Charles James Ball.

The book of Job, a revised text and version online

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render : Mine honour is chased as hy the wind. ''n3''13 my honour ; i. e. his
princely dignity and reputation (Driver): cf. a''13 noble, 12" 2128. But
® ^ eA.7ris iLov — Tilpn (ii times) or Wmn; 33 desiderium meum =

©2 TO KaTaOvfJ-td /iou (= ''n'^On, cf. Is 44«).

z). 16. St. i is metr. over weight with its four stresses. Om. W nnsil
And noiv (v. 9 ; dittogr.). Lit. Upon me (or Over me) my soul is poured
out; my feelings overwhelm me. Cf. Ps 42i'-<'-''-i''. For the vb. (Hithpael),
La 2" 41. Pro 9JJ i^JJ ^C" Days of affliction we might perhaps read, in
view of the vb. ''ilinx'' grip me or hold me fast, ^3y ''pnn cords of affliction
(36«cf Is 13') or 'y n) Aa;i(/j of affliction; but hardly <3s; iDN //^^ terrors
of a. (iDK constr. plur. does not occur). But the following rh^ By night
certainly favours 5DI : cf. "j^-^' "f-

V. 17. St. i has become too long, owing to dittogr. oi'h'S from v, 16.
Instead of 93J (''^V)^ "'i^? ^^ bored from off me, read t^1ip3 (0 = |i ut saep.);
cf \'\'yyif^ ad fin., which also confirms ro'h : By night my hones are pierced;
(5 om. '^JJD. For the vb. see Ju 16'^ Is 511. 'Corroded' is not a possible
rendering (RV marg.); nor is it hkely that xhh is the Subj. ('The night
gnaws away my bones '). It seems needless to suggest 'PPJ decay, or
lapT rot (cf. Pr 12^), since he means that his bones are racked and
wrenched with pain. ''■'j^J?? are troubled (Ps 6') would be better (cf (5
cnjyKc'xwTat =: ??3 Gn ii'). ?ny gnawers: cf v. 3: i.e. my gnawing pains,
Cf. Mk 9". 33 Et qui me comedunt non dormiunt. ((5 to, Se i/elpa pu
^LaXeXvTai, And my si7iews {10^^ 40^'') are relaxed tTes.ts''\>'p as an Aramaism;
cf. Aram. Xp^y a leathern strap or thong. So Nachmanid. App. also
it omits si? and reads '^~<^^\ pro ll^SE'^) Add perhaps ''liV my skin (or
nb*? my flesh') in St. ii metr. grat. (pt. ''i?.']'!'): ^7;rf /'/2^ gnawers of my skin
rest not.

V. 18. Very uncertain. A reference to God (RV marg. 'By to great
force ', &c.) seems improb., though the phrase DS"^!? is used in that
relation 23" (cf. Is 63'); unless indeed the verse be an interpolation. If it
were ' intended to describe how Job's garments are thrown out of shape,
as they cling closely to his emaciated form ' (Dr), it is surely obvious
that ' clinging closely ' would be the result of the limbs swelling rather
than of emaciation, which would cause the clothes to hang loosely about
the figure. The second member. Like the neck or collar (lit. mouth;
Ex 2i'^'') of my tunic he {iti they ? 'J'^W!? so 33) engirds (engirdT) me, may
suggest a parallel such as ''3K'3n' ^B'np i3:D3 Like the skirts of my raiment
they enivrap me (cf. Jon 2"): ' they', i.e. his gnawing pains, due to the
eruptions or ulcers which covered him from head to foot (2'). (5 supports
SOT, except that it lias ^7rcA.d/3eTo = C'Sn^ (i K 1 1'") pro '^WT. ■ ^^''^^ """^^



strength He laid hold of my robe ; \ Like the orifice (=30'?) of my tunic He
encircled me. ijrnN' . . . ''D3 {By the neck of my t. He seizeth me) would
improve this ; but, as pointed out above, the reference to God is improb.
in the context. TO wn^ B'ann* my clothing or ' coat ' (supposed by some
to mean my skin) is disguised (= disfigured), is altogether improb.
(cf. I Sa 288 I K 2230); and the emendation (*)B'n3 {my leanness : 18*^ see
note) pro TO is little better {Through my great leanness is my garment dis-
figured). The supposed ref. to the ill fit of Eyob's clothes seems almost
grotesque. The reading I'WI my flesh instead of "^m^h my garment does-
not harmonize with st. ii. (S / clothed me with my clothing and girt me
with my tunic : They threw me into the mire, &.C., v. 19. Cf. 9".)

