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Note the delightful strokes of humour in this and the following
letter— "Time" (as was said of one of us) "toils after us in
vain." Johnson's line on Shakespeare— " Panting Time toiled
after him in vain."

Letter CCXVIII (p. 77). — My letter to the old gentleman.
— The parody on De Quincey's Letters to a Young Man ivhose
Education has been Neglected. See previous letter to Barton
of 5th March.

I miss Janus. — "Janus Weathercock," the now notorious
Thomas Griffiths Wainewright (the forger and poisoner), had
been on the regular staff of the London Magazine.

Letter CCXXI (p. 79).— This fragment of a letter to Charles
Lloyd was first printed in the volume of Barton's Letters
and Poems already referred to. Lamb's letter was written to
Lloyd on occasion of receiving from him a fresh volume of
his poetry : Poems, by Charles Lloyd : London, 1823. Among
them are "Lines, written Feb. 6, 1822, on the death of Mary
Lloyd, Mother of the Author"; "Stanzas on the Death of
Mary Braithwaite, the third Sister of the Author " ; and others.

Letter CCXXII (p. 80).—/ abused Hastings. The Elia
Essay "The old Margate Hoy" was written during Lamb's
sojourn at Hastings, and published in the London Magazine
of this very month, July 1823. In the course of that essay he
had, as he says, "abused Hastings." Readers of Elia will
remember the passage about "this detestable Cinque Port."
But, as will be seen, Lamb came to change his opinion of its
merits. The small country church, here described, is the little
church of Hollington, a mile or two out of Hastings. It evi-
dently inspired Lamb's fancy in a wonderful degree. He recurs
to the subject in more than one letter of this period.

Southey has attacked " Elia. "—See chap. vii. of my Memoir of
Lamb in the Men of Letters Series. Southey's article appeared
in the Quarterly for January 1823. The Elia Essay "On
Witches and other Night Fears " was the one specially chosen
by Southey to point his moral.

Letter CCXXIV (p. 82). — Your kind sonnet. What sonnet
this could have been I do not know. Barton had published a
TOL. II. Y



322 LETTERS OF CHARLES LAMB.

sonnet to Elia in the London of the previous February, be
ginning—

" Delightful author ! unto whom I owe

Moments and moods of fancy and of feeling."

Barton included it in his volume Poetic Vigils in 1824. It
embodies some discriminating criticism.

Mr. Cary, the Dante-man. — The first mention in these letters
of the Rev. H. F. Cary, the translator of Dante, and a frequent
contributor to the London Magazine. He had a residence at
the British Museum as Assistant-Keeper of Printed Books.

Letter CCXXV (p. 84).— Hood was at this time on a visit
to Hastings for his health. Lamb, who had himself been there
lately, writes to instruct his friend as to seeing the lions, among
which the little church at Hollington again appears. The
reference to Standgate Street is simply a practical joke. There
is no such street in Hastings, and though great changes have
been made in the nomenclature of streets and roads in that
town, the oldest inhabitant can recall no such name.

" He sang in meads." — The source of this picturesque couplet
is as yet unknown to me.

Tom Woodgate was a boatman at Hastings, under whose care
Hood often enjoyed a sail. See the " Literary Reminiscences "
in Hood's Own. "Old Lignum Janua" in the opening of this
letter would appear to be a Latin alternative for him.

Letter CCXXVII (p. 85).— Your "Stanzas on Bloomfield"
This poem had been sent to Lamb on its appearance in the
columns of a local paper, and when it was next printed in
Barton's Poetic Vigils (1824) it was with certain modifications.
That word "Horkey," for instance, which is the Suffolk name
for the Harvest Supper, had disappeared (probably in deference
to Lamb's objections), and the stanza in which it occurred was
recast so as to admit of "Harvest-Home" instead.

How happily you have brought in his subjects. —

" Circling the Old Oak Table round,

Whose moral worth thy measure owns,
Heroes and heroines yet are found

Like Abner and the Widow Jones.
There Gilbert Meldrum's sterner tones

In virtue's cause are bold and free,
And ev'n the patient sufferer's moans

In pain and sorrow plead for thee."

