Copyright
Charles McClellan Stevens.

Europe in arms, the titanic war of nations; online

. (page 1 of 19)
Online LibraryCharles McClellan StevensEurope in arms, the titanic war of nations; → online text (page 1 of 19)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


r_-s-.!?,-!H,- . •7'fi'-Hffi'-iRi'(S:




Glass J7 »5"^/ /
Book «> w ^ ,




•a +j




'by Underwood & Underwood, N. Y., I9llf

William II King of Prussia and Emperor of Germany



EUROPE IN ARMS

THE

TITANIC WAR OF NATIONS

GRAPHIC DESCRIPTIONS OF THE

Unparalleled Battles on Land and Sea and

the Operations of Air=Scouts, the

Newest Form of Destroyers



BY

PROF. C. M. STEVENS, Ph. D.



Mag-nificent Pictures of the Rulers of Europe, Battle-
ships, Airships, Soldiers, etc., of the Combatants.
Thrilling accounts of the Movements of the
Largest Armies the World has Known.



PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED



Copyright, igi4, by W. J. Hainsfurther.



CHICAGO

LAIRD & LEE, Inc., PUBLISHERS



'■%



COPYPJGHT, 1914, BY

W. J. HAINSFUETHEE.



tss-^dj



CONTENTS

BOOK I
THE WORLD-STAGGERING WAR

PAGE

The Deluge. Columbia 's Vision 10

First Thoughts of the War op Wars

The Impossible Has Happened 11

The Greatest Cause of War 12

The Rage for Destruction 12

The Task of America 13

Imperial Militarism and Religion 14

Last Message of the Pope 16

Judgment Some Day. Poem 17

Censorship

The Armageddon of Silence 19

The Censorship Puts Us Back a Century 19

How It Works in War-Ridden Lands 20

Heroes and Heroic Deeds 21

The Cry of the Women. Poem 21

Death in the Dark 22

First Experiences in a Great War

Commonplace Horrors 25

Individual Experiences 26

What a Poor Mother Says. Poem in French 28

Facing Hardships 29

Scenes in Paris - 30

Americans Caught in the Cordons of War 34

First Food in Three Days 35

Scenes of Liege Skirmishing 36



iv CONTENTS

PAGE

Arrival of the Pliiladelphia 37

National Anthem Heralds Arrival 38

Early Stages of the War

Chronology of the First Two Weeks 40

A General View 43

The Hour. Fagan 's Poem 44

Liege 44

Siezing the Whole Town 45

Wounds Worse Than Death 47

Fresh Troops to Slaughter 48

Dead Buried in Heaps 49

The Conquest of Liege. Phillips ' Poem 50

Dicken 's Picture of War at Liege 51

A Soldier 's Letter to His Sweetheart 51

Machine Obedience of Men 52

Word-Picture of Battle at Diest 53

Death of Horses From Exhaustion 54

To Europe. Stirling 's Poem .' 55

War in Alsace 56

Adventures on Bicycles 57

Shot as a Spy 58

Search for Dead in Cornfields 58

Signs of War's Disaster 59

Alsatian Peasant's Story 60

Wounded Left in the Roads 61

Capture of Brussels. 62

The Burgomaster's Appeal 62

The War Indemnity 63

Description of Occupation of Brussels 63

Jap 's Move on China 65

Jap Cruisers Scour the Sea 66

Defenses Reinforced QQ

Swiss Army Mobilized 67

Americans in Distress 68

War as Seen From Holland 69

Russian Advance Into Germany 70

Aircraft Episodes 72

Watching for Air Messages r 74

■ Victories of Servian Troops 75

Auto Dash for the Frontier 76

The German Advance 78

The Russian Situation. 80



CONTENTS V

PAGE

An Enigma to War Experts 82

The Crash of Numbers 83

Two Million Men in Death- Grapple 85

The Vast Battle Line 86

The Franco-British Armies Beaten Back 87

The Fall of Namur 88

Allies Ketirement Explained 89

Scenes of War at Charleroi 89

Wounded Fill the Town 89

French Open the Canonading 90

Smashing an Aeroplane 91

Vast Movement on to Paris 92

German Dispatch : " Joffre's Army Broken Up." 92

The Kussian Invasion 93

Suffering Throughout Belgium 94

Boy Scouts Mobilized 95



BOOK II

CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE GEEAT WAR