V. 19. St. i is too short metr. and otherwise suspicious. He hath cast
me into the mire would rather be "I»n2 ''3T (cf. Ex \^-^) than '^ ''TT'
(Hi. c ? = shot at me). We might read ''^l'}'n He hath brought me down
(cf. La 21" Ps 5524) into the mire (Is io«), and insert bV; God as the Subject,
thus restoring both sense and metre. Since, however, the following verses
appeal directly to God in the 2nd Pers., we should perhaps consider this
verse as the beginning of the appeal (n = vestige of nnx Thou, emph. ;
'Jl = on), and read in closer parallelism with st. ii lohp 'jriB'i nriS Thou,
thou hast likened me to the clay : cf. © rjy-qcraL 8e /ic icra ttijAoI and 33
Comparatus sum luto. He complains that God thinks of him as mere
clay (cf. 10"), and treats him as of no more account than dust and ashes
(42" Gn 18").

V. 20. The rendering of st. ii in RV, / starid up, and thou lookest at me,
is forcible (cf. Ps22" 13 1NT1 IC^'ai), but unsatisfactory. The vb. punn
(23") does not mean to look at physically but mentally ; i. e. \.o pay atten-
tion to, give heed to, consider: cf. 11" 231^ 26" (see note). And metrical
balance and parallelism are improved by repeating the Neg. Ptc. K? c i
cod and 93 (Sto et non respicis me). Further, Tlloy / stood seems
dubious (© ta-TYjo-av Se Koi KaTivorjcrdv /xe, They stood, &C. ; cf Ps 22").
Does it mean I stood praying, or I stopped (32" 2 K 13'')? S miDV Thou
stoodest is not more prob, of God : cf. 9" z-^^-*-''. The parallelism requires
the 1st Pers. Reading 'RIOV (33™) or rather lljlV^ I supplicate or entreat
(22"), we get the good || I entreated, and Thou wouldst not regard me.

V. 21. Thou turnest (or art turned or wouldst turn) into a cruel (41^)
one to me. For the verb cf. i Sa io« and 41'^''. So 33 Mutatus es mihi in
crudelem. ®A ^-^^/Sija-av Be ixoi aveXt-q^ovK, They (my foes) turned out
ruthless to me (©^ i-Trip-qaav prob. does not indicate a different reading,
but a scribal error). Instead of 'JCDBTi assailest me = 33 adversaria mihi
(see 16' Gn 27" 49'^ 50'= bear malice against one) © iixaaTiywad^ /xe, didst
scourge me; app. a (hypoth.) Denom. from DIB' scourge (5") ''JIODb'n.

V. 22. ^y upon pro TO ^? unto. So ©©33. This must be right, whether
we connect nn-^ with the preceding or the following vb. c @ (cf. Gn 31"
2210 A a

354 THE BOOK OF JOB 30. „

Ex 4™ Dt 32'=) as seems better in view of St. ii. ® crafas Se fi( iv ^g^Vm?
= ninha 'JCt^ni (v. 14) or nxE^a (v. 15 ; cf. st. ii ad fin.).

St. ii is metr. short. The vb. ^JJfJS^ can only mean //lou vultest or
dissolvesf, breakest up, shaiteresi (cf. Ps 65" the hard earth with rain)
7iie with . . ., if strict parallelism be observed. The remaining word nwn
(Ketib) Qer{ n'BTl (i.e. njB'n see note at 5") is clearly corrupt. If 'my
substance ' were meant, the Pron. Suff. would be indispensable. HNiya
in {withl) the storm (RV), v. 14, or nxE'na in the din or uproar, 36^" 30'
would make sense but not metre ; to complete which we might perhaps
read DNtf 3 foa ''J3J3ni A nd thou snatches/ me away like chaff in the storm
(or leg. nsVB' = nOIDf); cf. 2\^^ 27™''- © Kai aTreppifd^ fie diro (Tumjpmi
= r\wm? 'i^'pfm-, as elisisti me valide - 2n(?); (SAnd Thou hast humbled
me and brought me low.