I meditate a letter to S. in the London. — The famous letter to
Southey appeared in the following month.



NOTES. 323

Letter CCXXX (p. 88). — Mr. Dibdin had sent Lamb a
sacking pig (yet another result of the memorable essay), and
with it a miniature semblance of a pig worked in satin and
straw.

Sir (as I say to SoiUhey). — A reference to the solemn and
formal opening of his letter to Southey in the current number
of the London Magazine.

Letter CCXXXI (p. 89). — The kindness of your note. We
cannot but regret that this reply of Southey's has not survived.
The "Confessions of a Drunkard" was a paper of Lamb's con-
tributed some years before to a compilation by Basil Montagu,
called ' ' Some Enquiries into the Effects of Fermented Liquors.
By a Water Drinker." In the Quarterly for April 1822
appeared an article on Dr. Reid's treatise on "Hypochon-
driasis and other Nervous Affections." These " Confessions of
a Drunkard " were there referred to as "a fearful picture of the
consequences of intemperance," which the reviewer went on to
say " we have reason to know is a true tale."

Letter CCXXXII (p. 90). — Thou wilt see a funny passage.
See the Elia Essay "Amicus Redivivus," and my notes there-
upon, in Elia, pp. 281 and 418.

Letter CCXXXIV (p. 93).— Mr. W. Harrison Ainsworth,
the future novelist, is here addressed. He must have lent Lamb
the works of William Warner, the Elizabethan poet, author of
Albion's England. The only English version of Goethe's Faust
as then accessible was Hayward's.

Ainsworth, a youth of eighteen, was as yet residing at Man-
chester, where his father was a solicitor. He came up to London
in the following year.



CHAPTER V.

1824-1827.

Letter CCXXXVI. (p. 96) — Thurtell, the notorious murderer
of Mr. William Weare, "who lived in Lyon's Inn," was executed
at Hertford on this day. It will be remembered that at his
trial one of the witnesses enunciated the famous definition of
Respectability. See Carlyle's Works, passim.

Letter CCXXXVII (p. 98).— Your friend Taylor. The
Rev. C. B. Tayler, curate of Hadleigh, Suffolk, author of various
religious stories, now forgotten.

Your account of my black-balling. It had been proposed to



324 LETTERS OF CHARLES LAMB.

admit Elia for circulation in a Book Club in Woodbridge, to
which Barton and other Friends belonged, with the result here
mentioned.

" / have been merry once or tivice ere now."

Master Silence, in Henry IV. Part II.

Coleridge's Book. Aids to Reflection, published in 1825.
It consists largely, as will be remembered, of passages from
Leighton's writings with Coleridge's comments.

The decision against Hunt. The Liberal : Verse and Prose
from the South, edited by Leigh Hunt in Italy, contained in its
opening number Byron's "Vision of Judgment." The Consti-
tutional Association filed a criminal information in the King's
Bench for libel against John Hunt, the publisher. The case
came on January 15, 1824, and the defendant was ultimately
fined £100, and required to give security for good behaviour
for five years.

Letter CCXXXVIII (p. 100).— " Inesilla, or the Tempter,"
a story by one of the brothers Oilier, who had published Lamb's
collected works in 1818.

Letter CCXXXIX (p. 100).— "Poetic Vigils." A volume
of verse by Bernard Barton, then in preparation. The motto
finally chosen for the title-page was a stanza of Henry Vaughan,
the Silurist —

Dear night ! this world's defeat."

Letter CCXL (p. 102).— In 1824, Mr. Fitzgerald tells us,
Barton "received a handsome addition to his income from
another quarter. A few members of his Society, including
some of the wealthier of his own family, raised £1200 among
them for his benefit. ... It seems that he felt some delicacy at
first in accepting the munificent testimony which his own people
offered to his talents." Lamb's letter is in reply to one from
Barton, consulting him on this matter. Lamb, it will be seen,
overstates the amount contributed.