Opinions op the Most Noted Leaders

A Graphic Vision 97

Comments of Christian Leaders 98

The Question. Poem . . , 100

View Point of Americans , 101

French Views of Causes 104

Views of Socialism 105

Can It Be ? Poem 107

German Ofificial Statements Ill

Opening the Eyes of the World 112

Reasoning From the Turkish Revolution 112

Austria Against Servia 113

Germany Also Menaced 114

Demands of Austria 115

War Against the Uncultured ; 116

Russian Statement Considered 117

Die Deutsche Panzerf aust. Poem in German 118

Statement of the Imperial Chancellor. 118



yi CONTENTS

PAGE

Obligations Discovered 119

"William II, Prince of Peace. Viereck's Poem 122

An Appeal to Sweden for Germany 123

The Jewish View 124

Imperialism and Democracy. A Definition 126

The Only Peace. Poem 127



Smashing the Machinery of Civilization

The Staggering Blow 129

Has Christianity Failed 130

Opinions of American Scholarship 133

The Right to Bloody Violence 135

The Call to the Colors. Poem 136

Living in the Time of a Great War 136

The Vast Sacrifice 137



Neutrality of the United States

The President's Appeal for Neutrality 140

Americans of Many Nations 141

Must Be Neutral in Thought and Action 142



Diplomatic Documents Leading Up to War

First Events 143

Note to the Servians 144

Austria's Circular Note 146

Servia's Reply 148

Servia's Reply Denounced by Austria 152

Russian Statement 153

German Emperor's Reply to the Czar 154

Germany's Sharp Note 154

Russian Proclamation 155

Russian Promise to Holland 156

Japan's Ultimatum 156

Japan 's Promise to America 159

English Statement 159

Kitchener's Instructions to Soldiers 160

England 's Praise to Belgium 161

French Pledge to Restore Belgium 161



CONTENTS vii

PAGE

The Great Test of American Diplomacy

America Surrounded by War 163

Stability of American Government 164

Cost of the War 164

What is Costs to Kill a Man 165

The Red Cross Nurse. Poem 167

Switzerland as a War Hospital 167

America 's Part 168

Dogs for the Red Cross 169

That Graves May Not Be Nameless 170

Rank and File. Dobson 's Poem 170

Stupendous Work of Army Surgeons 170

A Belgian Surgeon's Researches 171

Fatal Wounds From Artillery 173

American Gamblers in Food Supplies

Those Who Corner the Food Markets 177

President Acts to Restrain Rise in Prices 178

American Construction Contrasted With European De-
struction 179

The War and South America

Latin American Trade 183

Direct Steamship Lines 184

Aggressive Action Fair in Trade 185

On the Pacific Coast 186

Undoubted Opportunity 187

American Shipping Bill o 188

War Measures

Military Strategy 190

Fortifications 192

The Concert of Europe 193

How the Great Alliances Were Formed 194

The Triple Alliance 194

The Triple Entente 195

International Arbitration 197

War Songs of the Nations 197



viii CONTENTS

BOOK III

MEANS AND SOURCES OF THE GREAT WAR

PAGE

The Merciless Machinery

Contrasts in the Vision of Heroism 201

Contrasts in Methods and Means 202

Role Played in the Tragedy by Electricity 203

Commands Flashed Across Space 205

Half-Ton Missiles Hurled Seven Miles 207

Cement Forts and Disappearing Gmis 209

The Army of Mercy 211

Submarines 212

Mines in the Present "War 218

Wireless in the Present War 221

Wireless in the Balkan War 224

Portable Wireless in the Field 225

Automobiles in War 226

Airships in War 227

American Devices 228

The Poet's Dream. Tennyson 234

Zeppelin 's Airships 235

War Strength of the Triple Alliance 237

War Strength of the Triple Entente 238

The Age-Long Conflict Between France and Germany

The Ancient Beginning 240

Conflict of a Thousand Years Ago 241

The Weaker Inheritance . 242

