Charles M. (Charles Mayo) Ellis.

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wife, Sarah, died in 1648.

William Deiiison was freeman in 1632. He brought over his
wife, and sons Daniel, aged about 20, Edward and George,
younger. He was a representative in 1635, to the general court.
In 1646, he lost his wife. He died in 1653, "an old man." He
was one of those dismissed in 1637, for their opinions.

Daniel Denison, his son, was a famous man in those days. —
He married Patience Dudley, a daughter of Thomas, the Gover-
nor, at Newtown, and joined the church there, and went to Ips-
wich. He was a military man, and held almost all ranks, up to
Major General. He represented the town for many years in the
court, was one of the assistants for twenty-nine years, and for
two years a speaker of the house. He died in 1682.

Ediimrd Denison was disarmed in 1637, made freeman in 1648.
He married Elizabeth Weld in 1641. Had Elizabeth, born Aug.
8, 1642. A child named for John died in 1643; John was born
1644; Edward died 1645; Joseph died 1649; Jeremiah born in
Dec. 1647, died in May, 1649. He was a representative three
years, and died in 1668. He lived on Stony River. His estate
was valued at £1227:05:00.

George Denison was born in 1621. In 1647 he was a captain
in Roxbury. He was a freeman in 1648. He is named as "a
young soldier lately come out of the wars in England." He mar-
ried Bridget Thomson, 1640. His wife died 1643. He had a
daughter Sarah, born March 20, 1641, and Hannah, born May
20, 1643, and a son John, born July 16, 1646. He removed to
Stonington. In Philip's war he was a bold and distinguished
leader. In 1676, with sixty-six volunteers and one hundred
Christian Indians, he slew seventy-six of the enemy without the
loss of a man, and took prisoner Quanoiichet, the Narragansett
Indian, whom his Indians beheaded.



9G HISTORY OF ROXBURY. [PaRT I.

''OM Mothrr Bniison'' came in 16312, and died in 1645.

Henry Dlngham married Elizabeth xAilcock in 1641.

Mr. Richard Dnmmer was the one who built a mill soon after
the settlement of the town. He is said to have been a very rich,
and very benevolent man. He removed to Newbury. He was
here in 1632.

Rev. Samuel Danforth was born in England in Sept. 1626,
and came to this country in 1634, with his father Nathaniel. He
graduated at Harvard College in 1643, was ordained minister of
the church September 24ih, 1650, and died November 19th, 1674,
at the age of 48. He was teacher from the time when he gradu-
ated till his settlement. In Mr. Dunster's account is one item of
£56 \3sh. 8d. paid Samuel Danforth, as Reader and Fellow, for
six years. He was one of the Fellows, in the College Charter of
1650, and seems always to have taken deep interest in its wel-
fare.

It is said that he " wrote as a scholar," and " was very affec-
tionate in his manner of preaching, and seldom left the pulpit
without tears" He was learned in the sciences and theology.
That part of the diary of the Pastors which he wrote indicates the
interest he took in astronomy, by its frequent descriptions of the
appearances of various phenomena, and of the situations and
movements of heavenly bodies. He published an account of the
comet of 1664, which probably led Mather to mention that " his
astronomical composures saw the light of the sun." From 1664
to 1670, the diary is filled with descriptions of prodigies, earth-
quakes, comas, &c. His election sermon in 1670 was published.

In 1657, Mr. Danforth bought of Anthony Stoddard and wife
the estate which formerly belonged to Capl. Joseph Weld, for
which he paid £180.

Mr. Danforth married the daughter of Rev. Mr. Wilson of Bos-
ton, in 1651. They had twelve children, some of whom were
distinguished. He was honored with a Latin epitaph, viz:

Nou dubium, quin eo' iverit, quo stellae cunt
Danforthus, qui stellis semper se associavit.



Part I.] history of roxbury. 9T

Thomas Dudley came over in 1630, in the Arabella, with Win-
throp. He did not settle here at first, though he came quite early
and settled in the town, and his family have been amongst its
most prominent citizeris. He was born in 1674, at Northampton,
in England. His father, captain Roger Dudley, was " slaine in
ye warres," in battle, when Thomas was very young. "But God
took him up when he was forsaken, and stirred up some special
friends who took care of him in childhood."

It is said that some unknown person left him £500, and that a
Mrs. Pufroy, a widow, noted for her piety and works of charity,
took an interest in him, and by her care he got some little educa-
tion, and was taught Latin and grammar.

