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cal Improvement, as per report in the Boston Medical and Swrgieal
Journal for June 28, the subject of delirinm tremens was up for dis-
cussion. In the expressed opinions of members present, there seemed
to be a lack of confidence in the remedial influence of opium. " Dr.
Minot asked if any gentleman had tried strong coffee in the treatment
of this disease 7 A former house-pupil at the Hospital, who had seen
much of the disease, had great faith in its efficacy, as had also the
nurse who took charge of the delirium tremens patients. It is given
in the quantity of two quarts in twenty-four hours." * * * «*Dr.
C. E. Ware had given strong coffee to a patient in the Hospital lately
with apparent good effects."

There are but few, if any, diseases in which a greater variety of
remedies has been proposed than in delirium tremens. The present
must be our occasion for suggesting a modification upon any of the
plans of treatment we have ever seen proposed. We -believe that lar-
tar-tmeiie and veratrum viride possess powers to control the delirium,
subdue the peculiar excitement, and thus indirectly dispose to sleep,
that are scarcely to be found elsewhere, while in the combined action
of strychnine and quinine we possess an influence admirably adapted
to restore lost tone to the nervous- system. In the former remedies
we have a power to relieve local congestion and vascular excitement,
and thus abate the delirium, while with the latter we can give tone
and vigor to the cerebro-spmal centres.

Effect of Medicine upon the Teeth. — In our Summary for last month
we referred to a paper by Dr. Abr. Robertson opoa this object. In



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228 REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY. [SEPT.,

the Denial Cosmos for July the subject is continued. It is one of
great interest, considering public prejudice; we have space only for a
quotation or two. '* Having now shown that medidnes, judiciously
exhibited and properly administered, do not, and generally cannot in-
jure the teeth, and that many, if not most, diseases do, and of necessity
must injure them more or less, I cannot refrain from adding that the
injudicious exhibition and improper administration of medicines, and
more especially the drenching themselves with quack nostrums, to
which our people are so strongly prone, as uniformly do, and must,
produce ill effects on these organs.*' * * * « Hence, a safe gen-
eral rule in relation to quack nostrums is, that any time is an improper
time, and any quantity is an improper quantity; and this is true of all
stages of existence, from earliest youth to decrepit age. But medicines,
when so administered as to secure the object for which they were
given — the restoration of the secretions fVom an abnormal to their
normal condition, the restoration of the body from disease to health —
instead of injuring the teeth, protect them from injury."



REVIEWS AND BIBUOGBAPHY.

The '* Journal de la Physiologie,^*
Though late, we hare received the ninth number of this Journal,
for January, 1860; containing the usual amount of valuable physio-
logical matter. It is now two years since the Journal de la Physir
ologie was started at Paris — long enough to test the question of its
success and permanency. The Journal was commenced on a scale
which demanded a considerable success in the way of subscription for
its support. Each number contained from two hundred to two hun-
dred and fifty pages; it has been elegantly printed, and apparently
no expense has been spared in rendering its illnstrations as perfect as
possible. The great element of success, however, lay in the contri-
butions it could command from the numerous eminent physiologists
now working in Paris. In this respect the journal has surpassed the
expectations of all who had formed any opinion on the subject on this
side of the Atlantic. Take, for example, the last number, and we
find in it original articles by Robin and Magitot, Chauveau, Balbi-
ani, Oilier, Brown-S^quard, Oratiolet, Martin-Magron and Buisson,
Rouget, Gubler; another article by Chauveao, and three more by the
editor, Brown-Seqnard. This constitutes the original department;



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I860.] BBVIBW8 AND BIBLIOGRAPHY. 229

and of the names we have mentioned, six, at least, are known where
the science of medicine exists. Comparing the original department
of the number before as with that of the preceding, and even of the first
namber, where great efforts were nndonbtedly made to obtain contri-
bations, we find that it never has been as rich in material as it is at
present. In addition to the articles wc have mentioned, we have
translations and extracts from other periodicals; proceedings of
learned societies, and a summary of the progress of physiology in all
nations, in which we may add the United States takes no insignificant
position. Gondacted and supported in this manner, the Journal is
important to every physician, and indispensable to a physiologist.

