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Winston 's Cumulative


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A— V

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Copr. 1911, J. C. W. Co. ARE THESK IN YOUR C<)LLE( TION?

1. Spotted cone. 2. Olant sea etiir. S. Rosy uoral. 4. Pearly nautilus, ft. Sea urchin. 6. Red ear. 7. OUwA
concb. 8. Brain coral. 9. Marlin spike. 10. Trapeze Bhell. 11. Turk'Hcap. 12. Bleeding tooth, la Red spoi-
led mitre. 14. Black rock shell. 15. Pearl oyster. 16. White rock shelL

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PAtMto Noi. 916034^ 916035, 916036





LitUraUufj Historian and Encyclopedist

Author of "Civilixatron, an Historical Review of Ita
Bleraents," "The Aryan Race." "Manual of Classical
Literature." "Man and Hit Ancestors," "Famous Men
and Great Events of the Nineteenth Century," and
numerous other works. Editor of "Twentieth Cen-
tury Encyclopedia." * Biographical Dictionary,"
"Famous Orators of the World," "Half Hours with
the Best American Authors," etc.. etc. Member o^
the "Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia."
"Geosraphical Society of PhUadelphia." "Natural His-
tory Society," and "Society for Psychical Research.'!



Atttliortties on Special Sub jecU

In TLcn IDolumes


Philadelphia, Pa. Chicago, III.

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JMm Letters Patent Nos. 010034. 916035. 010096

Thb John C. Winston Co.

Copyright 1912, 1918. 1914

The entire Contents mnd lUuttmtionB in this work
are protected by copsrricht, and the Cumulative
System is protected by patent rights All persona
are.wamed not to use any portion of the work or
le of the ComulattreSyMflm.


Digitized by



Three methods are used to iudicate the pronunciation of the wordi
foirming the headings of the separate articles:

(1) By dividing the word into syllables, and mdicating the syllable
or syllables to be accented. This method alone is followed where the
pronunciation is enturely obvious. Where accent marks are omitted, the
omission indicates that all syllables are given substantially the same value.

(2) Where the pronunciation differs from the spelling, the word is
re-spelled phoneticallyi in addition to the accentuation.

(3) Where the sound values of the vowels are not sufficiently indicated
merely by an attempt at phonetic spelling, the following system of diacritical
marks is additionally employed to approximate the proper sounds as
dosely as may be done:

i, M in fS9te> or In hn^

i» as in alms, Fr. 4me» G«fi. B«lin=A

of Indian names.
Iky the same sonnd short or medinm, as

in Fr. bal, Ger. Mann,
tt, as in fat
H, as in f alL
a» obscure, as in mral, similar to « in

hutt ^ in her: common in Indian

8^ as in me={ in machine,
e, as in met
^ as in her.

L as in pine, or as ei in Oer. M«in.
i» as in pin, also used for the short

sonnd corresponding to ^ m iu

French an4 Italian words.

eut a lone tonnd as in Fr. ]e4ne,=

Ger. long 6, as in 8(Qine, Gdths

en, corresponding sound short or medi*

um, as in Fr. pei»=Ger. 6 short
0, as in note, moan,
o, as in Dot, frog — that is, short or medium.
0, as in move, two.
ti, as in tube.

u, as in tub : similar to 6 and also to a^
n, as in buU.
d, as in Sc ai)tfne=Fr. 4 as in d4y

Ger. U long as in grfin, Bfihne.
t, the corresponding short or medium

sound, as in Fr. bst, Ger. MfiUen
oi, as in oil
ou, as in pound ; or as ai* in Ger. Hans.

The consonants, b, d, f, h, j, k, 1, m, n, ng, p, sh, t, v, and z, when
printed in Roman type, are always given their common English values in
the transliteration of foreign words. The letter o is indicated by s or k,
as the case may be. For the remaining consonant sounds the foUowmg
symbols are employed:


«h is alwajB as in rioK

4t ii^^^^i^ as <A ii^ thh s Sp. 4 in

{is always' hard, as in ^o.
represents the guttural in Scotch
look, Ger. uaeh, also other similar
^ Fr. nasal n as in bon.
t g sprc senta holh English r, and r in
loitigA words» in iMdi it is

erally much more strongly trlUsd.
9. always as in eo.
th, as ih in thin,
th, AM ih \xk ihiB,

w always consonantal, as in «re.
X = ks, which are used instead.
y always consonantal, as in yea (BYk

Ugne would be re-written Itay).
ah, as s in pleasure b Fr. /^



221916*^' ^861

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RonsftV (^'^)t ^' BowsA, one of returned to PAri» in 1745, to lead a pre-
AArvuAojr ^g Orkney Islands, 6% miles carions life, copying music and studying
long by 4^ miles broad, and 10 miles N. science. About this time he became inti-
of Kirkwall. Pop. about 800. mate with Diderot, Grimm, D'Holbach,