He was afterwards page to the Earl of Northumberland, in
whose family he learned " courtship and whatever belonged to
civility and good behaviour."

He then became clerk to Judge Nichols, a connection by his
mother. In this position he acquired some knowledge of the law.

When only twenty years old, he had become well known about
Northampton, for his wit, mettle and spirit, and Queen Elizabeth
gave him a captain's commission. He raised a company of eighty
men and went over to France under Henry IV. In 1597, he was
at the siege of Amiens, but the treaty being concluded before he
had had any fighting, he returned home.

At this time there were several eminent Puritans preaching in
that neighborhood, whom he often heard. Under their influence
the character of Dudley was fixed, and some new elements were
developed in it which changed its aspect altogether. His high
spirits showed themselves in his religious zeal.

Soon after this he became steward to the Earl of Lincoln, Thc-
ophilus, whose affairs he managed for about ten years. The
Earl's affairs were much involved. There were heavy debts up-
on the estates, and a great deal of business to be done which re-
quired not only energy and activity, but labor, prudence and
judgment. In this office Dudley met with complete success, as
is shown by the situation of the Earl's affairs when he left him,
and by the fact that he always retained the esteem and respect of
the family. He was the executor of Johnson, the Earl's son in
law.

13



98 HISTORY OF ROXBURY. [PaRT !.

But his desire for a less laborious business, together with his
religious opinions induced him to hire a place at Boston, where
he could be under Mr. Cotton, with whom he became very inti-
mate. He did not remain long here, however, before at the pres-
sing call of the Earl of Lincoln, he again consented to take the
management of his affairs, and he remained with him till he came
to New England.

The first connection of Dudley with the Massachusetts colony
was when the Boston men promised " to adventure £400 in the
joint stock of the company, but aftei wards that ten persons at leasS
should underwrite £25 each, and to adventure themselves £250,
and to provide able men to send over to manage the business."
His name first occurs at the meetings of the general court towards
the last of that year. In October he was chosen one of the com-
mittee for the planters. In December he was chosen one of the
undertakers. He was chosen one of the assistants, and when
aboard the Arabella, at the last meeting held in England by the
company, it being found that Humphrey who had been chosen
deputy Governor could not come, Dudley was chosen deputy
Governor in his place-
He was then about fifty-six years old, but very strong in body
as well as mind. He had amassed some property, and, what was
of more moment, had had his character developed and nerved by
long and varied experience, and by the very life that would seem
to be the fittest path for one to take who was to enter upon the
duties that were before him. Till his death he was one of the
governing minds of the colony. He always held one of the high-
est offices.

Dudley brought with him to this country his wife Dorothy and
his children, Samuel, born in 1606, a minister, who married
Mary Winlhrop ; Anne, the wife of Governor Bradstreet ; Pa-
tience, wife of General Denison ; Mercy, wife of Rev. Jno. Wood-
ridge ; another who married Major Keayne ; and Dorothy.

He first went to Newtown, which is now Cambridge, it being
agreed that the town and settlement should be there. But when
that arrangement was broken up, he went to Ipswich ; but he re-
mained there only a short time, and from that place came to Rox-
bury, where he settled, and the family still remains. He built
upon the west side of Smelt Brook, just across the watering place.



Part I.] history of roxbury. 99

at the foot of the hill where the road that runs up to the first
church, joins the Town Street. His house was nearly opposite
the apostle Eliot's, and stood where the Universalist meeting house
now stands. His old well is now there. There was a breast
work thrown up on the same place in the revolution.