V. 23. the Grave: lit. Death, i.e. the place of the dead, used as a syn.
of Abaddon, 28''^ and She'ol, Ps 6« : cf. also 38". The Prep. "^6f may
have fallen out : cf. lo^ House of Assembly ("I5?^*3 IT'?): cf. the Mountain
of Assembly, scil, of the gods, Is 14". (An leg. 73 . . nui) , , nioii?)
© olSa yap oTt ^avaro's ;u€ eKxpti/fei = ^^S'tS*] i^'iU bruise or wear me dnon
(9") pro m '3?T1?. Seq. oiKia yap TravTi 6vt}TZ y^ — 'l^-b^b ISV m
(nsy = yyj ut 2'' et saep. — pro 15?b).

V. 24. Neither RV nor RV marg. is satisfactory. The dub. ''V a heap
of ruins (Mi i" cf. 3" Is 17') is improb. in the context and, in any case,
cannot mean in his fall. The phrase 3 "IJ njB' = ' stretch out hand
against one ', Gn 37'^ ^\^ ^nd P'^N^ y. 25, suggest the ||- term '3V here
(cf. 24*1131"). Read therefore ^JJJ3 pro W 'ya. (The suggested !!3B
sinking, qs ' a drowning man ', is improb. without some explanatory
addition : cf. Ex 15* Ps 69^). For "JK ad init. DX should prob. be read
(cf. ® ei); and for the ungrammatical words ad fin. (jlW (n^), parallelism
demands a verb. If now we read VK'N HP (him I would help; cf. [email protected])
there, and nl^K'N pro 'ti*' in st. i, we obtain :

If not against the poor T stretched hand, —
If in his ruin him I did help : —

a distich which essentially agrees with the immediate sequel (v. 25)

If I ivept for him whose day was hard, —
If my soul was grieved for the needy : —

and obviates the necessity of alteration in v. 25, except omission of N7 ad
init. (dittogr. fr. v. 24 ?).

(5 et yap o(f>eXov Svvaiixyjv tjU.auTOi' X€Lpuicra(r6ai = T nP'il^ (!) '''2X^3 vHN
(or ^333 vh DN* cf. 9»= Ps 8i» 119') Would that I might lay hands upon
(= kill) myself I (Perhaps ''by »b DK that against myself. .. Cf @

30. a9 NOTES ON THE TEXT 355

Btd not against vie — u.^Lb> — will he extend his hand \ And ivhen 1 cry
tmto him he will save me.) (5 therefore pfob. read 1J ^b^^ < > > N^'DN,
When © continues 17 SeriOeL'; ye (A SerjOrjvai) irepov, /cat TroL-rjcrii /xoi tovto,
it perhaps preserves traces of two guesses at the riddle of JJIK* ]rh, viz.
yiE-K i^ and HOT! ^b.

V. 25. For the phrase QliTIEJ'p one who has a hard day or time, cf. (5
I Sa 1^5 yvv^ 17 (TKkf\po. fift.ipa (= DV ncp pro 3K mi ncp). Note the
Aramaism Djy to be g.rieved. The word is of the same origin as D.3.X
troubled (Is 19""), DJt* a troubled or muddy pool or marsh (Is 14*'), both
found in Assyr. [agamu, 'trouble'; aga?nmu, 'swamp').

vv. 24, 25 do not seem to belong here. They agree in form with 3i"qi-
and may have belonged to that chapter, either as a marg. variant or a part
of the original text (cf. 311"-™). Vv. 27-31 might naturally follow v. 23.

V. 26. Perhaps a quotation from another source. The distich has
four stresses in each member (Tetrameter) instead of the normal three
(Trimeter). © paraphrases (as in v. 25). /or good: read 31Dp pro SJ
niD : cf. 3» 6" (also St. ii). For the sense cf. 3«5f. Je 8i=. ffiSSS om. *?.

z). 27. boiled: inm (4 1^' Hi. Causative) ; an Aramaism. Pointed Pu.;
perhaps should be Qal (cf. Syr. use); but Ez 24'' has Pi. © efe^to-ev.