RonflSAAn (j^Bd), Jean Bapiste, a Mme. D*Epinay^ etc., and contributed to
Aruuoovau prench poet, born in Paris the Encyclop4d%e; and from this period
in 1670. His quarrelsome disposition and also dated nis connection with Theresa
turn for ill-natured satire involved him le Vasseur, with whom, five-and-twenty
in almost constant trouble, and he was years later, he went through some form
condemned to exile in 1712 for contu- of marriage ceremony. In 1750 his essay,
macy in refusing to appear before the in which he adopted the negative side of
law courts. He spent the remainder of the question whether civilization has con-
his life chiefly in Vienna and the Nether- tributed to purify manners, won a prize
lands, and died at Brussels in 1741. His offered by the Academy of Dijon, and
works consist of sacred and secular odes, brought him for the first time into general
cantatas, epigrams, operas, comedies, notice. In 1752 he brought out a sue-
epistles, etc cessful operetta (the music by himself),

TtmiaaAOTi Jean Jacques, one of the and soon after a celebrated Letter on
AOUSSeau, ^^^^ celebrated and most
influential writers of the eighteenth cen*
tury, was the son of a watchmaker at
Geneva, where he was bom in 1712. For
the first thirty-five years of his life the
chief authority is his own painfully
frank, but perhaps not absolutely ac*
curate. Confessions, first published in 1782
and itSd. His ^outh gave little promise
of his future eminence, and after a desul-
tory education he was apprenticed in
n& to an engraver, from whose real or
fancied severity he ran away in 1728.
He now fell under the notice of Madame
de Warens, a lady residing at Annecy,
who sent him to a Roman Catholic in-
stitution at Turin, where he abjured Prot-

estandsm. After several fits of eccen- _ ^^ t-^««. wy.«.-i»««

trie wandering he went to Uve with Mme. J«" ^•«l^«» RousseaiL

de Warens at Les Charmettes, a country- French Music, In 1754 he revisited
house near Chamb^ry, where they appear Geneva, where he was readmitted a free
to have lived happily for nearly three citizen on once more embracing Protes*
years. From a short absence at Mont- tantism. Having returned to Paris, he
pellier, however, Rousseau returned to wrote a sort of novel, Julie ou La Nou-
hud his place at Les Charmettes occupied velle Hiloxse, which was published in
by another, whereupon he departed to be- 1760, being followed by Le Contrat So-
come a tutor at Lyons. In 1741 he went cial, a political work, and Emile ou de
to Paris, and in 1743 obtained the post VEducation, another story, in 1762. The
of secretary to the French ambassador principles expressed in these words
at Venice. Tb\B office be threw up, and stirred up much animosity against their


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author. The confession of faith of the
Savoyard vicar in EmUe was declared a
dangerous attack upon religion, and the
book was burned both in Paris and
Geneva. Persecution, exaggerated by his
own morbid sensibility, forced Rousseau
to flee to Neufch&tel, then to the lie St
Pierlre in the Lake of Bienne, and finally
to England, where he was welcomed by
Hume, Boswell, and others in 1766. A
malicious letter by Horace Walpole un-
luckilv roused his suspicions of his Eng-
lish friends, and in May, 1767, he re-
turned to France, where his presence was
now tolerated. He lived in great poverty,
supporting himself by copying music and
publishing occasional works. In May,
1778, he retired to Ermenonville near
Paris, where he died in the following
July, not without suspicion of suicide.
His celebrated ConfcMions appeared at
Geneva in 1782. Kou^seau united an
enthusiastic passion for love and free-
dom with an inflexible obstinacy and a
strange spirit of paradox. His life was
clouded by a gloomy hypochondria, often
developing into suspicion of his truest
friends, and embittered by an unreason-
able sensitiveness, which some have de-
scribed as almost actual insanity. The
chief importance of his works lies per-
haps in the fact that they contain the
germ of the doctrines which were car-
iried out with such ruthless consistency
in the French revolution. Rousseau
was also a musical author and critic of
some importance.
ItAiiftii^ft^ (rG-sef), a name some-

givorous bats generally.