Letter CCXLII (p. 104).— This interesting letter is now for
the first time printed correctly, from the original in the posses-
sion of Mr. B. M 'George of Glasgow, who kindly placed it at
my disposal. The letter arose out of the following circum-
stances. James Montgomery, the poet, had this year edited a
volume of original prose and verse, setting forth the wrongs
and sufferings of the little chimney-sweepers, for whose relief a
Society had been for some time labouring. The volume was
entitled, The Chimney -Siveeper's Friend, and Climbing -Boy's
Album. Lamb had been invited to contribute a poem, but not
finding time or inspiration, sent instead Blake's verses, "The



NOTES. 325

Chimney -Sweeper," then all but unknown to the ordinary
reader of poetry. They appeared in Montgomery's volume with
this heading, " Communicated by Mr. Charles Lamb from
a very rare and curious little work," the very rare work being
Blake's Songs of Innocence. Bernard Barton, himself a con-
tributor to Montgomery's Album, had there discovered these
verses of Blake's, and had written to Lamb to ask questions
concerning the writer of them. "Is Blake a real name?"
was evidently his wonder. It will be seen that even Lamb
did not know Blake's Christian name.

Your recent acquisitions of the Picture and the Letter. Barton
had received from some relatives at Carlisle a portrait of his
father, which had greatly pleased him. Barton describes it in
a letter to his friend Taylor, included in Mr. Fitzgerald's
Memoir. The picture of Lamb's father, here referred to, has
been engraved in Mr. Procter's Memoir of Lamb.

His poems have been sold hitherto only in Manuscript.
Lamb obviously means that the Songs of Innocence were not
printed, but engraved in writing-hand on the same plates as
the drawings that illustrate them. As usual, Lamb was one
of the first to recognise genius where the world in general only
saw insanity.

The Society with the affected name. "The Society for
Ameliorating the Condition of Infant Chimney -Sweepers" is
the name of one Society, mentioned in Montgomery's book,
having this philanthropic object.

So we have lost another Poet. Byron had died at Missolonghi
on the 19th of April.

Letter CCXLIII (p. 106). — Your very pretty volume.
Poetic Vigils, now at last published (1824).

You have done Woolman injustice. In some lines headed
"A Memorial of John Woolman, a Minister of the Gospel
among the Quakers," written in anapaestic verse.

The piece on Nayler. ' ' A Memorial of James Nayler, the
Reproach and Glory of Quakerism."

Letter CCXLIV (p. 107). — Young Arthur. A story in
verse by Mr. Dibdin's father, Charles Dibdin the Younger.
Many of the interspersed lyrics are thoroughly graceful and
musical.

Just returned from Botany Bay. Barron Field had this year
resigned his post of Judge of the Supreme Court at Sydney,
and returned to England.

Letter CCXLV (p. 108).— Mr. Cary had sent Lamb his
translation of the Birds of Aristophanes.

Letter CCXLVI (p. 108). — On getting a house over your
head. ' ' Now, too, after having long lived in a house that was



326 LETTERS OF CHARLES LAMB.

just big enough, to eat and sleep in, while he was obliged to
board with the ladies of a Quaker School over the way, he
obtained a convenient house of his own, where he got his pic-
tures and books about him " (Fitzgerald's Memoir).

The alburn shall be attended to. The album of Lucy Barton,
to which the poem given in the succeeding letter was contri-
buted.

The "Prometheus," unbound. Mr. Mitford, Barton's neigh-
bour and friend, had written to a local bookseller for a copy
of Shelley's Prometheus Unbound, and after some delay had
received the answer that he was sorry the work was not to be
obtained "in sheets."

A sonnet conceived and expressed with a witty delicacy.
Shelley's lines hardly constitute a sonnet. Lamb refers to his
" Lines to a Reviewer," beginning —

" Alas ! good friend, what profit can you see
In hating such a hateless thing as me ?
There is no sport in hate where all the rage
Is on one side."