Alsace and Lorraine in Every War 243

Metz and Strassburg in Sieges 246

Bismarck 's Idea 247

The ''Zabern Affair," 248

Declaration of the Rights of Man 249

Rival Armaments 251

How Paris Is Defended 253

Hapsburgs, Romanovs, Hohenzollerns

Three Families and Their Cost to Europe 255

The Start of a Bitter Feud 257



CONTENTS



IX



PAGE

Hapsburg Tragedies 258

HohenzoUern Chronicles 281

Reluctant to Rule Over the Russias 264

Nicholas II, Emperor of Russia 266

Franz Joseph, Emperor of Austria .^ 266

William II, Emperor of Germany -^-^ 267

King Albert of Belgium at the Front 268

Sentry Refuses the King Admittance to Hospital 269

Side Lights on the' Great Issues

George V, King of Great Britain 271

English Kinship Among Royalty of Europe 272

Mohammedan or Christian 273

Geographical Description of War-Torn Towns 277

The Kingdom of Servia 290

The Austro-Hungarian Empire 292

Belgium 293

The Belgian People 294

The French Republic 298

The German Empire 303

Resources of Germany in 1913 304

The Hohenzollerns 307

The Russian Empire 307

Holland 309

The Hague 311

Colonies of the Warring Nations 312

American Prosperity and the War 315

The Belgian Protest Against Airship Bombs 316



THE DELUGE

As one who dreams a dreadful dream and moans in fitful sleep,
Columbia broods in anguish o'er the hell across the deep,
And, clear-eyed, save for futile tears, she sees great nations sink
With all their brains and manhood under Reason 's level brink.
She sees long years of kindness taken from the human race
And every line of gospel flung into its writer's face.

The war lords snap their fingers and with their insane commands
Brave millions offer up their lives and march to hostile lands.
Among the stars the great god Mars, white hot to thrust and kill,
Is sneering at the tiny ants who crawl to do his will.
The teachings of the Nazarene, the dreams great souls have told
Are trampled 'neath the charger's hoof and sacrificed for Gold.

The peasant in his lowly home sits white-faced and forlorn
To wait the marching thousands with their selfishness and scorn.
To-day he has his little all — his home, his field, his wife ;
To-morrow, when the storm has passed, he will not have his life ;
Or if, perchance, his life be spared for later ghastly scenes.
Among the ruins he will sit and wonder what God means.

Gone all of our illusions and the dreams of peace we wrought,
Forgotten all the lessons that the blood-smeared sword has taught.
The grim retreat from Moscow when Napoleon's legions died,
The awful field of Austerlitz and Jena 's crimson tide ;
The gentler, nobler part of man and all that knowledge brings
Are banished from the Present to appease the lust of kings.

Afar we hear the charger's scream, the slim boy's dying moan,
As on the red and ravaged field he sobs to God alone;
Afar we see the plodding hosts go blindly to their fate
Like dumb and willing cattle driven through a country gate.
As one who dreams a dreadful dream and moans in fitful sleep
Columbia broods in anguish o'er the hell across the deep

— William F. Kirk.
10



BOOK I

Survey of the World-Staggering
Disaster to Humanity

The impossible has happened. The incredible has
forced itself into flaming facts.

The calamity that has fallen upon the world is
utterly beyond description or comprehension.

The green fields are stained with blood; houses,
factories, and cities are battered down.

Human lives are burned up like coals in a furnace.

Death and agony inconceivable, and no man can.
truly say why the killing or why the war.

Years of science, civilization, and peace end in the
greatest, bloodiest, most brutal war, as unnecessary
as any that the world has known.

