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of manual training, 353.

Disasters, mercantile and other, show that business is done by the " rule
of thumb," 214.

Disraeli (Lord Beaconsfield), his tribute to the value of the imagination as



874 INDEX.

a useful quality, 38 ; his alternations of political power with Mr. Glad-
stone from Liberalism to Toryism an easy transition, 164; England
heaps honors upon him while it neglects Mr. Bessemer, 168; compari-
son between the life and services of, to man, and those of Sir Henry
Bessemer, 169.

Doane, John W., Trustee of the Chicago Manual Training School Associa-
tion, 340.

Dogmatist, the, no place for, in the modern order of things, 124.

Domestic economy made a department of the Iowa Agricultural College,
354 ; made part of the curriculum of the Le Moyne Normal Institute,
356.

Drawing, thoroughness of training in, 16 ; definition of, 16 ; sketches of
certain geometric forms, 17; working drawings, pictorial drawings, and
designs applied to industrial art, 18; its aesthetic element, 18; geome-
try its basis, examples of, 18; from objects in the school laboratories,
19 ; value of, as an educational agency, 19 ; language of, common to all
draughtsmen pen-picture of class in, 20 ; the first step of expression,
208.

Drayton, W. Heyward, historical sketch of origin of manual training in
Girard College by, 347, 348, 349.

Dudley, Dud, inventor of machinery for the application of mineral coal
to smelting purposes, 64 ; sketch of career of, 64, 65 ; combinations
against, by the charcoal iron-masters, 64, 65 ; furnaces of, destroyed by
mobs, and their owner reduced to beggary and driven to prison, 64, 65.

Dun, R. G., & Co., statistics of, in relation to commercial failures, 211.

E.

Ear not a more important organ than the hand because situated nearer the
brain, 154.

Eau Claire, Wis., manual training in, 336.

Edict of Nantes, revocation of, drove artisans to England, 34.

Education, the philosopher's stone in, 2; laying the foundation of, in labor,
3 ; the power to do some useful thing the last analysis of, 12 ; definition
of, 12 ; confined to abstractions, in the past, 13 ; the new claims made
in its behalf, 105 ; universal, a modern idea, 123 ; difference in systems
of, constitutes difference between ancient and modern civilizations, 123,
124 ; every child entitled to receive, 124 ; certain fundamentals of, upon
which all are agreed, 125 ; Rousseau's definition of, 125 ; begins at birth
and continues to the end of life, 126; Froebel's definition of, 126; old
system of, condemned by Bacon, Comenius, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and
Froebel, 126 ; of woman more important than that of man, 128 ; develops
innate mental qualities and forms character, 130; all, is both mental
and moral, 133 ; any system of, that does not produce altruism is vicious,



