the cotton-fields of the South, 160.
Cotton Exchange of New York, speculative trades in futures on, thirty
times more than the actual cotton sales, 316.
Crane, R. T., Vice-President of the Chicago Manual Training School Asso-
Cranege, the Brothers, inventors of the reverberatory furnace, 66.
Crerar, John, Trustee of the Chicago Manual Training School Association,
Crusaders, their astonishment at the splendors of Constantinople, 281 ; they
expected to meet with treachery and cruelty they found chivalry and
high culture, 281 ; they returned to Europe relieved of many illusions,
Crusades, the, pitiful and prolific of horrors as they were, shed a great
light upon Europe, 281 ; brought the men of the West face to face
with a progressive civilization, 281.
Daedalus, invention of turning ascribed to, by the Greeks, 33.
Damascus blades, the most signal triumph of the art of the smelter and the
smith, 72 ; the material of which they were made, and their temper, 72 ;
first encountered by Europeans during the Crusades, 72 ; triumphs of
genius not less pronounced than the Athena of Phidias, 74.
Dark Ages, the shame of, caused by the neglect of the useful arts, 64 ;
maxims of Machiavelli explain the fact of the existence of, 280 ; gloom
of, dispelled by the discovery of America, 282.
Darwin, Charles, declares that a complex train of thought cannot be car-
ried on without the aid of words, 149; law of reversion of, in operation
during the decay of the Roman civilization, 271.
Da Vinci, Leonardo, took up the work of Archimedes, and the science of
mechanics made progress, 283.
De Caus, helps to solve the steam-power problem, 15.
Delia Vos, M. Victor, Director of the Imperial Technical School, Moscow,
121 ; testimony of, as to value of manual training, 121 ; author of the
laboratory process of tool instruction, 325.
Democratic idea, the, not new when adopted in America, 303.
Democratic principle, in the United States Government, does not prevent
class distinctions, 307.
Denmark appropriates money for teaching hand-cunning in the schools, 362.
Denver (Col.) University, manual training in, 349.
Dickens, Charles, his pen-picture of " Tom-all-alones " philosophy of, 309.
Dinwiddie, Prof. H. H., his account of the manner in which the Agricultu-
ral and Mechanical College of Texas was revolutionized in the interest