The first article in the January number, on the development of the
dental follicles, etc., by Robin and Magitot, is exceedingly elaborate,
occupying fifty pages of the Journal. The subject is treated of too
minutely to admit of an analysis at this time. Observations have
been made upon the formation and development of the dental follicles
in the foetus of man, some of the mammalia, and some reptiles; and
it is found that there is a remarkable uniformity in the development
of these organs in the different animals examined; thus enabling ob-
servers to draw correct deductions from observation upon the lower
animals. This article is to be continued in the following numbers of
the journal. The second article, by Chauveau, is on some of the
physiological effects of electricity on the animal organism. The next
is upon the rdU of the generative organs in the multiplication by
spontaneous division of certain kinds of infusoria. The reader of
the Buffalo Journal will remember an article which appeared in the
Journal of Physiology some months ago on sexual generation in
infusoria, which was analyxed for that journal. This article is a con-
tinnation of the same subject.

Following this we have an article by Dr. Oilier upon the trans-
plantation of bone. Dr. Oilier has lately been making some exceed-
ingly interesting experiments upon the transplantation of the perios-
teum, which have already been noticed by us. Transplantation of
bone has. been occasionally attempted, but with no very satisfactory
results. Oilier, however, as shown in this paper, has succeeded in a
most marked manner. He divides his experiments into three
groups:

1st. '' Transplantation of bone taken from a living animal and
placed in the midst of the tissues of an animal of the same species."

2nd. ** Transplantation of bone taken from an animal dead for a



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230 REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY. [SEPT.,

certain length of time, and placed in the midst of the tissues of an
animal of the same species "

3rd. " Transplantation of bone taken from a living animal, and
placed in the midst of the tissues of an animal of a different species.''

The author's experiments upon these various points have been em-
inently successful. We give in the authoi*'s own words a rdsumi of
the most important results of some of his experiments:

** In our experiments we have transplanted bones completely re-
moved from the soft parts, enveloped simply in their periosteum. We
have varied them in several respects, in order to appreciate the mech-
anism of the transplantation, and the different conditions of its
success. We have seen, in the first place, that the periosteum played
the principal part, and that its presence was indispensable to the suc-
cess of the operation. It protects the vitality of the bone which it
invests, and furnishes matter for its nutrition and growth; it con-
tinues, in a word, to perform the functions which usually devolve
upon it." *******

"We have transplanted bones ten minutes, thirty minutes, an
hour and a quarter, after the cessation of the beats of the heart in
the animal which furnishes them, and we have succeeded in making
them regain their vitality, so that five months after the transplanta-
tion we have made an injection penetrate into the medullary canal."

We pass over an article on raicrocephalus, and the character of
the human race, by Gratiolet; the comparative action of strychnine
and curara, by Martin-Magron and Buisson ; and the morphology of
the locomotive apparatus of the vertebrata, by Rouget. We next have
experimental researches on the physiology of the medulla oblongata,
by Brown-Sequard. In this article the author reasons that the in-
stantaneous stoppage of res{Mration, and consequent death, which fol-
lows upon the destruction of the medulla oblongata, is the consequence
of irritation, and not the destruction of the nervous centre. Taking
the phenomena which follow destruction of this centre in detail, he
argues first, that the arrest of the heart's action is identical with
the effect produced by galvanization of the pneumogastrics, by which
the action of these nerves is exaggerated, not abolished; and that
the medulla oblongata and cervical portion of the cord are often re-
moved without this result. Second, that irritation of various parts
of the cord produces that sudden arrest of the respiratory movements
which so invariably follow injury of the medulla oblongata, so that
the arrest of respiration, which commonly follows the removal of the
medulla, may be the result of irritation of the neighboring parts qf the



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I860,] REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHT. 231

nervoas system; and that the movements of ^ respiration have been
observed to continue in certain animals after removal of the medalla
oblongata. Third, that the ** agony" without convalsions, another
acknowledged characteristic of death from injury to the medulla
oblongata, is seen in cases of death from syncope, in cases where the
movements of the heart are arrested by the galvanization of the pneu-
mogastrics, etc., etc. These are but a few of the most important ar-
guments brought forward by the author in support of his views.