INDEX. 375

136 ; first step in, to eliminate selfishness and put rectitude in its place,
136 ; a system of, consisting exclusively of mental exercises, promotes
selfishness, 141 ; methods of, controlled by the Classicism of the Re-
naissance, 154; of the hands as well as the brain necessary, 172; the
old, designed to make lawyers, doctors, priests, statesmen, litterateurs,
and poets, 179 ; that is not practical, in the Age of Steel, is nothing, 179 ;
not broad enough on the expressing side of the brain, 194 ; illustrations
of defects of, shown by the Walton Report, 196, 197, 198, 199; in ex-
isting systems of, the memory is cultivated while the reason is allowed
to slumber, 200; defective methods of, result in vast mercantile and
railway disasters, 215 ; defective morally, since the truth is to be found
only in things, 224 ; the New England system of, very defective; but to
it the country owes the quality of its civilization, 235; in South Caro-
lina the monopoly of a class, 235 ; a scientific system of, would have
averted the War of Rebellion in the United States, and kept down the
debt of England, 237 ; why popular, is provided for by the State, 237 ;
the sole bulwark of the State, 238 ; the best is th cheapest, 239 ; of
New England does not produce great lawyers, great judges, or great
legislators, 239 ; exclusively mental, stops far short of the objective
point of true, 243 ; the last analysis of, is art, 243 ; any system of,
which separates ideas and things, is radically defective, 244 ; the object
of, is the generation of power, 244 ; the system of, which does not
teach the application of facts to things, is unscientific, 245 ; among the
ancients, was confined to a small class, and consisted of selfish maxims
for the government of the many, 253; of the Greeks responsible for
the destruction of Greek civilization, 256; defects of the Roman, 261 ;
Roman, deified selfishness and so realized its last analysis total de-
pravity, 263; a false system of, wrecks the Roman civilization, 273;
scientific, essential to the salvation of the trinity upon which civiliza-
tion rests, 274 ; how to make it universal in Europe, 288, 289 ; possible
only in Europe through the disbandment of the standing armies, 291 ;
in Germany, has taught the people to hate standing armies, 294, 295 ;
is causing the emigration of Germany's best citizens, 298; is the
arch-revolutionist whose march is irresistible, 2C8 ; the new, will come
in as the standing armies go out, 300; had made little progress at
the time of the organization of civil society in America, 303 ; the sys-
tem of, under which the kings and ruling classes of Europe had been
trained to selfishness, cruelty, and injustice, put into the New England
common schools, 303 ; sordid view of, generally held in the rural dis-
tricts of New England, 304 ; Herbert Spencer's view of the prevailing
methods of, 304 ; positive ill effects of the prevailing methods of, 304,
305 ; a false system of, in the United States, led to political incongrui-
ties of the grossest character, 305 ; complete failure of, to promote recti-

16*



876 INDEX.

tude, 305 ; defects of system of, in the United States, shown by the ig-
norance and crimes of legislators, 311 ; may be made universal through
the ballot, 318; all property may be taken for, by the ballot, 318;
American, is scant in quantity and poor in quality, 319; no radical
change in methods of, for 3000 years. 319; a complete revolution in,
essential to social reform, 321 ; must begin with the child and be di-
rected by the mother, 359.

Edward III. of England uses the smiths as military engineers at the siege
of Berwick, 72.

Egypt, how the castes of, arose, 249 ; progress of the civilization of, 249 ;
civilization of, the product of education, 250 ; selfishness the basis of the
system of education of, 250 ; wealth, commerce, and military and naval
power of, 250; learning of, 251 ; luxury of, 251 ; conquered by Persia,
251, 252; no provision in, for the mental or moral training of woman,
360.

Electricity, must be "harnessed" at the forge and in the shop to enable it
to do its work, 170.

Elizabeth, Queen of England, use of iron by, to defeat the Spanish Armada,
61.

Emerson, his declaration that Napoleon was typical of the modern man,
134; his observation that during the Crusades "the banker with his
seven per cent, drove the earl out of his castle," 282.

Emigrant, the poor, withdraws the support of his brawny arm from the
fatherland, 290.

Emigration, social questions cannot much longer be settled by, 299.

Empire, art of mechanism greatest of modern times, 61.

England, sketch of the history of the early iron manufacture of, 63 ; decline
of the iron industry of, during the seventeenth century, 65; the people
of, import their pots and kettles, 65 ; workshops of, originate great inven-
tions during the period 1740-1840, 115; apprentices of, become learned
men, 115; material condition of, 250 years ago its poverty, 158, 159;
civilization and transformation of how accomplished, 159; studded
with workshops, filled with automatic machines through the apprentice
system, 181 ; owes to the French and Flemish immigrants her indus-
trial arts and much of the most valuable life-blood of her modern raco,
185 ; constitution of, grew out of the feudal system, 190 ; safer to shoot
a man than a hare in, 190; school system of, estimated by results, inde-
scribably poor, 224 ; a scientific system of education in, would have
averted wars and kept down the national debt of, 237 ; criminal laws
of, 241 ; draws from her people a larger per capita revenue than any na-
tion of Europe, 293 ; has nearly reached the limit of the power of her
people to pay taxes, 293 ; land system of its terrible effect upon the
English, Scotch, and Irish, 311.



