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foetus by twisting of the cord, 193
Ltnege albicantes, 78
Lips, appearance after death by drowning,

Liquor amnii, characters and composition
of the, 80
drowning of foetus in the, 225
Lithotomy a cause of sterility, 13
Live-birth, 152

cadaveric rigidity no proof of, 154
Cesarean section and, 190
cicatrization of funis as a test of,

composition of lung tissue in cases of,

contents of the stomach and intes-
tines after, 174
crying, how far a proof of, 156
definition of, 154, 159
desiccation of the funis as a test of,

diaphragm in, 160
ductus arteriosus after, 172
ductus venosus after, 173
ear, condition after, 176
evidence against, 156
evidence furnished by post-mortem,

Live-birth, examination of the child la
cases of, 177, 178
expulsion of the meconium as a proof

of, 175
Fodere's test of, 162
foramen ovale after, 172
heart-beats as indicative of, 156
hydrostatic test for, 164
judges, statements of the, on, 154
legal meaning of, 154
legal proof of, 155
legal and physiological definitions of,

not identical, 155, 158
liver, changes in the. 176
lungs, absolute weight, in case of, 162
lungs, state of, indicative of, 160
lungs may sink in cases of, 168
muscular twitchings, a proof of, 155'
mummification of funis and, 172
organs of circulation in cases of, 170
pericardium, its position, indicative

of, 160
and physiological death compared,

Ploucquet's test of, 163
post-mortem, in cases of, 158, 165
proof of, demanded by Scotch law^

pulmonary vessels, condition of, in,.

pulsations in the cord as proof of, 15ft
respiration no proof of, 154, 156, 158,.

159, 165
Schmidt's test for, 162
shape of chest before and after, 159
skin, appearance after, 176
condition of the thorax in, 159
thymus gland, position indicative of,

umbilical cord after, 170
umbilical arteries and veins after, 172
uric acid infarction and, 175
urine, passage of, after, 175
urinary organs in, 175
warmth of child no proof of, 154
Liver, condition, how far indicative of
live- or still-birth, 176
disease of, abortion resulting from, 97
post-mortem appearances after drown-
ing, 226
Lochia after recent delivery, 79
Lochial discharges, presence of, in the
foetal stomach, 174
discharges, characters of the, 80
Loraine, on the drying of the funis, 171
Louis, on rupture of spinal cord in hang-
ing, 240
Lungs, appearances after strangulation,
appearances of, before and after res-
piration, 161, 170
blood in, before and after respiration,

buoyancy of, resulting from putrefac-
tion, 165



liUngs, causes to account for an increase of
size, likely to be mistaken for the
effects of respiration, 160

characteristics of true air-cells, com-
pared with the vesicles resulting
from inflation and putrefaction, 161

color of the, before and after respira-
tion, 161

colour of the, influenced by the pres-
ence of diseased conditions, 161

color of the, influenced by exposure
to air, 161

color of the, influenced by inflation,

collapse of the, a cause of infantile
death, 188

composition of the, before and after
respiration, 161

condition after death from asphyxia,

condition before and after respiration,

condition after death from suffoca-
tion. 196

condition and contents after death by
drowning, 223

consistency of, before and after respi-
ration, 160

difi&culty of inflating the, 166

disease of the, abortion resulting from,

tabular view of the condition of the,
before and after respiration, 170

hepatization of, a cause of infantile
death, 188

imperfect expansion of the (atelecta-
sis pulmonum), 168

inflation of, circumstances under
which likely to be pcformed, 166

number of breaths required to effect
buoyancy of the, 166

putrefaction of, a slow process, 165 \

specific gravity of, 213

specific gravity of, before and after
respiration, 164

may sink in water, even after the
child has cried, (footnote) 167

unrespired, may float, 165

weight, absolute, before and after
respiration, 162 ,

weight, relative, before and after res-
piration, 153
Lush (Lord Justice), on rape during sleep,

