Charles Henry Wyatt.

Wyatt's companion to the Education acts, 1870-1902 online

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Ex Lihris








EDUCATION ACTS, 1870-1902.




Clerk of the Manche. - ter School Board;
Honorary Secretary Association of School Boards (England aud Wales).

Thomas Wyatt, Manchestek.




THE object of this Handbook is to give information regarding the
working of the new Education Act (which embraces the Elemen-
tary Education Acts, 1&70-1900), and other statistics bearing on

The explanations and illustrations given in the text are based on
thirty-two years' jDersonal experience of the administration of the
Education Acts, 1870-191)0. etc.

1 am also indebted for the possession of much of the special infor-
mation, I am enabled to supply, to the fact that, as Honorary Secretary
of the Association of School Boards and Editor of The School Board
Gazette, I have enjoyed somewhat exceptional opportunities of dealing
with all phases of the intricate administration of public education.

During many years I have been collecting the particulars embodied
in the pages of this Companion, and now, when a new departure in
the local administration of education has been made by the State, and
local authorities in all parts uf England and Wales are about to
apply themselves to a new condition of things, I think the time is
opportune for the issue of this work, designed to elucidate and, I
hope, to remove some of the difficulties of local administration.

Where I have made use of articles of my own, contributed to
peiiodical literatiu'c, T have revised the matter, and brought the
statistics iip to the present date.

I have carefully considered how to arrange my information, and
I have come to the conclusion that I can meet the convenience of my
readers in the best way by putting such information into encyclopaedic
form, supplementing ray articles and notes by the full text of the various
Acts of Parliament, w-ith copies of such Government minutes and regula-
tions as are necessary for a clear comprehension of the somewhat
ctmplicated machinery which, controlled by the Board of Education,
will, for the first time in our history, have the task of providing for
all the various kinds of education on equal terms. In my opinion this
is a better plan for a work of general reference than to overload with
footnotes the varioiis Acts of Parliament. By means of references
between the articles and the Acts of Pailiament, etc., I have
endeavoured to illustrate my various points.

I have arranged my contents as follows: —

Part I. — Summary of the Education Act, 1902.

Part TI. — Special Articles and Notes, arranged alphabetically.

Part III. — The Education Acts and Acts of Parliament bearing

upon Education, with Government Eegulatione,

Part IY. — Specimen Forms, etc.

In all cases I have endeavoured to give my explanations clearly,
anJ where necessary I have given concrete examples of administration
illustrating schemes of Education, the working of scales of salaries,
the cost of buildings and maintenance, and of the various depart-
ments of educational work which will be in the charge of the new
authorities. Tlie same has also been my desire with regard to matters
of general finance and the raising and repayTuent of loans, etc.

My design is that the work .-is a whole shall provide a practical
guide to the official working of the Education .\cts, and T have not



hesitated to deal at length with much of the collateral work under-
taken by some of the great Boards, such, tor instance, as the provision
of School Banks, and the organisation of voluntary funds for providing
free meals for destitute children, etc.

Although we have many valuable works dealing with the Education
Acts, principally from a legal aspect, I do not know of any publication
designed to serve as a working companion for those who are concerned
in the administration of education. I hope that my modest efforts
may lay the foundation of such a work.

My long experience of the administration of the Education Acta
has taught me that men and women who lay no claim to being con-
sidered experts are among the most useful members of administrative
bodies; but the acquirement of a certain amount of technical infor-
mation is necessary, and I hope that many will find my Companion
useful to this end, and that it may save their time and remove many
of tteir difficulties. I have also found that even those who, as officials,
devote their lives to administration, frequently experience the need
of statistical and other information, which it is a great labour to
extract from blue books and reports just at the moment when it is
n.ost required. To have stich information ready, and to be able thereby
easily to place our hands on the sources from which we may obtain
more detailed particulars applicable to special cases, is many times
of great advantage to busy officials. It has been my object to do
something to meet these needs.

My own perplexity has frequently been due, not to lack of infor-
mation regarding the administration of education, so much as to my
want of a handbook, so marshalling the facts, rules, and regulations
that they become clear to the ordinary inquirer, showing concisely
how the various Acts of Parliament and Government Regulations
are applicable to different localities, and showing how all may enjoy
to the full the benefits and opportunities offered by the State, and
at the command of the local authorities.

In my notes and articles I have not hesitated to state where I
think improvements may be effected in our present methods.