INDEX. 377

English history, the great names in the names without which there would
have been no English history, 175.

Enterprise, in the Middle Ages, the slave of superstition and ignorance, 2*77.

Epictetus, lofty patriotism of, 139.

Europe, face of, and civilization of, changed during the Crusades, 282 ;
growth of the middle class of, 282 ; the artisan became a factor in the
social problem of, 282 ; art treasures of, destined to follow in the track
of her fleeing population, 290; she may restore to productive employ-
ments three millions of men, 298 ; she may place at the disposal of her
educators seven hundred million dollars per annum, instead of seventy
million dollars, as at present, 298 ; she may extinguish her national
debts in fifty-four years, 299 ; progress in, previous to the discovery of
America, 301, 302.

Ewing, Mrs. Emma P., Dean of the Domestic Economy Department of the
Iowa Agricultural College, 355 ; on the importance of the study of do-
mestic economy, 355, 356.

Expression, power of, quite as important as that of absorption, 208 ; sus-
ceptible of being made clear only in things, 208.

Eye, not a more important organ than the hand, because it is situated nearer
the brain, 154.

F.

Fail-bank, N. K., Trustee of the Chicago Manual Training School Associa-
tion, 340.

Faneuil Hall, slavery justified in, 305.

Feudalism emasculated human energy, 277 ; the ruin of, set thousands of
serfs free, 286.

Field, Marshall, Treasurer of the Chicago Manual Training School Associa-
tion, 340.

File, the, older than history, dating back to the Greek mythological period,
91 ; of the Swiss watch-makers, 91 ; dexterity of the hand-working cut-
ter of, 91 ; invention of file-cutting machine in 1859, 91.

Finland, all the schools of, give instruction in hand-cunning, 362.

Fire, legend in regard to its discovery, 62.

Foley, Thomas, on the excellence of the laboratory methods of instruction,
217, 218.

Force, new elements of, to be discovered and applied to the needs of man,
180.

Forging, laboratory of, 58 ; pen-picture of a class of students in, 61 ; story
of the origin of the Turkish Empire related by the instructor in, 61 ;
the management of the forge fires in, 62 ; lesson in, on the black-board
and at the forges, in detail, 66 ; the instructor in, at the forge, 69 ;
questions by the students in, 69 ; the school-room converted into a



378 INDEX.

smithy which resounds with the clang of sledges, 69, 70; healthful ef-
fects of the exercise the anvil chorus, 70 ; the tests of merit in, ap-
plied, 75 ; the instructor in, gives a lecture on the steam-hammer, 75 ;
extent of the course in, 77.

Founding, laboratory of, 45 ; history of the art of, 46 ; first applied to
bronze, 46 ; lesson of the day, casting a pulley, 48 ; the process in de-
tail, 51 ; pen-picture of the students pouring the steaming metal into
moulds, 52.

France, permanently weakened by the increase of her national debt, 292;
debt, statement of what the war with Germany cost her, 292 ; cannot
double her debt again and make her people pay interest on it, 293 ; a
law of, makes manual training obligatory, 362 ; supports a school for
training teachers of manual training, 362 ; Prof. G. Solicis the chief
supporter of manual training in, 362.

Franklin, the famous selfish maxims of, 305.

Froebel, the school he struggled in vain to establish, 2 ; first applies Rous-
seau's ideas to school life, 126; his definition of education, 126; con-
demns the old system of education, 126; a character of, 127; his dis-
covery of the superior fitness of woman for the office of teacher, 127,
128 ; foresees the manual training school, 245 ; it was reserved for him
to rescue woman from the scorn, of the ages, 361.

Fuller, William A., Secretary of the Chicago Manual Training School Asso-
ciation, 340.

Fulton, Robert, an American inventor, 84.