Maceration, intra- uterine, description
of, 157-196
intra-uterine, in what respects differ-
ent from putrefaction, 158
in water, effects of, 196
Magnetic trance and rape, 118
Malapraxis and pregnancy, 67
Males, secretion of milk in the breasts of,
and still births, 157

Malformations and still-births, 157

congenital, a cause of death in the

newly-born, 187, 189
of genitals, how far ground for a de-
cree of nullity of marriage, 5
Mammary caanges occurring in pregnancy,

ilanslaughter, circumstances under which
death from criminal abortion is to
be regarded as, 101
definition of. 187
Marks resembling life marks, produced
after death, 267
in cases of strangulation. 263, 264
mav be absent in cases of strangula-
tion. 264, 267
Marriage, consummation of, 5

age at which it may be contracted, 7
of men of advanced age, 9
how far admissible where there exist
congenital malformations in the fe-
male, 21
how far to be recommended where

the genitals are undeveloped, 7
in the case of monorchids and crypt-
orchids, 12
law of the church as to the age when.

it may be contracted, 7
in law a contract, 4
legitimacy of children bom before, 2
nullity of, impotence a ground for a

decree of, 4
nullity of, conditions necessary to ob-
tain a decree of. 5
nullity of, decree must be obtained
during the lifetime of both parties,
nullity of. decree must be sought with-
out unreasonable delay. 5
nullity of, evidence required for a de-
cree of, 5
nullity of, malformations, how far a
ground for obtaining a decree of, 5
nullity of, sterility not a ground for a
decree of, 6
Marrubium vulgare, as an abortifacient,

Martin, on uric acid infarction, 175
Maschka, on live-birth, 156
Masturbation, appearances produced by,
may simulate rape, 129
early, 7
Matrecaria as an abortifacient, 103
Matrons, jviry of. 66

Maturity, signs of. in the newly-born, 32
Mauriciau on venesection as a method of

inducing abortion, 102
Mayer on sterility, 24
Mayes and Gross, on the hydrostatic test,

Mayor (of Geneva) on the sounds of the

foetal heart, 73
Meadows, characters of the nulliparous

and of the multiparous uterus, 86
Meckel, on the weight of the uterus, 84



Meconium, its expulsion a test of live-
birth, 175
presence of, in the foetal stomach, 174
Medico-legal reports, 200
Melanotic spots in the lungs not to be
confounded with developed air-cells, 161
Melissa as an abortifacient, 103
Mellor (Lord Justice), on rape during
sleep, 119 -
on consent in cases of rape, 116
Membranes, respiration after rupture of
the, 159
death of foetus resulting from birth in

the, 193
mucous and serous, condition after
death from asphyxia, 210
Mendel, on lung inflation, 167
Menstruation, general history of, 14

abnormalities in the disappearance of,

after the removal of the ovaries, 17
after the removal of the uterus, 17
conception after the eessation of, 18
connection with child-bearing, 17, 42
infant, so-called, 16
intervals of, normal and abnormal, 15
in cases of early pregnancies, 18
in cases of late pregnancies, 19
nature of the discharge occurring in,

normal period for the cessation of, 16
•ovulation and, 15, 17
post-mortem appearances in cases of

death occurring during, 108
primary, effects of climate on, 15
primary, effects of the emotions on,

primary, effects of temperament on,

usual age of its commencement, 15
different views as to the time when

the ovum is discharged, 18
without ovulation, 17
Mental shocks, abortion resulting from,

Mentha pulegium, as an abortifacient,

Mercury and its salts as abortifacients,

Merriman, on prolonged gestation, 42, 43

on the time of conception, 27
Mesmerism and rape, 118
Milk, characters of that first secreted, 78
occasionally secreted in the breasts of

those not pregnant, 70
secretion of, in the breasts of new-
borns, 70
secretion of, in the breasts of males,

secretion of, during pregnancy, 69
suffocation from infarction of curdled,
Milk-hedge as an abortifacient, 103
Miscarriage, 97
Moles, 80