A futile effort in the next Number. The beautiful Essay,
" Blakesmoor in Hertfordshire," was in the London Magazine
for September 1824.

Letter CCXLVII (p. 110). — These verses were headed, when
sent in this letter, " In the Album of Hannah Barton." Lamb
explains why he had assumed that Christian name.

Letter CCXLIX (p. 113).— Mr. Procter (Barry Cornwall)
was married to Miss Anne Skepper, the step-daughter of Basil
Montagu, in October 1824.

Letter CCL (p. 114). — Mr. Monkhouse, a cousin of Mrs.
"Wordsworth's, was threatened with consumption, and had been
ordered by his physicians to winter in Devonshire. Miss
Hutchinson was staying at Torquay with the Monkhouses. He
died early in the following year.

Letter CCLI (p. 116). — Mr. Mitford's vases, which were
actually made in China and sent home, are now in the posses-
sion of my friend Mr. W. Aldis Wright.

Fauntleroy, the memorable banker and forger, was executed
on November 30, 1824.

Letter CCLII (p. 118). — The book, transformed by the
servant-maid into "Luster's Tables," was (as will easily be
guessed) Luther's Table-talk.

Letter CCLIII (p. 119). — Leigh Hunt was still with his
family in Genoa. See the allusion in the last sentences of the



NOTES. 327

letter. He did not return to England till late in the following
year, 1825.

Vincentio is Vincent Novello. Lamb probably wrote Isa-
bella, but Mrs. Novello's name was Mary Sabilla ; Mr. Clark
was Charles Cowden Clarke, her son-in-law. The various
details respecting the Novello family are pure romance. The
reference to the quite recent marriage of Procter (in October
1824) further fixes the date of the letter.

Irving ims dedicated a book to S. T. C. Irving's "Anniver-
sary Sermon of the London Missionary Society," preached at
Whitfield's Tabernacle in May 1824, and published with a
Dedication to Coleridge. The following is an extract from this

Dedication: " When I state the reason to be that you

have been more profitable to my faith in orthodox doctrine, to
my spiritual understanding of the Word of God, and to my
right conception of the Christian Church, than any or all of
the men with whom I have entertained friendship and conver-
sation, it will perhaps still more astonish the mind and stagger
the belief of those who have adopted, as once I did myself, the
misrepresentations which are purchased for hire and vended for
a price concerning your character and works." See Mrs.
Oliphant's Life of Irving, vol. i. chap. ix.

Letter CCLV (p. 122). — The Chcssiad, a mock-heroic poem,
by Charles Dibdin the Younger. The simile of the charwoman
is a fair specimen of the whole, but {pace Lamb) is hardly up to
the level of Hudibras. The volume sent was Comic Tales and
Lyrical Fancies; including The Chcssiad, a mock-heroic, in
five cantos, etc. etc. (London, 1825.)

Letter CCLVI (p. 123).— Be Quincey's " Parody." Lamb's
" Letter to an old gentleman," etc., already more than once
referred to as a parody of De Quincey's Letter to a Young Man
whose Education has been Neglected.

The "Horns." A paper of Lamb's, entitled "A Vision of
Horns," rather poor and forced, and on a dubious subject,
was printed in the London Magazine for this month.

The Memoir of Liston. See Mrs. Leicester's School, etc., p.
253. It appeared, as did also the Parody on De Quincey, in
the London Magazine for January 1825.

In the next Number I figure as a Theologian / Lamb pub-
lished a short paper, "Unitarian Protests," directed against
the conformity to Church ceremonies by his old friends. the
Unitarians.

I have lately picked up an epigram. The epigram in ques-
tion was by Henry Man, one of the clerks in the South Sea
House, when Lamb first knew that Institution. Lamb refers
to the two "forgotten volumes" by Man, in his Elia Essay,



328 LETTERS OP CHARLES LAMB.

"Recollections of the South Sea House." The volumes were
published in 1802 : Miscellaneous Works in Verse and Prose of
the late Henry Man. The epigram is there given. Man was
Deputy-Secretary at the South Sea House in 1793.