G.

Galileo, persecution of, for his great discovery, 177, 178 ; persecutors of, be-
lieved and trembled, 283.

Gallon, Francis, declaration of, that brain without heart is insufficient to
achieve eminence, 134 ; his testimony to the great value of artisan im-
migration, and the worthless character of political refugees, 186; his
neglect of the artisan class in his speculations on the subject of the
science of life, 186, 187 ; reason of his neglect of the artisan class
stated by Horace Mann the influence of slavery, 188.

George III. an expert wood-turner, 34 ; gives John Arnold five hundred
guineas for a miniature watch, 86.

Germanicus noted for the highest public virtue, 270 ; after great services,
is exiled and poisoned, 270.

Germany, Emperor of, experience of, in a needle factory, illustrative of the
delicacy of mechanical operations, 240.

Germany, foundation of her educational system, 291, 292; superior training
of her people enabled her to humiliate France, 292 ; freedom from debt
of, the significant feature of the European situation, 292 ; low rate of



INDEX. 379

taxation in, 292 ; weakness of, through emigration, 293 ; the educated
subject of, has become a thoughtful citizen, who rebels against the
standing arm}', and flees from it, 293, 294 ; high value of citizenship of,
294 ; citizenship freely abandoned, because the educated German re-
volts at the standing army, 294 ; the military records of, show the cause
of German emigration to be disgust of the policy of international hate,
295 ; increase in the number of military delinquents in, is the meas-
ure of the growth of German intelligence, 296 ; the chief power of, be-
comes her chief weakness, 296; cannot recoup her losses to America
through gains from neighboring countries, on account of the policy of
international hate, 296, 297 ; losing the flower of her population the
strong the weaklings, the paupers, the aged, and the infirm remain,
297 ; is growing weaker each year, 297 ; agitation on the subject of
manual training in, 362.

Gibbon on the wealth of the Saracens in Spain, 279.

Girard College, manual training in, 347 ; Dr. Runkle's influence in pro-
moting the adoption of manual training in, 348.

Gladiatorial games, atrocities of, in Rome, contrasted with the sublime pre-
cepts of Seneca, Plutarch, and Marcus Aurelius, 138 ; extent of slaugh-
ter of animals at their celebration, 138.

Gladstone, William Ewart, political power and popularity of, 161; enters
upon his long official career as young Henry Bessemer retires from the
Stamp-office without his just reward, 163 ; a great orator, and a great
financier, a talker, a maker of laws and treaties, constantly in the pub-
lic eye, 163; in office and out of office, 163, 164; from Toryism to Lib-
eralism an easy transition, 164 ; compared with Sir Henry Bessemer,
165, 166; England heaps honors upon him while she neglects Mr. Bes-
semer, 168; comparison of the life and services of, to man, with those
of Mr. Bessemer, 169 ; stands for the old system of education, 169 ; ad-
mission of, that the great mechanics of England had no aid from the
government, 175.

Gold, once the king of metals, surrenders its sceptre to iron, 124.

Goss, William F. M., his exposition of the methods of the manual training
school in detail, 219, 220, 221, 222; pronounced success of the Manual
Training Department of Purdue University, under directorship of, 335.

Grammar, automatism in teaching, in the common schools of the United
States, as shown in the Walton report, 197 ; criticism of Colonel Par-
ker on methods of instruction in, 206.

Great Powers of Europe all hampered by great debts, 292.

Greece, Egypt the University of, 251 ; every intellectual Greek made a voy-
age to Egypt, 251; the destiny of, was controlled by renegades there
was disloyalty in every camp, a traitor in every army, and a band of
traitors in every besieged city, 254 ; the orators of, never refused bribes,



380 INDEX.

and oratory ruled in, 255 ; philosophy and education of, responsible for
decay of the civilization of, 256 ; ruined by metaphysics and rhetoric,
256 ; no schools in, for girls, 360.