Monorchids, how far sterile and impotent,

10, 12
Monsters usually die early, 189
Monstrosities not to be destroyed, 189
Monstrosity in relation to criminal abor-
tion, 100
Montano, on the froth found at the mouth

in cases of drowning, 224
Montgomery, on prolonged gestation, 42
on the normal duration of pregnancy,

on the dark line on the abdomen in

pregnancy, 71
on the uterus after recent delivery,
Morning sickness, 68
Mother, death of, during delivery, a cause

of death in the newly-born, 189
Mouth, death of children from closure of
the nostrils and, 187
haemorrhages from the, in cases of
strangulation, 263
Movements, as proof of live birth, 155
Mugwort, as an abortifacient, 103
Mumps a possible cause of sterility, 13
Murder, definition of, 187
Murphy, on prolonged gestation, 42-43
Muscle, specific gravity of, 212
Muscular movements, how far a proof of
live birth, 155

N^GELE, method of calculating the date

of labor, 26
Nails, condition of, in newly -bom children,

Napheys, on " The Physical Life of

Woman," 19
Narcotics, rape under the action of, 119
Navel, bleeding from the, a cause of in-
fantile death, 190
bleeding from the, may constitute

proper medical treatment, 190
position of the, in a mature foetus,
Neck, condition after death by hanging,
244, 246
effects produced by violence on (ex-
periments by Keiller), 265
injuries to, in cases of strangulation,

marks on the, in cases of strangula-
tion, 263, 265, 267
marks on the, produced by twisting of
the cord round the, 193
Neglect, death of children before and after

birth, from, 194
Negrier, on the length of the funis at full
term, 36
on the weight power of the umbilical
cord, 191
Neuro-paralysis, 214, 223
Neverman, on late pregnancies, 19
New-boms, length of survival, 177

appearance presented at various in-
tervals from birth, 177



New-boms, traction force required to sever

the body from the head of, 198
Newly-born children, weight of, 33, 40
length of, 33, 40
definition of, 186
Nipples, changes in, during pregnancy, 69
Nitre as an abortifacient, 104
in relation to sterility, 14
Noma and rape, 125, 128
Non-access of husband and wife, 1
Nose, condition of the, in the newly-born,

Nostrils, appearance after death by drown-
ing, 224
haemorrhages from, in cases of stran-
gulation, 263
"Noxious thing," meaning of the term,

.Nullity of marriage (see Marriage).
Nymphomania, 138

(Edema, a cause of infantile death, 188
lardaciforme a cause of infantile
death, 188
Ogston, on the weight of the lungs before
and after respiration, 163
on the lungs in strangulation, 266'
on lung inflation, 167
on Tardieu's spots, 284
on the face and tongue after death by

haxjging, 243, 244
on the carotids after death by hang-
ing, 245
on the condition of the genitals in

cases of hanging, 246
on the heart after drowning, 222
on the causes of death in drowning,

on the passage of water into the lungs

in cases of drowning, 224
on the face after drowning, 220
on the froth found at the mouth in

cases of drowning, 222
on the drying of the funis, 171-194
on prolonged gestation, 43
Ollivier (d' Angers;, definition of "newly-
born," 186
on the face after death by hanging,

on the inferior femoral epiphysis of
mature children. 36
Omission, death of children by, 187
Operation, surgical and rape, 119
Ophthalmia caused by leucorrhoea, 126
Opium and infanticide, 199
in relation to sterility, 14
rape under the influence of, 119
Orbit, infanticide by piercing the, 197
Orfila, on the froth found at the mouth in
cases of drowning, 218
on the tongue in strangulation, 263
Os hyoides, fracture of, in cases of hang-
ing, 246
Osiander, on the pulsations of the artery
of the vagina during pregnancy, 72

Ovarian sac, rupture of, liable to be con-
founded with recent delivery, 79
tumors and the breasts, 79
Ovaries, menstruation after the removal
of the, 17
removal of the, general effects pro-
duced by (footnote), 11
Ovary, pregnancy after the removal of
one, 21
sterility not the necessary result cf
the removal of one (footnote), 13
Overlaying of children, 276
Ovulation, its relation to menstruation,
its relation to child-bearing, 17
sterility lesulting from imperfect, 22
Ovum, diseased condition of the mem-
branes of the, a cause of abortion,
time of monthly period at which dis-
charged, 18
Ovum, vitality of the, 3

vitality of the, circumstances interfer-
ing with the, 3
Owen (Professor), as to the sterility of

cryptorchids, 10
Oxygen, inhalation of, in cases of poisou-

ing, 281
Oxytocics {see Abortifacients).