Words are meaningless ; description is futile. The
world's higher power for destruction — civilization
transformed into a great international cutthroat —
that is the picture this earth presents after nineteen
centuries of ' ' Christianity. ' '

The world is reminded now of the power with
which Carlyle described war's horror:

''Horrible enough! A whole marchfield strewed
with shell splinters, cannon shot, ruined tumbrils,
and dead men and horses, stragglers still remaining

11



12 THE WORLD-STAGGERING WAR

not so mucli as buried. And those red mould heaps :
Ay, there lie the shells of men, out of which all the
life and virtue have been blown; and now are they
swept together and crammed down out of sight, like
blown egg-shells ! ' '

The greatest single fighting force ever marshaled
in history now goes from mobilization to war. The
impending collision will be with Europe; the crash
will shake the world.

Germany, Austria, Russia, England, Belgmm,
France, Portugal, Servia, and Japan have sprung
into the arena, each screaming out that the other fel-
low began it, each loaded down with arms and troops,
yet claiming a desire only to keep the peace.

They all solemnly swear they are on the defensive ;
and they are all trying to strike the first offensive
blow.

THE GEEATEST CAUSE OF WAR

Dr. Frank Crane has said editorially a great truth,
as follows:

' ' The greatest cause for war is military prepared-
ness. When a nation spends millions of dollars for
fireworks, sooner or later they want to see them fired
off. When five hundred thousand young men have
been practising with guns for years, by and by they
want to shoot somebody."

THE RAGE FOR DESTRUCTION"

Gunpowder has blown the boundaries of European
nations into torn and twisted lines many times dur-



THE WORLD-STAGGERING WAR 13

ing the last 125 years. Then, through a retaliatory
fate, the same mixture of saltpetre, sulphur, and
charcoal has battered to debris the barriers marking
the new borders and restored the old. The political
topography of Europe bids fair to undergo another
violent reconstruction through the same pitiless
explosive as an outcome of the present gigantic
struggle.

No nation has ever had the opportunity now before
this country to prove that ^' Peace hath its victories
no less renowned than war."

Indeed, 3^ears hence, when history finally records
the results of the cataclysm into which Europe has
plunged the whole world, it will be written, we hope
and believe, that the United States, great as it was
before the conflict, won the most gigantic and most
lasting triumph in the annals of all time by stead-
fastly remaining at peace.

Our people have a mission to perform for man-
kind — an ideal to keep resolutely and fearlessly in
mind, so that in the centuries to come, civilization
can point to our course as an inspiring and convinc-
ing demonstration that a nation's enduring achieve-
ments and noblest blessings to its own and to others
are in peace, not in war.

Slaughtering each other by the hundreds simply
because they live on different sides of a geographi-
cal boundary line is not the true mission of man on
earth, nor will civilization long applaud the prowess
of the man or nation that boasts of having swept the
greatest number of human beings from earth by the



14 THE WORLD-STAGGERING WAR

sword. The world has never seen a conflict of arms
on such a gigantic scale as that which has just begun
abroad, and where it will end is as far beyond human
comprehension as Eternity itself.

THE TASK OF AMEEICA

Firm in this faith, let us hold ourselves happy in
this republic. We are, perhaps, to be the saviors of
the civilization imperiled by the sudden breaking
down of the machinery of civilized society abroad.
But we shall not work alone. The aroused and indig-
nant energy of other nations will soon unite with us,
that social order does not perish from the earth,
and that, out of European chaos, a real and substan-
tial advance shall come to human welfare.

IMPERIAL MILITARISM AND RELIGION"

Of the fourteen hundred millions of human beings
on this earth, nearly all pray to some god.

And the nations at war in Europe all pray to the
same god. A hideous, pathetic, pitiful sight that God
looks down upon, as he turns his eyes toward the
praying murderers that look up to Him, each asking
for victory.

''Help me, O God, to capture that town, though I
kill all the women and children," one ruler prays,
and thinks that God will answer and help him.

''Help me, O God, to defend this city, to* kill the
men that besiege it, to attack their city in turn and
destroy it, though I kill all their women and chil-



THE WOELD-STAGGERING WAR • 15

dren," and the praying man believes that God is with
him and will help him in his plans of murder.