were not quiet : IDT Pf. © o-twTrr/o-eTat = 10T Impf. {would not be
quiet) : prob. correct. Fig. of ' the tumult of his emotions ' (Dr). Cf.
La I™. The parallelism is weak. Yoxmet or confronted me, cf. 3" Ps 18"".
V. 28. A mourner: str. dressed as such: in dark and squalid attire
(Dr). Cf. 511. The phrase ''napn nnp occurs Ps 38', where it is completed
by the addition DliiTPD all the day, which would suit here also instead of
the strange DOn NP3 without the sun (Ct 6"). For the form of the sentence
cf. 241°. ncn sun (Is 302"= Ct I.e.) does not recur in Job. Leg. DH^D
a comforter. La i^, or nnnj comfort, di^". ITntpn NP3 ivithout desire (2 C 21™
without regret?) is improb.; and 'I go darkened (in skin), but not by the
sun' (cf. Ct i"; but Tip is not a syn. of ''WW) is simply a curiosity of
interpretation. © aVeu ^i/xoxi (alii 6vjt.ov = 33 sine furore, (S Nnion N?T,
pointing HOn ; so three codd.), without a muzzle (scribal error in ffi ?).
in the Assembly is strange if the verse is genuine. Did he visit the Gate
in the intervals of sitting on his heap ? v'p3 with my voice, i. e. aloud,
seems plausible ; but Slp3 suits 'nop / rose. The next verse, however,
favours '^pa, since his mournful cries constitute his resemblance to jackals
and ostriches : cf. Mi i*.

V. 29. For □''Jn jackals (33 draconum, confusing the word with pjn
a serpent), ® )?oti = % pIlT, ffi gives o-etpijvcov, sirens (so Is 34" 4320 ;
= ostriches Is 13"!). For the two Sirens see Odyss. xii. 39 flf. (Since
the Sirens were singers, and the word has no known etymon in Greek,
we may compare the Sumerian SIR, to sing, (also SUR, zatndru), and
Heb. -|iE' id. The debt of Greek mythology and religion to primitive

A a 2

356 THE BOOK OF JOB 30,^5

Babylonia is greater than is commonly suspected ; e. g. 2t/3vXAa, Sibyl,
prophekss, may ultimately be akin to SIB, divinalton.)

V. 30. 'My skin is black, andfalleth from me'(RV).. The supplement
is inadmissible. ' Black ' or even blackened skins do not necessarily
' fall ' off. Read perhaps vntt from disease pro W 7VO from off me. qg
denigrata est super me ; ffi (idKOTmrai) ixtyaXoii = iND'iy (Ps 38'-'), but
■•^nD is a closer parallel. The verb inB' be black, S.Tr. (Hi. Ecclus 25" =
o-KOTot) is Aramaic. It is prob. a Factitive (e>) formation from f^n (cf,
"lin St. ii), which means be hot (cf. fig. T\"\n, N"nn of heat of anger),
scorched, burned, charred, and may ultimately be identical with GAB
[KAD), GAR {KAR), shine, burn ; cf. Sum. KAR-KAR, shine, GAD,
GUD, id., Mongol k'ara, black, Jap. kuroi, id. Things biirni become
blacL ("intt' has no visible connexion with Sum. SHU-RIN, tinieru, clay
'firepot', "lisri; cf. SHU, hand, RIN, bright, glowing, qs the portable fire.)
my bones or limbs (v. 1 7) : pointing c ([email protected] as plur. "'CSV > 9JJ 'DXy sing.
and reading plur. Wn pro W 'Tin (Is 2 4«). Yet cf. 2= ig^o (Sing. Coll.?).

Chapter 31.

V. I. A covenant or binding agreeineni (n''13; cf. Assyr. biriiu, 'bond',
'fetter', fr. barii, 'to bind', fr. Sum. BAR, id^ T made for (= imposed
on, cf. 40^') my eyes. The gist of the covenant immediately follows;
I will never take notice of a virgin. 93J HDI (dittogr. of v. 2 ?) can scarcely
be right. 33 ut ne cogitarem quidem de virgine ; (5 Kai ov cmi/jjo-ft) m
Tro.pQi.vov (the verse was wanting in (S^i) ; S Nij"!, &c. That I would not,
&c. Leg. "DN 'Jt? emph. Pron. + the strong Neg. in oaths (cf i" 6**).
The Ptc. might also be understood as Interrog. = Num ? (6" Ju 5») :
D!!<(1) And would I take notice, ^r. ? The suggestion pl^nHD From taking
notice (= That I would 710 1 take, &c. ; Jt? of a Neg. Consequence) is gram-
matically but not metr. suitable. (Mt 5^' has been compared. There,
however, the subject is adultery, i. e. illicit intercourse with a married
woman, cf. 2 Sa 1 1*, which is not the case here.)