Paradise, grains of, as an abortifacient,

Paralysis a possible cause of sterility, 13
Paraplegia a possible cause of sterility, 13

a cause of sterility in the female, 23
Parke (Baron) on live-birth, 154
Partridge, on the sterility of cryptorchids,

Parturition, protracted, a cause of death
in the newly-born, 189
post-mortem, 81
Paternity, 2
disputed, 2

in the case of a hypospadian, 9
Peacock (Dr.), on the closure of the

foramen ovale, 172
Pediculus bovis as an abortifacient, 104
Pelvis, size of, rendering the induction of

premature labour permissible, 99
Penetration defined, 115

in relation to rape, 115
Penis, absence and malformations of, how
far causes of impotence, 9
condition after death by drowning,

effects cf sodomy on the, 142, 144
Pennington, on prolonged gestation, 42
Pennyroyal as an abortifacient, 105
Percival. on the commencement of life,

Pericardium, its position before and after

respiration, 160
Perineum after recent delivery, 79
condition of, in virgins, 123



Perineum, rupture of, a cause of sterility,

"Persian otto of roses" as an abortifa-

cient, 105
Phantom tumours, 74
Phthisis in relation to sterility, 13

suppression of catamenia in cases of,
Physiological and legal live-birth com-
pared, 156, 158
Pilacotine as an abortifacient, 103
Pilocarpine as an abortifacient, 106
Placenta, diseases of, causes of infantile
death, 188
premature separation of, a cause of

death in the newly-born, 189, 198
bruit during pregnancy, 71, 73
previa and premature labour, 99
weight of at fu 1 term, 36
Plaster casts, suffocation from taking, of

the h5ad and neck, 277
Ploucquet on the cause of foetal death

during sudden delivery, 198
"' test for live birth, 163
Plumbago Zeylanicum as an abortifacient,

Pneumogastrics, pressure on the, a cause

of death by hanging, 238
Poison, infanticide by, 199
Poisons as abortifacients, 103
Poisonous vapours, infanticide by, 195
Posterior commissure not affected by in-
tercourse, 122
commissure, after delivery, 86
Posthumous children, legitimate, 2

children, difficulties in certain cases
in proving the legitimacy of, 2
Post-mortem after delivery, 80

in cases of live and still-birth, 158
necessity for, in all cases of infanti-
cide, 199
parturition, 81
signs of pregnancy, 76
appearances after death by drowning,

appearances, indicative of death by

sufi'ocation, etc., 196
evidence found at the, confirmatory

of live-birth, 158
necessary in all cases of doubtful
death, 276
Potassium, iodide of, as an abortifacient,
nitrate of, as an abortifacient, 104
Pouchet, on the corpus luteum, 76
Power, on prolonged gestation, 42
Pregnancy, 66

abdominal dark line occurring in, 71
abdominal symptoms occurring in, 70
accusations of, a ground for an action