Greeks, were called the people of youth, 254 ; religion of, was of the sav-
age type, patriotism narrow, superstition gross, national festivals child-
ish, 254 ; were treacherous, cruel, and their sense of honor dull, 254 ;
they enslaved women and robbed the bodies of the slain on the. battle-
field, 254 ; declaration of Thucydides that there was neither promise
that could be depended upon, nor oath that struck them with fear, 255 ;
in the Pantheon the highest niche was reserved for the God of Gain,
255 ; the early, were pirates, and some sold themselves into slavery, so
great was their lust of gold, 255 ; armies of the, bribed by Persia, 255 ;
young, taught the arts of sophistry in the schools of rhetoric, 256 ; never
emerged from the savage state, 256.

Guttenberg, had he been content with an idea, there would have been no
printing-press, 152.

H.

Habit, all reforms must encounter the stolid resistance of, 191.

Hand, it is through the, alone, that the mind impresses itself upon matter,
141 ; the skilled, confers benefits upon man, and each act exerts a re-
flex moral influence upon the mind of the benefactor, 141 ; and the
mind are natural allies, 144; tests the speculations of the mind by the
law of practical application, 144 ; explodes the errors of the mind, 144 ;
finds the truth, 145 ; if it works falsely, publishes its own guilt in the
false thing it makes, 145 ; Dr. Wilson's graphic picture of the versatili-
ty of the, 145 ; not less the guide than the agent of the mind, 145 ; in-
fluences the mind through the muscular sense, 148 ; how its habit of
labor leads to the discovery of the truth and the exposure of the false,
149 ; the preserver of the power of speech through the endless succes-
sion of objects it presents to the mind, 151 ; the, ceasing to labor in the
arts, to plant and to gather, speech would degenerate into a mere itera-
tion of the wants of savages subsisting on fruits, 151 ; the most potent
agency in the work of civilization, 152; mobility of, multiplies its pow-
ers in a geometrical ratio, 154; contempt of, an inheritance from the
speculative philosophy of the Middle Ages, 155; the works of, com-
prise all the visible results of civilization, 155 ; marvels wrought by the,
155, 156; James MacAlister on the power and versatility of the [note],
156; wields the mechanical powers its works, 158; the wise counsel
of the practical, steadies the mind, 225 ; not a nicer instrument than
the mind, 240.

Hand-work, difficulties of, illustrated by John Arnold's refusal to make a
duplicate of his George III. watch for $5,000, 86.

Hargreeves, James, inventor of the " spinning-jenny," 84.



INDEX. 381

Herbert, the famous selfish maxim of, 305.

Herodotus, his description of the hundred brazen gates of Babylon, 55 ; his
contempt for the artisan, 56.

Hero, of Alexandria, the inventor of the steam-engine, 14.

Hero, the, is an honest man that's all, 283.

Heroes, the thin ranks of, constitute the measure of the poverty of the sys-
tems of education that have prevailed among mankind, 234 ; are nor-
mally developed men who honor the truth everywhere, 234 ; the fact
that they are honored after death evidence of progress, 234.

Heroism rendered grand by contrast with the debased standards of public
judgment, 233.

Herophilus opens the way to an intelligent study of the mind, 153.

Hippocrates opens the way to an intelligent study of the mind, 153.

Honesty, only another name for heroism, 233 ; scientific education will make
it universal, 233.

Holtzapffels, speculation of, as to the origin of the invention of the lathe, 33.

Hood, Tom, his song of the shirt, 87.

Huntsman, Benjamin, an English inventor of the eighteenth century, 84;
sketch of the career of, 116; his invention of cast-steel, and its effect
upon the Sheffield cutlery market, 116 ; how his secret was stolen, 117 ;
declines a membership of the Royal Society, 117; how resplendent his
name is now, 171.

I.

Ideas are mere vain speculations till embodied in things, 243 ; and things
are indissolubly connected, 244.