V. 2. Lit. And what is the portion of Eloah from above, &c., asRV;
but the meaning demanded by the context, according to some, must be
as RV marg. For this sense we should have expected niPND 'y}TCTn
: QiDI-iDD "IB'O •'rhr\y\ ^JyOD And what (would be) my share from E. above,
And my portion from Shaddai on high? cf. 20^' 27". As, however, niru
niiT may possibly mean portion assigned by lahvah (cf. Ps 127^), the
synonymous nii'N p^Tl and ilB' niriJ may perhaps bear the same unusual
meaning here. But an entirely different sense for the whole verse may
be obtained by rendering And what is (or was') Eloah' s award from above,
And Shaddai s allotment from on high? I jealously guarded my eyes,
says Eyob (v. i), and with what result? It is before you. God has
rewarded me evil for good. [He has all along maintained this (to us)


daring position, which, however, is quite in accordance with the pre-
suppositions of the story (see the Prologue).]

Then v. 3 might ask in the same strain Should not ruin (befall) the
unrighteous, And misfortune doers o/evil ? Why then has it befallen me,
the righteous ? Is it possible (v. 4) that God, like you, is blind to
realities, and cannot see the blamelessness of my life ?

(® KoX hi Ifxipia-ev kt\. €Tt is prob. a scribal error for ti', the reading
of S***^"^; Ifx.ipKTiv = p?n 21" or P2O 39". 33 Quam enim partem haberet
in me "Deus desuper, Et hereditatem Omnipotens de excelsis ?)

v. 3. St. i is metr. short, paj prepared may have fallen out after TX
(18"); or perhaps rather Niaj (s^** 2i" + 'T'X Pr6i5): Should not ruin
come to the unrighteous (leg. plur. c (S ; cf. || ad fin.). And calamity (IS?
Ob 12?) or hostility (1) to the evildoers {j,^'^'', cf 22^5)^ 133 is perhaps
estrangement, alietiation, as ©33 @. (Pro ^^i] ad init. vs. © ova.L = '•in.)

V. 4. Cannot HE (or Doth not HE) see my ivays, And take account 0/ all
my steps (14'" same phrase)/' It is an impossible supposition; and
therefore He must know my innocence.

Considerable difficulty has been felt about vv. 1-4, which appear to
have been wanting in &^, upon which and other internal grounds some
would omit them. The latter, however, are at least weakened by the
interpretation suggested above. It is no doubt true that Eyob has declared
that the wicked often prosper all their lives and enjoy a peaceful end (2i''^-),
and that vv. 2, 3 appear to contradict this. Driver, therefore, held that
vv. 2-4 ' state not what Job argues now, but the considerations which
deterred him from sin in the past'; and, unless we suppose him exempt
from temptation, it must be admittecTthat the instinctive fear of conse-
quences (which we call conscience) was one element in Eyob's piety
(cf i^-''), until the catastrophe overwhelmed him with an agony of doubt,
not of God's existence and power, but of His justice. Dr. E. J. Dillon,
rejecting vv. 1-4 as having been ' substituted for the original verses ',
supposes that the lost pair of quatrains made Eyob declare ' that this
great change of fortune is not the result of his conduct'. But, as we
have seen, the Massoretic verses may imply this, although they do not
directly state it.

V. 5. St. i is metr. short; and as we cannot speak di walking with NIB'
(75), but only with men o/'v, we insert (c 2 codd.) 'Dtp before it (11"
Ps 26^ ; ^IB^ ''^V^ does not occur). © fj.€Ta ytAotacr™i/, with jesters {om.).
St. ii. hath hasted or hastened: TO points E'DPII which looks more like Hi.
than Qal (B'nril). No other instance of the Impf Qal of B'ln occurs.
(Assyr. hdsu = Sum. GAL = BU-LUG; GAL, run, flow, gardru ; GIR-
PAB-GAL, take the road quickly. GAL = GASH'i GAR ? Mu is one
of the synn. ol aldku, 'to go'.) toward: ?N pro OT ???; cf. © ei's 80X01/.
l^in usually takes ? (e.g. Ps 22™).