of libel, etc., 67
alterations of temper in, 74
abortion most dangerous at early

periods of, 98
albuminuria during, 74

Pregnancy, amaurosis during, 74

anaemia of optic discs and retinae dur«
ing, 74

ballottement as a test of, 72

breasts during, 69, 79

bruit placentaire in, 71, 73

and capital punishment, 66

cessation of catamenia, a symptom of,

changes in the cervix uteri during,

changes in the uterus and vagina dur-
ing, 70

conditions likely to stimulate. 74

contents of cysts in relation to a pre-
vious, 83

convulsions during, 74

corpus luteum, its value as proof of,

deception practised in cases of, 68

derangements of the digestive oreans
in, 68

determination of, at remote periods,

earliest recorded age, 16, 17

early, 18

effects of violence during, 187

elasticity of womb in, 70

enlargement of thyroid body during,

existence of, not material to a charge
of criminal abortion, 102

fallacies to the size of the abdomen as
a test of, 71

frequent menstruation during, 74

gravidin in urine, a supposed test of,

a ground for increased damages in
case of seduction, 67

headache during. 74

hypertrophy of heart during, 74

Illustrative Cases. 92

and imposture, 67

increase of fibrine in the blood in, 74

increased flow of s diva in, 74

irritability of bowels in, 74

and the jury of matrons, 66

kiestin in urine a test of, 74

late, 18

and malapraxis, 67

mammary changes occurring in, 68, 79

miscellaneous signs of, 73

mistaken, 71

morning sickness a sign of. 68

nerves of uterus, how influenced by,

the period that must intervene be-
tween two, 87

pigmented patches during, 74.

post-mortem in cases of, 75

prolonged, 41, 42

pulsation of vaginal artery in, 71

quickening as a test of, 72

and rape, 131

le-percussion as a test of, 13



Tregnancy, rules to be observed in the
examination of cases of suspected,
saccharine urine during, 74
second conception during {see Super-

signs of, in the living, 66
souffle of funis in, 78
sounds of foetal heart a test of, 73
spurious, 74

strange antipathies during, 74
strange appetites during, 74
symptoms of, 68
syncope and vertigo during, 74
test of the advance of, 75
"test of Beccaria" for, 74
"turning out the toes" a sign of, 74
uterine souffle in, 71
the vagina in, 72
the vulva in, 72

of wife, ground for increased damages
on death of husband by neglect, 67
J'remature birth and still-birth, 157
labour, 90

labour, induction of, not legally per-
missible, 98
labour, induction of, cases where per-
missible, 98
labour, methods of inducing, 99
labour, objections urged by Catholics
to the induclion of, 98
Presentations, abnormal, a cause of infan-
tile death, 192
Priestley, on the meaning of still-birth,

Prostitute, difficulties of deciding whether
or not a female be a, 130
sterility of, 28
Prostitution, appearances resulting from
the practice of, 130
a cause of abortion, 97
Puberty in females, general appearances
resulting from the occurrence of, 17
in males, 7
in males, deferred, 7
in males, anticipated, 7
Pulmonary apoplexy, a cause of infantile

death, 188
Pulmonary vessels, condition of, before

and after respiration, 160
Pupils, condition after death by hanging,

Purgatives, used to effect criminal abor-
tion, 103
Putrefaction, in what respects different
from intra-uterine maceration, 158
a proof of still-birth, 1 57
an objection to the hydrostatic test,

post-mortem, trachea earliest part to
undergo, 265

•QUETELET, on the length of mature chil-
dren, 83
-""Quick with child," 66

Quickening, 67, 72

time of, how far indicative of the date
of conception, 27

in relation to criminal abortion, 100
Quinine as an abortifacient, 106

Races, mixture of, how far a cause of

sterility, 25
Raciborski on prolonged gestation, 43
Rape, 118

how distinguished from violation,

an alibi, a common defence in cases
of, 184

appearances of, compared with in-
flammation of the vulva, 114

assisted by magnetic trance and mes-
meric sleep, 118

assisted by faintness consequent on
pain, 117

assisted by the cataleptic condition,

by boys under fourteen not considered
possible, 117

blood stains, how far indicative of,

breasts not affected by, 128

caruncula3 myrtiformes, condition of,
after, 128

on children, 124, 126

committed on persons diseased, 130

committed on epileptics, 120

committed on idiots, 120

committed on the insane, 120

committed during an attack of syn-
cope, 120

committed under the action of nar-
cotics and intoxicants, 119

committed on those suffering from
hysteria, 120

condition of clothes in cases of, 135

condition of the genital organs after,

condition of the hymen after, 121

condition of the vulva after, 125

consent in relation to, 116, 124, 129

death resulting from, 180

decisions of English and Scotch judges
as to what constitutes a, 115, 118

destruction of the hymen a sign of,

discharges following, 124, 126

during sleep, 118

during a professed surgical operation,

detailed examination needful in cases
where gonorrrhoea or syphilis fol-
lows, 127