We may judge of Dudley's character from his course in the
colony. In April, 1632, he left, one day, before the court was
over, and sent in a letter of resignation, which the governor and
assistants refused to receive. In May, they had a meeting to
consider the matter. Dudley then said that he resigned to keep
peace, for he felt bound in conscience to speak his mind freely
and that gave offence, and he had moreover the right to do so
when he pleased. The governor and some others then took him
to do for some bargains he had made with some poor men of his
congregation, to whom he sold seven and half bushels of corn be-
fore the harvest, to receive ten for it after, which they argued was
oppressive usury, within the meaning and letter of the statute.
Dudley held it was lawful, and he and the governor had high
words, and finally he told the governor plainly, if he had thought
he had sent for him to his house to give him such usage he would
not have come there, and that he never knew any man of under-
standing, of any other opinion, and if he thought otherwise of it,
it was his weakness. The Governor then charged him with ex-
travagance, in wainscotting and adorning his house, in the outset
of their settlement, alleging that they needed all funds and the
example was bad. Dudley replied he only put on the clapboards
in form of wainscot, and he did it for warmth, &c. They finally
held that he could not resign, and he continued in office. In Au-
gust, again, when complaint was made of the governor for remov-
ing his house from Watertown, Dudley showed his character.
He began by asking what authority the governor had more than
any assistant save to call meetings, and affirmed that he had
none. But the governor giving a reply that he had, that wound-
ed Dudley ; he told the governor that if he was so round, he
would be round too. The governor bade him be round if he
would. He sprang up in great rage and fury. The governor
grew hot also, and it was with difficulty they were pacified by
the interference of mediators. Then Dudley asked by what au-
thority the governor removed the ordinance and built a fort at



100 HISTORY OF ROXBfJRY. pART I.J

Boston ; by what right he lent powder to Plymouth ; or gave the
Watertown people leave to erert a weir on the river; by what
right he licensed Ratclif and Gray to stay in the colony, and why
he did not collect fines. The governor answered all these char-
ges. He also recriminated. Such scenes show what Dudley
was.

In 1634, Dudley was chosen Governor) and was Governor for
three years, in 1634, 1640, and 1645. He was deputy thirteen
times. In 1635, he was chosen one of a commission to frame a
body of laws for the colony. In 1643, he was appointed commis-
sioner to frame articles of confederation between the colonies.
In 1644, he was chosen Major General.

He lost his wife in 1643. In 1644, April 14, he married Kath-
arine Hugburne, who had considerable property.

Dudley was a thrifty man, and, though somewhat advanced in
years, a very enterprising one. He became one of the largest
land holders. He was a trading, money getting man. From the
nature of the securities met with, and the records of the levies he
made, we may suspect there was some truth in the charges
against him, and that he really was somewhat hard and prone to
usury. The court granted to him in 1632, two hundred acres of
land on the west side of Charles river, over against the new town,
and in 1634, five hundred acres about the falls, on the east side
of Charles river. There he started the mills, and made money
out of them. In 1636, they granted to him a thousand acres,
" wherever it may hinder no other plantation." In 1640, his
part of the four thousand acres granted to Roxbury, being 460
acres, was made 500, and set out to him on Concord river.

He died in 1653, July 31, on the Lord's day, at night, in his
77th year. His property was valued at £1560:10:01. We
find, in his inventory, bandoliers, corselets, &c. some Latin books,
some on law, some that indicate a taste for literature, and many
^^ the doctrines of religion he espoused.

At the time when the new lights of that day appeared, he was
most earnest in his opposition to them. He even accused Cotton
of wavering and called him to account. He would have made a
good persecutor at any time. He seemed disposed to deny all
toleration to others, exactly in proportion as he had himself once
needed it. He did as men of strong passions are apt to do.



Part 1.] histokv of roxburv. lOl

Whatever cause he did espouse, had his whole heart. Whatever
he was against, found him a good hater.

He was a man of great spirit, energy and force of character.
His experience had been long, varied and great. His resources
and powers were fully developed. The station he had held must
have given him a degree of cultivation, of taste and manners,
somewhat, to say the least, above most of the colonists, though
not so great as Winthrop's. He was well versed in the details
and management, as well as the principles, of business. His
mind was cultivated, and his judgment mature and practised.
His knowledge of the law was good, and served him and the new
colony well. There is reason to suppose he drew the agreement
for the Free school. The clause binding the estates is in his
hand. Though not a polished writer, he was, by no means a
bad one, as his letter to the Countess of Lincoln, which is a treas-
ure for other merits besides its literary ones, shows. He is said
lo have been no mean poet. It is certain that one of his daugh-
ters was a highly respectable one. As he had for so many years
such controlling influence in public affairs, perhaps it is not too
much to say that the State is a monument to his knowledge, his
judgment, and his principles.