358 THE BOOK OF JOB 31 g

V. 6. App. parenthetic, a true balance : so P"l?f ''P.3K Irue (correct^
weights, Le ip^^ opp. il?1'? ''Jj^'^ a false balance, Pr ii'. perfectness or
integrity : 2'-' 27^. The verse reminds us of the old Egyptian doctrine of
tlie Weighing of the Soul after death in the Hall of Judgement [see the
Book of the Dead) ; where the heart of the deceased is placed in the one
scale and the symbol of Truth in the other.

V. 7. St. i is overweighted. Leg. ^"J")"';!!? pro S5J ^^.'iin ''i)D. The Art,
is superfluous. With the idea of St. ii, cf. v. i.

St. iii is prob. an intruder in the text. 33 Et si manibus meis adhaesit
macula (SK ClWD = D10: so some codd. % Qeri) : see note at ii^s. QrK
n»?X» aught. (5 sees an allusion to taking bribes.

V. 8. another eat: © plur. It is needless to add any Obj. (e.g. ^3);
cf. Is 6522 Mi 6". Brevity may be the soul of force as well as of wit,
St. ii has only two stresses. © And may I become rootless on earth (cti
y^s) suggests that \-m:ifrom Earth (cf. Ps 52') may have fallen out after
'NSNV my offspring (%o also 52^ + ^J;■lT 218 27"; the only other occurrences
of the'word in'Job). 33 et progenies mea eradicetur = TO. Perhaps we
should read : f^.«3 IB'n'E'f x!? 'NS1 And my offspring not take root (Po.
Is 402*, cf Je 12" ch 53 Hi.) in the land! Cf. i8"-". (Even in Is 34142s
C^VKV means issue, progeny > produce. The Earth is the Mother of All;
cf i2'.)

V. 9, enticed: o'c deceived: cf v. 27, 5^, Je 20'. The -v/nns to he open,
i. e. not shut, met. unguarded, unsuspicious, easily deceived, simple, is
doubtless an offshoot of the Sum. BAD, pitii, ' to open '.

V. 10. grind: scil. with the handmill ; usually the work of female
slaves: Ex ii^^ Is 47^ (cf Ju 16^'). 93 Scortum alterius sit uxor mea,
assuming a sexual metaphor, in agreement with st. ii (® dpeVai is prob.
a scribe's error for akiuai = W) ; and so $. But there is no trace of
this met. use elsewhere. If a free woman were degraded to a nnSB', she
would become liable to both services at the will of her master, ((na
Ar. ^^13 = Assyr. tenu, 'to grind', e.g. tenu ia qemi, ' grind, of meal',
n»i^ ; of Is 472.) Leg. nnnx c 1 1 codd. ad fin. pro SDJ Inns (Aramaism);
© om. © ra hi vriTTia fiov = "^V) pro 31^ n^^VI. (Or ^hhv] La i« 4*.) In
St. i leg. fort, jnwy&r a master >nnXP_/or anothtr.

V. II. St. i is metr. short. Lit. For that is (or were, would be) an evil
device or wickedness (i^?!). We might insert ni'CJ) to do, Pr lo^', or add
■1^331 and folly, Ju 20^ ch. 42* (see 2" note; 308). For ns] see Lei8";
here only in Job (17" is corrupt): cf nB]» 21^' 42^. The vb. OPJ (not
in Job) springs from a Bilit. Root ZAM, make a sound, noise (Syr.), speak
(Arab.), speak to oneself or inwardly, i.e. think, plan, devise (Heb., Aram.),
cogn. c NAM\xi Heb. Dx:, NH. D« to speak, and Sum. NIM in 1-NIM,
E-NEM, word (NIM = ziM, by a well-known phonetic change).

Grammat. Concord justifies the Qeri N^TI in st. i and KW in st. ii.