We have another short article by Brown-Sequard, showing the inde-
pendence of the vital properties of the motor nerves. In support of
this he adduces the fact that the irritability of a motor nerve which
has been entirely detached from its centre, will return after it has been
completely exhausted by continued irritation. It is impossible, of
coarse, that this return of its vital property should come from any
other part of the nervous system. He also brings forward an exper-
iment in which the vital properties of a nerve were brought back nn-
der the influence of blood charged with oxygen, when this nerve was
completely isolated from the nervous centres; this was done by inject-
ing the blood into the vessels of a limb of an animal, after the ner-
vous irritability had entirely disappeared. At the end of ten min-
utes the vital properties of the nerve, as shown by muscular contrac-
tion following its irritation, were completely re-established. We
have remaining, in the original department, another article by the
editor on the influence of the nervous centres on nutrition, and a let-
ter from M. Chauveau on the mechanism of the vascular '* hruiis dt
souffle,^^ and the action of the auriculo-ventricular valves.

Our notice of the original articles contained in this number has
been so extended, that we are compelled to omit the section devoted
to translations, selections, etc.



An Address: delivered to the Graduates of the Long Island College
Hospital. By Austin Flint, M.D. Brooklyn: 1860.

Any discourse of Dr. Flint, upon whatever topic, is always scholarly,
evincing that nice sense of the proprieties of Belle-leitreism, which show
him to be thoroughly conversant with literature beyond the strict
limits of that of his own profession. The rules and spirit which should
guide and animate the young practitioner in his endeavor for an hon-
orable distinction in his profession, are very happily drawn and corn-



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232 REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY. [SbPT.,

mended in the present discourse. The terms with which he designates
the rear of the profession have a mild and agreeable spiciness. He
entitles this division of the profession as monumental physicians. We
may thank him for the trath he so neatly enforces in the following
paragraph:

" In the medical profession, as In other walks of life, not a few can-
not, or will not appreciate the great fact of progress; and, hence, the
profession abounds in members who may be distinguished by the title
of monumental physicians. They represent not the present, but the
past I They are living monuments of former stages of the career
of science. They do not reflect science as it is, but perpetuate it as it
has been. Remaining in a fixed position from the time when they
entered the profession, they represent dififerent periods of the past.
A few are the living representatives of medicine as it was fifty years
ago; some carry us backward a score of years, and others are only
removed a single decade. While the progress of knowledge and art
18 onward, they are stationary, occupying always the same spot, with
eyes reverted — * not remembering Lot's wife I' Our monumental
brethren are not infrequently among those who decry the present
system of medical instruction; finding fault with the schools for not
adopting a higher standard of attainment for graduation. This is not
the time and place for discussing the responsibility of professors for
the admission into the profession of imperfectly educated graduated.
But it is not inappropriate, in the present connection, to say that the
subject of medical education has reference not to medical students
oifly, but to practitioners of medicine. The want of progressive
studies after graduation is, to say the least, as crying an evil as de-
fective preparation for practice. Much as our schools fall short <rf
what they might be made to be, it would be of immense advantage
to the profession if practitioners, old as well as young, resorted to
them much oftener than they do. As it is, our intelligent students
contribute in no small measure to the improvement of the profession
by reporting what they see and hear, and thereby inciting and direct-
ing the inquiries of those who stand to them in the relation of private
teachers. In fact, it is not too much to say that the students and
graduates from our schools go forth as missionaries to convert the sta-
tionary practitioners to faith in the new revelations of truth which
are constantly taking place in the progress of medical knowledgel
Let me express the hope, gentlemen, that of those whom I now ad*
dress, none will ever be ranked among the monumental physicians. Be-
gin your professional career with the conviction that constant prc^^ress



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I860.] REVIEWS AND BIBUOGBAPHY. 238

18 the law of this as of other departments of knowledge not springing
directly from Dirine revelation; and with the determination always
to be foand among those who represent its actual condition."