Letter CCLVII (p. 124). — That ugly paper, the "Vision
of Horns " before mentioned.

" Dream, on J. Bunyan." Refers possibly to some lines by
Barton on seeing a portrait of John Bunyan, which were printed
some time after in Major's edition of the Pilgrim's Progress,
with Southey's Biography of the author.

The second Number. Of the London Magazine, New Series.

The queen of the East Angles. Barton's daughter, Lucy.

Letter CCLVIII (p. 125). — I saw Tuthill yesternight.
Lamb had been taking medical advice as to his qualifications to
retire from the India House, on the score of ill-health.

Letter CCLX (p. 127).— See Lamb's Elia Essay, |'The
Superannuated Man," and the notes thereon, in my edition of
Elia. The final release from his slavery came about on the
last Tuesday in March. Two medical men, Tuthill, and Cole-
ridge's friend, Gillman of Highgate, gave him the necessary
certificates.

Letter CCLXI (p. 129).—

" The little bird that wings the sky."

A random shot at Lovelace's —

' • The birds that wanton in the air
Know no such liberty."

Tell me how you like "Barbara S." See this essay in Elia
(pp. 272 and 416). It appears in the London for this month.
The actual heroine of the story was Fanny Kelly.

Letter CCLXIV (p. 132). — Coleridge has just finished his
Prize Essay. Refers to a paper by Coleridge, on the Prometheus
of iEschylus, read before the Royal Society of Literature on the
18th of May 1825.

My "hiatus crumenm." What Falstaff calls this "con-
sumption of the purse." Lamb had retired upon two-thirds
of his salary ; hence the reference to his missing "thirds."

Letter CCLXV (p. 134). — My poor pittance in the London.
The allusion is to the Elia Essay, "The Convalescent," in the
London Magazine for this month.

Your book. Barton had sent Lamb his volume, Poems, by
Bernard Barton, 1820. It contains "Meditations in Great
Bealings Churchyard," and the other pieces referred to by



NOTES. 329

Lamb. It is dedicated in some prefatory lines to Maria Hack,
and the volume itself opens with "Verses supposed to be
written in a Burial-ground belonging to the Society of Friends,"
in which the "baldness" of the ground, as regards "sculp-
tured monuments," is apologised for.

Anne Knight. Mrs. Knight, a member of the Society of
Friends, who kept a school at Woodbridge, was a dear and
intimate friend of Bernard Barton and his daughter.

On the same day on which this last letter was written, Lamb
wrote another*to Coleridge. The autograph is in the collection
of Mr. Alfred Morrison, by whose courteous permission I am
enabled to publish it here. The letter is in reply to one from
Coleridge, first printed in the "Literary Reminiscences" in
Hood's Own. Coleridge had met with the Odes and Addresses to
Great People, by Hood and his brother-in-law, J. H. Reynolds,
but published anonymously, and had conjectured from internal
evidence that the volume was by Lamb. He wrote accordingly
to tax Lamb with it. "Yes, Master Charles," he writes,
"you are discovered;" and he adds, "the puns are nine
out of ten good, the 'Newgatory,' transcendent." To this
Lamb returned the following reply, disclaiming the alleged
authorship : —

"Islington, July 2, 1825.

" Dear C— "We are going off to Enfield, to Allsop's, for a day
or two, with some intention of succeeding them in their lodging
for a time, for this damned nervous fever (vide London Magazine
for July) indisposes me for seeing any friends, and never any
poor devil was so befriended as I am. Do you know any poor
solitary human that wants that cordial to life, a true friend ?
I can spare him twenty : he shall have 'em good cheap. I have
gallipots of 'em — genuine balm of cares — a going, a going, a
going ! Little plagues plague me a thousand times more than
ever. I am like a disembodied soul in this, my eternity.
feel everything entirely, all in all, and all in, etc. This price I
pay for liberty, but am richly content to pay it. The Odes are
four-fifths done by Hood, a silentish young man you met at
Islington one day, an invalid. The rest are Reynolds's, whose
sister H. has recently married. I have not had a broken finger
in them.