Allusion has been made to one prominent trait of his charac-
ter, his religious zeal. He was a genuine puritan, stern and de-
voted, asking no quarter for his own opinions, and giving none
to others; not merely esteeming religious concerns important be-
fore all others, but so constituted that whenever religious affairs
presented themselves they absorbed all others. Even in his will,
he says, " 1 leave this testimony behind me for the use and ex-
ample of my posterity, and any others upon whom it may work,
that I have hated and do hate any false way in religion, not only
the old idolatry and superstition of popery, which is wearing
away, but many more late, being much worse, the more horrible
blasphemies and errors of late sprung up in our native country,
and secretly received and fostered here more than I wish they
were."

An epitaph, which is ascribed to him, may serve to illustrate
this trait in his character. It will also show with what show of
justice any body could charge him with being a poet.



102 HISTORY OF ROXBURY. [PaRT I.

Dimme eyes, deafe eares, cold stomach shew

My dissolution is in view.

Eleven times seven years lived have I,

And now God calls, I willing dye.

My shuttle's shut, my race is run,

My sun is set ; my deed is done ;

My span is measured ; my tale is told ;

My flower's faded and grown old ;

My life is vanished; shadows fled;

My soul's with God ; my body dead.

Fare well, dear wife, children and friends,

Hate Heresy. Make blessed ends.

Bear Poverty. Live with good men.

So shall we meet with joy agen

Let men of God in courts and churches watcli

O'er such as do a toleration hatch.

Least ye ill egg bring forth a cockatrice,

To pay you all with heresy and vice,

If men be left and otherwise combine

Mine epitaph's I died no libertine.'"

Libertine meant Familist. Heresy meant what heresy always
means to him using the word. He whose blood does not curdle
at the fierce, cold, self-conceited, bigotry of the man, will at least
pity the folly, the weakness, the lack of christian charity of the
time. Yet, there can be no doubt that piety mingled in his con-
victions. His intolerance was no cloak. His hatred of gospel
libertinism was sincere and conscientious.

He was one of unbounded hospitality, entertaining strangers,
poor English and Indians. He gave liberally. If he drove a
good bargain, he was a man of exact justice.

It is said there was on his tomb in the grave yard at the corner
of Euslis and Washington streets, a leaden plate that had an epi-
taph upon it, which was torn off and run up into bullets in the
revolution. The epitaph was this :

"Here lies Thomas Dudley, a lusty old stud,
A bargains' a bargain and shall be made good."

^ There must be some doubt whether it is genuine, but it indi-
cates what was the estimate of his character. Indeed, all who
spcuk of him, unite in praising his ability, integrity, and love of
justice, and more especially his "hatred of disorder, and his



Part I.] history of roxburv. 103

anlipalliy to all heresy and corrupt doctrine." He was styled
the "antient, honored and trusty soldier of the truth." He was
upright, and honest, and fearlessly spoke his own opinion in the
face of all men.

One of the clergy, Nathaniel Kogers, wrote this anagram in
his honor. It is worth preserving as showing the fashion of the
day.

THOMAS DUDLEY.
Hold, mast, we dy.

When swelling gusts of antinomian breath
Had well nigh wreck'd this little bark to death,
When Oars gan crack, and anchors, then we cry
Hold firm brave mast, thy stand, or else we die.
Our orth'dox mast did hold, we did not die ;
Our mast now roll'd by th' board (poor bark) we cry.
Courage, our pilot, lives, who stills the waves,
Or midst the surges still his bark he saves.

He wrote, also, the following Latin Epitaph :

Heluo librorura, lectorum bibliotheca

Communis, sacrae, syllabus historiae,

Ad mensam comes, hinc facundus, rostra disertus,

Non cumulus verbis, pondus acumen erat,

Morum acris censor, validus defensor amansque,

Et sanae, et canae, catholicae fidei.

Angli-Novi Columen, summum decus, atquc senatus,

Thomas Dudleius conditur hoc tumulo.

Another of them is worth noticing for a different reason.

In Eliot's diary it is said that about the 16th of the 5th month,
1645, some nameless author sent to Dudley, then governor, this
anagram.

THOMAS DUDLEY.

Ah ! Old, must dye.

A deaths head on you you would not weare ;

A dying head you on your shoulders beare.

You need not one to minde you you must dye.

You in your name may spell mortalitye.

Young men may dye, but old men they dye must

Lord it can't be long } , r- ^ ^ j .

•Twill not be long ^ J before you turne to dust.



104 HISTORY OF ROXBURY. [PaRT I.

Before j'ou turno to dust ! Ah, Must, Old ! dye !
What sliall younge doe when old in dust doe lye,
When old in dust lye ; what shall New England doe ?
When old in dust lye, it's best dye too.