The whole of this discourse is noticeable among those on similar top-
ics for the absence of the Academic sinU, which nauseates the philo-
sophical appetite while overlooking them.



A Monograph upon AconUe : Us Therapeutic and Physiological Effects^
together vjUh its Uses^ and Accurate Statements derived from the Va-
rious Sources of Medical Literature. Translated from the German
of Dr. Reil. Teacher of Medicine, and Physician at Halle. By
Hbnrt B. Millard, A.M.. M.D. Prize Essay. New York: Wil-
liam Radde. 1860.

Monographic writings are valuable means of unfolding and portray-
ing any given subject, and tend to improve and enrich our knowledge.
Prdizity, which is repugnant to American taste and character, is, how-
ever, likely to attend such productions; much unimportant and value-
less matter is associated with the good and profitable, yet, on the
whole, we condder monographs as holding important pUoes in the
literature of medicine, and we wish they were more numerous.

We have just been perusing a monograph on Aconite from the pen
of one Bell, a German, translated by Dr. Millard, of this city, and
published by Radde — all Hahnemanniacs,

The treatise is very good in many respects, discussing the subject in
its historical, physiological, and therapeutical relations. Upon analysisi
of the work, we find about one hundred and fifty different authorities
quoted, upon whoso experiments, opinions, &c., is deduced ihQjinak
of the book, under a chapter of ** Conclusions." When we investigate
still further, and find but about twenty-five of these one hundred and
fifty authorities are homoeopathists, we are a little put to our wits to
find out how homtBopathic conclusions can be drawn from such sources.
It is true, conclusions might be deduced negatively, but in this mono-
graph under consideration they are drawn positively; and this only in-
creases oar wonderment at the superstructure upon such a foundation,
especially as the writer, when speaking of regular medicine, calls it " an
almost forgotten old-womanish system."

In the course of our reading, we find the expressions " our remedy,"
and *' our aconite," which would lead one to think aconite was a reme-
dy peculiar to the Hahnemanniacal practice. How such assumption
can be made is more than we can understand.



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234 REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY. [SbPT.,

Aconite was introdoced into the materia medica centuries ago, long
before the dilating, tritarating, attenuating, saccassing, djnamizating,
infinitesimalists started in their career.

Hundreds of pages portraying the indiyidual and collateral experi-
ence of learned investigators declare to the world that aconite as a
medicine found its birth-place in the manger of regular medicine.

We protest most earnestly against the assumption that aconite is a
homoeopathic remedy.

Who of all others has given to us the most reliable facts in refer-
ence to aconite ? Fleming I Of sixteen monographs that have been
published on aconite, how many are from infinitesimal pens? Three !

Of nine articles that have appeared on the subject in journals, how
many are written by homoeopathists ? Three !

Six out of twenty-five authors have written about " our remedy,"
which makes it homceopathic, of course, and homoeopathically it is so.
If the number could be attenuated still more, and stood in about the
proportion of aconite to its menstruum in its thirtieth dilution, then
their right to call it a homceopathic remedy would be indisputable.

Setting aside its homoBopathic connections, we think the book wor-
thy the attention of all inquirers after information upon the subject,
and would only say that we think its translator has erred in having
the work issue from a source which at once stamps the volume with
the impress of only infinitesimal value, and thus narrows its circulation.

Job.





TraTisactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York for the
Year 1860. Pp. 280.

This volume of the Transactions of the Medical Society of this
State is not equal to some of its predecessors in bulk, and yet the
meeting itself was a very interesting one. Perhaps the chief reason
of this discrepancy between the things as done and the things as re-
corded, is, that much time was taken up by discussions, of which no
record appears. It was a notable exception to the rule generally holding
true of such societies, that the discussion of by-laws and rules of order
took very little of the time of the meetings. The excellent manage-
ment of the President, Prof. B. F. Barker, kept the Society from that
waste of time which follows these common and exciting, but useless
discussions. Some of the debates arising from the subject of the va-
rious papers were, to our thinking, very well worthy of preservation,
and we hope that hereafter measures will be taken to preserve them.