"They are hearty, good-natured things, and I would put my
name to 'em cheerfully, if I could as honestly. I complimented
'em in a newspaper, with an abatement for those puns you laud
so. They are generally an excess. A Pun is a thing of too
much consequence to be thrown in as a make-weight. You
shall read one of the ' Addresses ' over and miss the puns, and
it shall be quite as good, and better, than when you discover 'em.
A Pun is a noble thing per se : never lug it in as an accessory.



330 LETTERS OF CHARLES LAMB.

A Pun is a sole object for Reflection (vide my ' Aids ' to that
recessment from a savage state) — it is entire, it fills the mind ;
it is perfect as a sonnet, better. It limps ashamed in the train
and retinue of Humour : it knows it should have an establish-
ment of its own. The one, for instance, I made the other day,
— I forget what it was.

"Hood will be gratified, as much as I am, by your mistake.
I liked ' Grimaldi ' the best ; it is true painting of abstract
clownery, and that precious concrete of a clown : and the rich
succession of images, and words almost such, in the first half of
the 'Magnum Ignotum.' . . . Hood has just come in ; his sick
eyes sparkled into health when he read your approbation.
They had meditated a copy for you, but postponed it till a
neater second edition which is at hand. "We are walking out
to Enfield after our Beans and Bacon which are just smoking.
Kindest remembrances to the G.'s ever. From Islington, 1st
Day, 3d month of my Hegira, or Flight from Leadenhall.

"C. L., Olim Clericus."

Letter CCLXVII (p. 136). — Southey had sent Lamb his
Book of the Church (1824), and his poem, the Tale of Paraguay,
just published (1825). The poem was founded upon incidents in
Dobrizhoffer's History of the Abipones, translated from the Latin
by Sara Coleridge three years before. Hence the "compli-
ment to the translatress " referred to by Lamb. In the third
canto of the poem, Southey, in describing Dobrizhoffer, pro-
ceeds thus : —

" But of his native speech because well-nigh
Disuse in him forgetfulness had wrought,
In Latin he composed his history ;
A garrulous, but a lively tale, and fraught
With matter of delight and food for thought.
And if he could in Merlin's glass have seen
By whom his tomes to speak our tongue were taught,
The old man would have felt as pleased, I ween,
As when he won the ear of that great Empress Queen."

Southey's poem was prefaced with a poetical dedication to
his little daughter, Edith May Southey, beginning—

" Edith ! ten years are numbered since the day
Which ushers in the cheerful month of May,
To us by thy dear birth, my daughter dear,
Was blest."

The poem itself opens with an apostrophe to the discoverer
of vaccination —

" Jenner ! forever shall thy honoured name."



NOTES. 331

I have a one-act farce going to be acted at the Haymarkct.
Probably the Pawnbroker's Daughter, which happily was not
destined to be performed.

67. Dyer is in the height of an uxorious paradise. Accord-
ing to Crabb Robinson, he married a laundress in Clifford's Inn.

Letter CCLXVIII (p. 139). — You have come off triumphant
with Bartholomew Fair. In the Number of the Every Day
Book for September 5, 1825, there is a long account of a personal
visit to Bartholomew Fair, by Hone himself.

Letter CCLXIX (p. 140). — This playful note is now for the
first time printed. The allusion to " flame - coloured " hose
would seem to arise out of an indistinct association with Sir
Andrew Aguecheek.

Letter CCLXX (p. 140). — Lamb was at this time contri-
buting to the new Monthly Magazine his "Popular Fallacies."
They appeared between January and September in this year,
and are the "Proverbs" referred to. See also the following
letter.

Letter CCLXXII (p. 141). — I got your book. Barton's last
volume of poems, Devotional Verses : founded on, and illustra-
tive of , Select Texts of Scripture. (London, 1826.)

Uniform as they are, and untristorify 'd. This last word is
certainly as Lamb wrote it, but what he meant by it, and from
what he formed it, I must leave to the critics to determine.



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