Eliot was guilty of doggrel. This is in his vein. And it is
hard to see why he should have questioned the best reading of a
line, or noticed such a thing at all, or written it out at length, un-
less it was his own.

Besides the children named already, Thomas Dudley had a
daughter Deborah, born 1645, and Joseph, born Sept. 23, 1647,
who was afterwards governor of the colony, M. P., &c.

The descendants of Dudley have been amongst the first men
in the country.

Mr. John Eliot, the next person whose name we meet, was the
counterpart of Thomas Dudley. He was born at Nasing, in
Essex, England, in November, 1604.

All that is known of his early life is that he was trained up
under the care of pious parents, and that, as he says "his first
years were seasoned with the fear of God, the word and prayer."

He received a thorough education at Jesus College in the
Cambridge University, where he took a degree in 1622. He
there laid the basis of a thorough knowledge of the original lan-
guages of the Bible and of great theological learning. He was
particularly fond of philological studies, and became a critical and
an accurate scholar.

After leaving the University, he was engaged as teacher in a
school kept by Mr. Hooker, the eminent divine. There, no
doubt, he got the ideas which brought him to Nevv England. —
He always said that "the days he spent with Hooker were a rich
blessing to his soul." It was "in the quiet sanctity of Hooker's
household," that his spiritual life was kindled into that expansive
energy which led him with unalterable purpose to the service of
God."

He came over in the Lyon, which arrived November 3d, 1631,
and immediately joined the church at Boston. There he "exer-
cised." He continued there till his removal to Roxbury. The
Boston people desired him to become their Teacher, and labored
all they could, with him and the church at Roxbury, to induce



Part I.] history of roxburv. 105

him 10 accept their call, but, regarding himself bound to his
friends at Roxbury, he could not be prevailed on to decline their
invitation, and he was dismissed to Roxbury. He was ordained
Teacher of the first church, November 5th, 1632. Rev. Thomas
Weld had been invested with the Pastoral care, in July preceding.
It is generally said that Mr. Weld was settled after and under
Mr. Eliot, as his colleague. But this is a mistake. In October,
1632, Eliot was married to the lady to whom he had been es-
poused before he left England, and who came on the year after
his arrival.

Though Eliot was young when he began his work here, and
had had little, if any, knowledge of the world, he, as well as
Dudley, had had just that education which best fitted him for the
life he had to lead. Dudley was advanced in life, was guided by
judgment, prudence, and his will. Coming to find an asylum
for his opinions, professing to hate heresy and intolerance, he
was himself most bigoted and intolerant. Eliot listened to noth-
ing but the call of conscience. He cared for all men, but himself
least. He set earnestly about a work, from which he could have
hoped for neither fame, influence, or any worldly advantage. —
The best that can be said of Dudley, is, that he was well fitted
for the political service of that early day. Eliot had before him
the work of a christian missionary.

Eliot has been known to the whole world for his public labors,
and these we will first consider. Great, as must have been the
labors of his parish in those days, they did not deter him from
undertaking greater labors than any other man ever accom-
plished. In the first place he set about learning the Indian lan-
guage. It is said that he learned this in two years so that he
preached in it. But this statement seems to be improbable in
itself. Without book, or teacher, he had to grope his way from
the unintelligible sounds of the barbarous natives, into the mys-
teries of a language that it would be no easy thing to master
with all the helps of learning. He had first to learn to under-
stand the common talk. Then he had to learn the fit analogies
to express what he had to teach, for which they had no words,
but which he must still teach in the language of the natives. —
And he had also to study the Indian and reduce it to some sys-
tem, to study its laws scientifically, as well as to learn the words,
14



106 HISTORY OF ROXBURY. [PaRT I.

by memory, in order to reduce it to a wriilen tongue. It is said
he took Job Nesutan into his family to learn the language. It is
much more probable that he had been studying the language for
several years. Amongst the deaths recorded in town is one, in
1646, of "an Indian who had lived ten years with the whites,
and could read." From our knowledge of Eliot, we cannot help
believing that Eliot taught, and learned of this person. He was
no man to stand idle ten years, with the tools for his work
before him.

There were many Indians in the vicinity of Eoxbury, and very
likely many within the town, though but rare traces are found of
them. Eliot first went to preach to them at Nonantom, October
28th, 1646. He preached there again on the eleventh, and again


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