Perhaps I may be permitted to say here that I have greater
faith in administration than I have in legislation — though one is not
possible without the other; and when I recall the fact that in many
School Board districts much has been achieved by wise local adminis-
tration in the face of the greatest difficulties — many of which have
been created by Parliament and by the Central Authority — I have
courage in believing that a wise local administration of the new Act,
guided by a re-constituted Central Authority, will remove many of
the misgivings and misapprehensions of which we have heard so much
in recent discussions.

I believe that such a wise local administration by the County
Ccuncilg will be their best claim for asking for a still further
decentralisation of authority on the part of the State, and the conse-
quent removal of bureaucratic rules and restrictions which at present
do much to hinder local cnterprLse and enthusiasm.

The task I have attempted is an ambitious one. Errors must of
necessity creep into such a work as this, and I promise that I .shall be
grateful for correction and suggestions.


January 21st, 1903.



Preface v.

Pakt I.

Introductory Matter 3

I. Local Education Authorities 8

II. Funds 8

III. Education Committees 10'

IV. Higher Education 11

V. Elementary Education 12

VI . Managers 1 3

VII. Provision of New Schools 17

VIII. Transferof Officers 17

IX. General Provisions 1 8'

Part II.

Accounts, Keeping of 21

Age, School 22

Age Limit '. 22

Agreement with Teachers 22

Agriculture, Instruction in 24

Aid Grants 25

Appointed Day 27

Appointment, &c., of Teachers 27

Arrangements between Councils... 28

Assessment of Schools 29

Assistant Teachers 29

Attendance Officers 29

Attendance, School 30

Audit of Accounts 33

Banks, School Savings 34

Baths, Swimming 34

Blmd and Deaf Children 35

Board of Education 36

Boarding Schools 38

Books, Apparatus, and Stationery 38

Borrowing Powers 40

Boroughs 40

British Schools 40

Buildings, School 40

Building Grants 40

Bye-laws 40

Canal Boats Children 44

Capital Charges 45


Caretakers, School 45

Certificates of Age, Proficiency, etc. 48

Certificate of Birth .'. 48

Charity Commission 49

City and Guilds of London

Institute 52

Clothing of Poor Children 53

Codes 53

Co-Education 53

College 53

Combination of Authorities 53

Commercial Education 53

Compulsory Purchase of Land ... 54

Compulsory School Attendance ... 57

Conscience Clause 60

Consultative Committee of Board

of Education 6L

Conveyance of Children and

Teachers 61'

Cookery 62 '