Butchery by day and night on the water, on the
land and in the air, prayers asking the Creator of the
world to help them in their killing, seventeen millions
of armed men ready for the game of murder, indus-
try dead, agriculture dead, science, progress, every
good power on the earth, paralyzed.

And that is war.

PRAYER OF THE WAR-LORD

God of my Fathers, grant me aid
That I may rout my countless foes!

By Thee were guns and cannons made,
From Thee the joy of battle flows.

God, who gave me might and power,
Thou knowest that my heart is pure..

Be with me in this awful hour,
That I and mine may still endure.

Thou art the God who loveth war,
And famine, rapine, blood and death ;

1 pray Thee stand beside me, for
Thou knowest what my spirit saith.

The soul of me is linked with Thine

To bid the blood of heroes flow.
The death we grant them is divine,

And in Thy name I bid them go.

God of my Fathers, still be kind

To them who raise Thy banner high,

While Thou and I together find
The surest way for them to die.



16 • THE WORLD-STAGGERING WAR

They do my bidding, God, look down
And bless the sword that I have drawn.

My blight shall fall on field and town.
And thousands shall not see the dawn.

To Thee, God, I give all praise

That Thou hast made my hand so strong ;

That now, as in my father's days.
The King and Thee can do no wrong.

— Edward S. Van Zile.

To be neutral as a people and to keep ourselves as
individuals free from the inflaming toucli of war
passion, is the clear duty of every American.

The President of the United States, from the bed-
side of his dying wife, appealed to the nations for
some means of reaching peace for Europe. The last
thoughts of the dying helpmate was for the great
responsibility of her husband in this awful crisis in
the life of nations.

The Pope was stricken to death by the great calam-
ity to civilization. A few minutes before the end
came, he said that the Almighty in His infinite mercy
was removing him from the world to spare him the
anguish of the av/ful war.

The last message sent out to his followers over the
world was given in a dispatch as follows :

At this moment, when nearly the whole of Europe is being
dragged into the vortex of a most terrible war, with its present
dangers and miseries, and the consequences to follow, the
thought of which mast strike every one with grief and horror,
we, whose care is the life and welfare of so many citizens and



THE WORLD-STAGGERING WAR 17

peoples, cannot but be deeply moved and our heart wrung with
the bitterest sorrow.

And in the midst of this universal confusion and peril, we feel
and know that both fatherly love and apostolic ministry demand
of us that we should with all earnestness turn the thoughts of
Christendom thither, "whence cometh help" — ^to Christ, the
Prince of Peace and the most powerful mediator between God
and man.

We charge, therefore, the Catholics of the whole world to
approach the throne of Grace and Mercy, each and all of them,
and more especially the clergy, whose duty furthermore it will
be to make in every parish, as their bishops shall direct, public
supplication, so that the merciful God may, as it were, be wearied
with the prayers of His children and speedily remove the evil
causes of war, giving to them who rule to think the thoughts of
peace and not of affliction.

From the palace of the Vatican, the second day of August,
1914. PIIJ8 X, Pontifex Maximus.

JUDGMENT SOME DAY

Somewhere, above this war of hate,

God broods upon His throne;
He scans the running sands of Fate,

And sees the end — alone.

Somewhere, above these stricken lands,

Almighty God looks down :
Perhaps with ruthless, guiding hands,

Perhaps with angry frown.

Whether He planned this scourge of flame.

No man to-day can tell ;
These kings all call upon His name

To bless their shot and shell.



18 THE WORLD-STAGGERING WAR

Whether behind this drama dark,

God moves or devils lurk,
Swinging his scythe in widening arc,

The Reaper is at work.

We sicken at the awful cost,

Youth slaughtered, genius slain,

Mercy forgotten, pity lost,
Blood soaking hill and plain..

But some day those who rule these lands
Shall face God's judgment throne,

With naked hearts and reddened hands,
Unguarded and alone.

With those who died and those who wept.