Ignorance, illustration of, in the opposition of a Roman Emperor to the use
of improved machinery, 178 ; reverences the past, never doubts, is sus-
picious, an enemy of all progress, 179; in the schools of Norfolk County,
Mass., 197.

Illinois Penitentiary, statistics of show that four out of five of the inmates
of have no handicraft, 182.

Imagination, Buckle's tribute to the, 38 ; Disraeli on Sir Robert Peel's want
of, 38 ; Disraeli's career an illustration of the value of, 39 ; the discovery
of America appealed powerfully to the, 283 ; blazes the path to glorious
achievements, 283.

Imperial Technical School, Moscow, manual training adopted as part of
curriculum of the, in 1868, 325 ; sketch of the history of manual train-
ing in, by Director Delia Vos, 325, 326, 327.

India, how the castes of, arose, 249.

Injustice, civilization languishes in an atmosphere of, 274.

Inquisition, the, its persecution of Galileo, 177, 178.

Instructors, lack of competent, in the new education, 346, 347.

Intelligence, the basis of morality, 113.



382 INDEX.

Inventions, a growth, 14 ; each step of constitutes a link in the chain of
progress, 187 ; contain the germs of imperishable truth, 243.

Inventor, the, produces a machine that will make a thousand things in the
time required by the hand-worker to make one, 86 ; helps on the cause
of progress, 160; rules the world, 161; his works are never repealed,
187 ; is always in the advance, 242.

Inventive genius, to the, mankind owes more than to the philosophers, lit-
terateurs, professors, and statesmen of all time, 84.

Iowa, Agricultural College of, makes domestic economy a part of its curri-
culum, 354 ; faculty and course of study in the department of domestic
economy of, 354, 355.

Iron, Locke's famous apothegm on the value of, 45 ; the most potent in-
strument of power, 61 ; use of by Queen Elizabeth to defeat the Spanish
Armada, 61 ; the equivalent of civilization, 62 ; is king, and the smelter
and smith are his chief ministers, 62 ; to make a ton of, required hun-
dreds of cords of wood before the introduction of "pit" coal for smelt-
ing purposes, 63 ; the foundation of every useful art, 81.

Italy, government of, during the Middle Ages, consisted of a menace and a
sneer, 280.

J.

Jacobson, Col. Augustus, on the demand for a more comprehensive system
of education, 180; on the proper equipment of the boy upon leaving
school, 209.

Jerusalem, when conquered, its smiths and other craftsmen were carried
away as captives by the Babylonians, 70.

Jews, learning of, exerted an ameliorating influence upon the darkness of
the Middle Ages, 281.

Judges, training of, is exclusively subjective, 230 ; rendered selfish by sub-
jective processes of thought, 231 ; venerate the past, 242.

Justice assumes the place of selfishness in the mind of the hero, 233 ; cause
of the failure of, 242.

K.

Keith, Edson, Trustee of Chicago Manual Training School Association, 340.

Kindergarten, the, father of the manual training school, 5 ; fills a place un-
occupied until the time of Froebel, 126; educational principles of, sus-
ceptible of universal application, 126; analysis of, 128; leads logically
to the manual training school, 129 ; method of, is scientific, 207 ; method
of, is the expression of ideas in things, 245 ; realizes the dream of Bacon,
Comenius, and Pestalozzi, 245 ; exhibits of work of, at the meeting of the
National Educational Association in 1884, 336 ; endorsed by the National
Educational Association, 357 ; the growth of, prevented by prejudice and
indifference, 361.

Kings, alliance of, with the aristocracy, 286.



INDEX. 383



L.

Labor class, the real flower of a population, 289 ; all other classes depend
upon the, 290 ; a drain upon the, is a drain upon the most vital resource
of the State, 290 ; where the flower of gathers, wealth most abounds, 290.

Labor, manual, scorn of, among the ancients, 56 ; its slow recovery of inde-



Online LibraryCharles Henry HamManual training : the solution of social and industrial problems → online text (page 27 of 30)