earliest age in law when it may be
committed, 7

examination in cases of, 115

examination of accused in cases of,
131, 185

examination of female in a case of,



Rape, examination of place where com-
mitted, 131, 132, 134, 135
excessive injuries after, 124
evidence required to support a charge

of, 114
false accusations of, 114
on females of adult age without con-
sent, 117
force in relation to, 117
gonorrhoea and, 124, 126
haemorrhage in cases of, 133
impotence as a defence in a case of,

inequality in the size of the genitals,

a common defence in case of, 134
injuries consequent on, 129, 130, 135
injuries on ravisher, in cases of, 131
injuries self-inflicted, a ground of ac-
cusation in a charge of, 129, 134
law of, 114

legal definition of, 115
leucorrhcea following, 124, 125
marks of a struggle after, 129
on a married woman whilst half-asleep

and semi-conscious, 118
noma and, 124, 127
physical signs indicative of, 123
on young children, possibility of, 116
post-mortem after death from, 131,

pregnancy following, 131
I rendered easy by fright on the part of
the woman, 117
seminal stains how far indicative of,

stains of discharge, how far indicative

of, 133, 135
signs of, simulated by the effects of

masturbation, 129
syphilis and. 124, 126
uterus not affected as a rule by, 128
usual defence in cases of, 133
vagina, condition of, after, 128-130
vaginitis and, 126
Rasch (Adolphe), on a test for pregnancy,

Ravisher, examination of the, in a case of

rape, 131
Raygat, and the hydrostatic test, 164
Read, on the death of the foetus from the
formation of knots in the umbilical cord,
Rectum, hemorrhage from, a cause of

death in the newly born, 190
Reid (James), on enlargement of the thy-
roid body in pregnancy, 74
on the normal duration of pregnancy,

on prolonged gestation, 42, 43
Remer, on fractures of the larynx in cases
of hanging, 246
on death by hanging, 238
Re-percussion iis a te^t of pregnancy, 72
Respiration, artificial, methods of effect-
ing, 217

Respiration, no proof of live birth, 153!,,
155, 158
and artificial inflation, 1 66
altered shape of chest resulting from,.

after the birth of the bead only, 160
changes in the thoracic organs result-
ing from, 159
diaphragm before and after, 160
emphysema and, 167
inflation and, 160, 161
lungs before and after, 160
life and. 164
pericardium, its position before and

after, 160
pulmonary vessels before and after,.

putrefaction and, 165
spasm of the muscles of, a cause of

infantile death, 188
stomach contents and, 174
the absolute weight of lungs as a test.

of, 162
the relative weight of lungs as a test.

of, 163
lungs, weight of, before and after, 162
the specific gravity of the lungs as a.

test of [see Hydrostatic test), 134
thymus gland, its position before and.

after, 160
whilst the head is in the vagina, 159
"Resurrectionists," 286
Riedell, on the heart after drowning, 222
on the brain after drowning, 222
on the presence of water in the stom-
ach after drowning, 225
on the froth found at the mouth after
drowning, 224
Rigby, on prolonged gestation, 43
Rigidity, post-mortem, in cases of drown-
ing, 221
Rigor mortis after death from asphyxia,

Robertson, on primary menstruation, 15
Rope as used in judicial hanging, 251

marks of, after hanging, 244, 248, 251
Ropes, weight-bearing powers of different

kinds of, (footnote) 252
Romilly (Sir S. ), on age and procreation, S-
Rouget, on hanging, 246
Rue as an abortifacient, 105

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