These kings shall answer God
For plains and cities cannon swept.

For ruin spread abroad.

His voice shall give them their reward

For all eternal time ;
Forgiveness if He desired the sword,

Or His curse for a godless crime.

— William C. Stevens in Chicago Herald.



CENSOESHIP

The Aemageddon" of Moderit History Fought In"
THE Black Silence of Midnight, Hidden From
THE Sight of the World.

As IF to stand as an example for scripture, wMch
declares that ** everyone tliat doeth evil hateth the
light," the mighty inventions for communication
over the earth have been cut into silence as deep as
in any period of the dark ages.

In order to strike the deadliest blows at unex-
pected, and therefore undefended, spots, all knowl-
edge of war operations are suppressed.

the censorship puts us back a century

A hundred years ago the United States was at war
with England, and the burning of Washington, the
, battle of Fort Erie and the attack on Baltimore, dur-
ing which Key wrote his ''Star-Spangled Banner,"
were events of thrilling interest. But news traveled
slowly 100 years ago. It was days before New York
knew what had happened, and then only through the
use of relays of couriers rushing on horseback over
roads that were none of the best. Since then we have
developed a vast mechanism for the collection and
distribution of news.

And now, due to the censorship, the mechanism is
almost useless, and we are back not so very far from

19



20 CENSORSHIP

where people were a century ago. It is hard to miag-
ine that while the battle of Waterloo was being
fought on June 18, London was just receiving the
news of the reverse of the Prussians at Ligny on the
sixteenth. Even on the twentieth, the Times an-
nounced only that '^a Mr. Sutton had heard the news
of a great victory, '^ the official announcement not
coming until the next day.

The instant dissemination of war news reached its
highest point in the Spanish-American War. Ever
since then the more rigorous censorships established
by combatants have interfered with efficient news
gathering until to-day the minds attempting to the
limit of their capacity to grasp and understand the
events in Europe can secure but the sorriest and most
unstable data from which to extract a true concep-
tion of what is going on. It is but another instance
of the retroactive effects of war that the great record-
ing instrument so carefully built up during the past
century now is rendered useless.

HOW IT WOEKS IN" THE WAR-RIDDEN LANDS

The soldiers in the field see only the narrow ring
about them. War correspondents say that German
prisoners expressed surprise on finding that they had
been fighting Belgians. Uhlan officers could not
understand how English officers could be on the
French staff.

See already how it has worked out in France :
''Families left behind never receive news from
their soldiers. Those who have gone have just



CENSORSHIP 21

stepped out — been swallowed up. Their families may
write to tiiemj in special envelopes addressed to the
war office, but they will never know Avhere tliey are
until tliey come liome again. So secretly, so silently,
is tlie war being waged."

This is the silence that hangs over every home in
France. And here is the way in which any day may
see it broken :

''If the soldiers do not come home again, a card

from the war office will come, saying: ' ,

belonging to you, has fallen on the field of honor. ' ' '

That is all.

HEROES AND HEROIC DEEDS

What becomes of the heroes ? It would seem that
nations are eager to thrill over tidings of brave men
and heroic deeds brought all fresh and inspiring
from the front. All news is reduced to cold, bare
bulletins of geography and net results.

Modern warfare, so far as we are permitted to see
it at work, appears to be a gigantic, soulless mecha-
nism, turning its blood-smeared wheels in darkness,
traceable only by the dead and wounded that pile
higher and higher behind it.

THE CRY OF THE WOMEN

They tell us of wars and rumors of wars,

And the orders of kings to men,
And little they heed of the sorrow decreed

By the stroke of a ruler's pen.



22 CENSOESHIP

And little they care for child and for wife,
When the wife and the child make moan,

While nations fight for their ruler's greed,
And the fighter dies alone.

The woman with hair like sunset gold,

The woman with hair like coal.
Each of them loses the love of her life,

The man that is half of her soul.

Aye ! you that flatter a ruler 's greed,


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Online LibraryCharles McClellan StevensEurope in arms, the titanic war of nations; → online text (page 1 of 19)