Corporal Punishment 65

Correlation of Education 65

Correspondent for Schools 67

Councils, Borough and County ... 67

Courses of Instruction 67

Crippled Children 67

Cruelty to Children 67

Customs and Excise Act 67



Dairy Work 67

Day Schools ... 68

Defective Children 68

Denominational Schools 70

Deputations and Conferences 70

Detention of Children 71

Domestic Subjects, Instruction in 71

Drawing, Instruction in 73

Dre.-smakiug, Instruction in 73

Drill 74

Education Acts 74

Education Committees 74

Elementary Education 79

Employment of Children 80

Endowments 80

Epileptic Children, Instruction of. 82

Evening Schools 84

Examinations and Inspections 89

Examining Bodies 92

Exhibitions, School 93

Eyesight of Children 94

Factories and Workshops Acts ... 97

Fee Grant 100

Fees, School 101

Finance 103

Fire Insurance 105

Forgery of Certificates 105

Forms 105

Form IX 105

Free Education 106

Fuel and Light 106

Furniture, School 107

Gardens, School 107

Grants, Government Ill

G rants to Local Authority 112

Grouping of Schools 112

Half Timers 113

Heating and Ventilation 113

Higher Education 117

Higher Elementarj' Schools 118

Higher Grade Schools 123

Holidays 126

Housewifery 126

Industrial Schools 126

Industrial School Acts 134

Infant Schools 134

Infectious Disease 137

Inspectors and Organising Masters 139

Inspection of Schools 141

Institutions 142

Interpretation of Expressions 142

Jewish Schools 143

Kindergarten Instruction 143

King's Scholarships 144

Laboratories, Cheniicaland Physical 145

Labour Certificate Examinations... 146

l.ancastcrian Schools 147

Lauudiy Work 147


Law of School Attendance 148

Leaving Certificates 148

Libraries, School 151

Loans 152

Local Education Authorities 1 57

Local Government Board 158

Log Books 158

London School Board 159

Maintenance of Schools 159

Management of Schools 160

Mandaums 167

Manual Instruction, Wood and

Metal Work 167

Medical Certificates 171

Medical Officers 171

Mentally Deficient Children 172

Metric System 176

Ministers of Religion 177

Minor Local Authorities 177

Minute Books 177

Mixed Schools 177

Modification of Acts 180

Mortmain, &c., Acts 181

Music, Vocal and Instrumental ... 181

Museums 182

National Schools 182

Naval Schools 182

Necessity of Schools 182

Nurse School 182

Officers 183

Offices 184

Older Children — Courses of In-
struction 184

Parent 185

Parish 185

Pauper Children I8tj

Pensions for Teachers 186

Physical Exercises 187

Pictures for Schools 188

Playgrounds 188

Police Court Procedure 190

Popular Education in England and
Wales during the Nineteenth

Century 304

Population 191

Prevention of Cruelty to Children 191

Prizes 191

Prosecutions under Education Acts 192

Provisional Orders and Schemes ... 193

Pu))lic Elementary Schools 193

Pul)lic Inquiry 19D

Public Works Loan Commissioners 200

Pupil Teachers 200

Pupil Teachers' Centres 200

Quantities 204

(Qualifications of Teachers 204

Ratepayers 204

Kates 204



Rating of Schools 205

Reformatory ScIkioIs '.^07

Refusal of Grants 207

Registration of Touchers 208

Registration, School 217

Religious Instruction 221

Rent 226

Repairs 226

Requisitions 227

Returns 227

Rotas 227

Salaries of Teachers 227

Sale of Land 233

Sanitarj' Arrangements 233

Scholarships 233

School Attendance 236

School Atteuilance Committees ... 236

School Uoai'ds 237

School Caretakers 238

School Hygiene 238

School Journeys 239

School Organisation 239

School Planning 239

School Provision 243

School Savings Banks 246

School Sites Acts 251

School Year 251

Science and Art Teaching 251

Scilly Isles 252

Secular Instruction 252

Singing 252

Sites, Schools 253

StatiiuK of Schools 255


Standing Orders for Meetings, &c. 256

Statistics 258

Street Trading by Children 259

Subjects of Instruction 265

Superannuation of Officers 265

Supply of Teachers 269

Teachers 269

Teachers and Membership of

Councils 281

Teachers and Membershi|) of Edu-
cation Committee 281

Technical Instruction 281

Tempoi-ary School Buildings 283

Time Tables 284

Training Colleges 284

Transfer of Schools 289

Transfer of Property, Officer.s, &c.. 290

Travelling Expenses 294

Trust Deeds 294

Urban District Councils 294

University Extension Lectures ... 294

University Scholarships 295

Use of Schools at Elections 295

Vagrant Children 295

Wage-earning Children 296

Welsh Intermediate Education Act 297

Window Cleaning 298

Wood Carving 298

Women and Girls, Instruction ... 299
Women on Education (Jonj-

miltces, &c 303

Worksho])3 303

Youthful Offenders 303

Part III.


The Education Act, 1902 (2 Edw. VII., c. 42) 335

The Eiementiiry Education Act, 1870 (33 and 34 Vict., c. 75) 363

The Elementary Education Act, 1873 (36 and 37 Vic, c. 86) 389

The Elementary Education Act, 1876 (39 and 40 Vict., c. 79) 396

The Elementary Education (Industrial Schools) Act, 1879 (42 and 43 ^'ict.,

c. 48) ". 117

The Elementary Education Act, 1S80 (43 and 44 Vict., c. 23) 419

The School Boards Act, 1885 (48 and 49 Vict., c 38) 422

The Education Code (1890) Act. 1890 (53 and 54 Vict, c. 22) 425

The Elementary Education Act, 1891 (54 and 55 Vict., c. 56) 426

The Elementary Education (Blind and Deaf Children) Act, 1893 (56 and

57 Vict., c. 42) 429

The Elementary Education (School Attendance) Act, 1893 (56 and 57

Vict, c. 51) 436

The Voluntary Schools Act, 1897 (60 Vict., c. 5) 437

The Elementary Education Act, 1897 (60 Vict.

Online LibraryCharles Henry WyattWyatt's companion to the Education acts, 1870-1902 → online text (page 1 of 61)