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I860.] REVIEWS AND BIBUOGRAPHT. 235

As UlastratiYe of oar meaDing, we can remind those who were pres-
ent, that the interesting disenssions which followed upon the presenta-
tion of the memorial of Qaeens County Medical Society; of the report
of the Committee on Fharmacentical Preparations; and of the resolu-
tions concerning the pathological specimen of fracture of the neck of
the femur, are not given in the proceedings. Tet these were all
upon practical subjects of great importance, and the discussions were
generally regarded as of great value by those present. But let us not
be understood to blame the excellent Secretary of the Society. He
has much to do, and he does it well. But what is needed is a short-
hand reporter, who shall prepare his account of the proceedings for
the Committee on Publication, and let them preserve what is valuable
of it. Then would the absent members of the Society be in a man-
ner benefited by the discussions, as well as by the papers read at the
meeting.

The number of papers in this volume is thirty-four, and consist of
voluntary communications, reports of committees, communications from
county societies, and biographical sketches. One of the reports —
that of the Committee on Pharmaceutical Preparations — ^has appeared
in our pages. It is, by the way, an interesting fact, that the phar-
maceutical report was not adopted, chiefly because it-was too fa^torahU
to those preparations; a view that may surprise the manufacturers.

A careful perusal of the volume will repay any one who receives a
copy. A certain number of them, by the way, are at the command of
each Assemblyman and Senator.



The New American Cyclopadia: A PojnUar Dictionary of Greneral
Knowledge. Edited by George Ripley and Charles A. Dana.
Volume X. Jerusalem — Macferrin, New York: D. Appleton &
Co. 1860. Pp. 788. 8vo.

The depressing effects of the dog-days seem to have no power on
the energy and perseverance of the editors and publishers of the Cy-
clopsedia. With almost mathematical regularity, each volume makes
its appearance at the promised time, and satisfies the subscribers, by
the valuable material it coutains, that they have done well in voting
the book a prominent place among valued works of reference on their
book-shelves. It combines so many good qualities, being a good man-
ual of biography, geography, history, and science in general — a mvl'
turn inparvo — that it is really a library in itself, from which the gen-
eral student, the specialist, and the man of business may obtain that



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236 REVIEWS AND BIBUOGBAPHY. [SbPT.,

information which is required almost daily in their 8e?eral pnrsaits.
Dry detail is avoided, and the articles present so attractive a form,
that the stndent is tempted to take np a volume in his leisure mo-
ments, and read simply as a pastime.

The march of science and knowledge generally is so rapid that Cy-
clopedias in a few years become antiquated. It is pleasant to think
that one of the most useful of these publications has been produced by
the American press. Let us hope, when the time shall arrive for the
appearance of a successor to this Oyclopsddia; it may command a su-
perintendence as liberal and thoroughly Eucyclopsedic as the pub-
lishers have been fortunate enough to obtain for the New American
Cyclopedia. u h. s.



Froriej^s Notizen aus dem Gthiett der Nalur, und Heilkunde, gesammelt
und mitgetheilt von Dr. Robert Froriep, des rothen Adlerordens
vierter Classe Ritter, Ednigl. Preuss. Geh. Medicinalrathe, A. D.
und praktischem Arzte in Weimar, &c., &c. Druck nnd Yerlag,
von Friedrich Mauke, in Jena.

These Notes of the Natural and Medical ScUnees are in the thirtieth
year of publication. One hundred numbers are issued annually; sub-
scription price, $8.00.

Each number consists of eight beautifully-printed quarto pages,
double columns, of the choicest reading matter, arranged under the
two separate heads of Knowledge of Nature, (Naturkunde,) and Knowl-
edge of Healing, (Heiikunde.) Long extracts from new books,
introduced by short critical and expository notices, and occasionally,
also, important contributions, extracted from the journals, or directly
communicated, form the principal articles of each division; while in
each, under the sub-heading Miscellanies, additional news from the book
or periodical press is presented in short, condensed abstracts. Fi-
nally, under the heading Bibliographical News, a list of the newest
publications throughout the world, with full title-page, and generally



Online LibraryCharles JanetAmerican medical monthly and New York review → online text (page 26 of 54)