In the latter QvyS pv is an ungrammatical combination or mixture of
\!'''f'?' PV (v- 28, and about 20 codd. here) and n'<b'<bs> plj (so codd. multt.).

a criminal offence : an offence of which the law takes cognizance, or
which renders one liable to its penalties. If the pointing fiS? be correct,
we must read vV? iudicialis (v. 28), an Adj. not found elsewhere, though
the f. njp^pa occurs as a Subst. in the sense of judging (Is 28' = Kptcris
(5^). It seems better to read J37''i)B fiv in both verses. For Xi'h'h^ judges
(plur. tant.) we have only Ex 22" (?) Dt 32" beside the present loc.
According to the law of Le 2oi», the penalty of adultery was death ; but
the phrase a crime of (^ox) judges hardly seems to express so much, or
indeed anything specially distinctive of adultery. 33 renders iniquitas
maxima (cf. <5 v. 28 avo/jiia fj yueyto-T-);) ; and it is evident that the original
phrase, whatever it may have been, was intended to emphasize the moral
gravity of the offence rather than its legal consequences. Did the trans-
lator think of *i>?3 wonderful, extraordinary ; or was his maxima merely
determined by his just sense of the general import of the verse ? <S, with
its Nnyjvn ^^ NJ^JJ est oculus fraudium and *nSJ3i' pn^3 NTn vidit omnes
fraudes meas confuses )iy with pv, and appears to read D^priD or DvnsJ
for n'b'htt and 'h-bti : cf. 5^^ where it renders Dv'??^ the tortuous by
N3nyi3S versuti,fraudulenli.

We perceive that S and 33 had a phrase more or less resembling
(D)vvD '\\V in their Hebrew copies ; but what are we to say of ©'s Ovfi.o';
yap opy^s aKaTacrxiTO'S, \ to /xiavai dvSpo<s yvvatKa (for a passion q/ anger
not to be checked, \ is Ike defiling a mans wife) ? Duhm, who translates
the Hebrew text For that is a deed of shame and rebellion. And that is an
offence for the Criminal Court (Denn das ist Schandthat und Abfall Und
das eine Schuld fiirs Halsgericht), speaks of ' the doubtful addition which
LXX has instead of v. 11^'; and then, after remarking that 'Unfor-
tunately not much can be made of the LXX ' (Leider lasst sich mit
der LXX nicht viel machen), he says ' I get a iTipi out of their dKarao-xeTos
(HTID)'. But iTip is an adj. fem. of "Ip stubborn, sullen, refractory, and
is not used for the subst. (abfallig, nicht Abfall); and it is improbable
that a.Ka.Ta.<TxeTo% represents a single positive term like iTjiD stubborn.
The verb ko-tLx^w, poet. Ka.Ta<Tx^Oiiv, means to hold back, check, restrain,
bridle, e.g. iWovs (Aesch. Pers. 190) and metaph. opyriv, Bvp.6v, &c. (Soph.
El. loii); and the verbal adj. with privative prefix here used in con-
nexion with 611/xos o(yyy\<i obviously means uncontrolled, unbridled rage or
passion. In 3I' Ovp.6% opyrj? renders the single word tp ; and it may
stand either for non (= Ov/xo?, 6< 1929 36", et al. saep.), or for DVl ( = 0/3777
15 times in ©) here. It might also represent such a phrase as majjl DJT,
which might possibly be a distortion of ni^a^l nor (vid. supr.). Cf. also
Is 303" ©. But the Adj. dKaracrxeTos also belongs to st. i ; and this may
represent Heb. 0'^3^'xb (cf. Ps32'-'; Pesh. ad i Cor 9') or Q'^oriib

36o THE BOOK OF JOB 31 „

uncurbed, unbiited, by an Aramaism (cf. Aram. NDDT a muzzle mbit, Datig
bit or muzzle an animal). We may therefore suppose that ©'s first stichus
implies a Heb. line DlOfK^ DJjr NWiD For that is (a cause of) indigna-
tion unbridled (or oijal^-K^ oyr NliT^D) ; while its second stichus, to fiiivu
avSpoi yvvalKa, instead of being a superfluous gloss on st. i, as Duhm
supposed, may stand for bv^ na'X H^l^b (or 'pbvh D^^? DTO), which way
have grown out of '"'^''bs 'ly N'ini by more or less obvious and usual
corruptions of letters (e.g. "ly = t^*, 3 = 3, v = 5J). [In the other two
passages also (Ex Dt) (5 failed to understand Q'b'bQ (cf also Is 16' 28'
and the vb. ^.^3 Gn'48" i Sa f^ Ez i6»2 Ps loe'") in the sense oi judges or

Online LibraryCharles James BallThe book of Job, a revised text and version → online text (page 38 of 52)