Soussillon I'^^-*?^^* * ^®™^ P"^-

mtvimmmmmva* ince of France, now oc-
cupied by the department of the Pyr4n6es
Onentales. It gave name to a family of

Bove-beetle8« ^T cocktails, the pop-

Mrvv«^ tjsisi^isioj ^i^y name of certain
beetles. The common species is the
OcypuM olent, the black cocktail, or
'devil's coach-horse.' These beetles are

P^irPTAiiA ( rO-vft-rft'dO), a town of
JfcOVereaO l^gtria, in Tyrol, 84 miles
north of Verona, on the Leno. near its
Junction with the Adige. It is an im-
portant center of the Austrian silk manu-
facture and silk trade. Pop. 10,180.
EovienO (r6-v?n'y«). a aeaport of
AUYi^iiU j^ustria, on the 8.w. coast
of Istria, 40 miles south of Trieste; has
two harbors, and a considerable shipping
trade. The cathedral dates from the
eleventh century. Pop. 10,205.
SuviffO (rO-vC'gO), a town in Italy,
•n^vigu 28 ndles s. w. of Padua, capi-

tal of a province of its name, <m the
Adigetto, an arm of the Adige. The
town-house contains a picture-gallery and
a library of 80,000 volumes. There is a
handsome court-house and two leaning
towers belonging to a castle erected in
the tenth century. Pop. 11,174. — The
province has an area of 685 sq. miles;
pop. 221,904.

BiOVmna ('^▼^'ma)» * river* of East
MTV w ukum* ^f rica^ which rises on the
B. of Lake Nyassa, and flows nearly due
B., with a course of about 500 mil^ to
the Indian Ocean. The Rovuma is not
well adapted for navigation. It marks
the boundary between the territory of
Germany and Portugal.

Bowan-tree (""oy^'a^)' roan-twee,

MTV vr Oku vm,^^ ^p Mountain-ash (Py-
ru9 Aucuparia), nat order Rosaces,
is a native of Europe and Siberia, com*
mon in Britain, i>articularly in the J^gh*
lands. Its leaves are pinnate, leaflets
uniform, serrated, glabrous. It has
numerous white flowers in corymbs. The
fruit consists of clusters of small red ber-
ries, bitter to the taste. The tree attains
a height of from 20 to 40 feet, and af-
fords timber much used by toolmakers
and others. The bark is used by tanners
and the berries yield a dye. The rowan-
tree was formerly regarded as an ob-
ject of peculiar veneration, and a twig
of it was supposed to be efficacious in
warding off evil spirits. It is also called
quioken-tree and quick-beam,
Rowfi C^^)' Nicholas, an English
*^^^^ dramatic poet, bom in 1673 at
Little Barford, Bedfordshire, was a king's
scholar at Westminster under Dr. Busby,
studied law at the Middle Temple, but on
his father's death devoted himself to
literature. He filled several lucrative
posts, and in 1715 he was made poet-
laureate in succession to Nahum Tate.
He died in 1718, and was buried in the
Poets' Comer in Westminster. Rowe's
tragedies are passionate and forcible in
language, and his plots well conceived.
His minor pieces are unimportant, but
his translation of Lucan's PharBolia has
been deservedly praised. His best plays
are the Fair Penitent and Jane Shore;
others are the Ambitious Stepmother,
Tamerlane, Ulytses, The Royal Convert,
and Lady Jane Qrey, His comedy of the
Biter was a failure.

BiOWinSP ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ propelling a
^^ ***©> boat by means of oars, which
act as levers of the second order, the
work being done between the power (ue„
the rower) and the fulcrum (l-e., the
water, of which the actual displacement
is very slight). That part of the op-
eration during which the power is actu-

Digitized by



Boyal Household

ally being applied, i,e., when the oar is
in the water, is specifically called the
stroke; while feathering is the act of
turning the blade of the oar so as to be
parallel to the surface of the water, and
carrying it thus through the air into po-
sition to repeat the stroke. Much skill is
required to perform these operations sat-
isftictorily; and in fact rowing can be
learned only from observation and prac-
tice. Technically the word 'rowing' is
used by boating-men only when each oars-
man has but a single oar; when he has
one in each hand he is said to 'scull,'
and the oars are called 'sculls.' Al-
though rowing is certainly one of the
most ancient methods of propelling ves-
sels, it has only comparatively recently
come into prominence as a form of
sport. Boat racing practically dates
from the first quarter of the nineteenth
century, and its development has lain
almost entirely in the hands of the
Anglo-Saxon races. The Thames has
always been the leading resort of ama-
teur oarsmanship, which had attained
some little vigor before the first boat
race between Oxford and Cambridge uni-
versities took place in 1829. The sec-
ond took place in 1836; and since 1856
the contest has been annual, the course
(since 1864) being from Putney to Mort-
lake, about 4 J miles. Of the very nu-
merous amateur regattas which are held
all over Great Britain, the chief is that
at Henley-on-Thames, held annually
since 1839. In the United States the
first amateur rowing club was founded
in 1834, but the sport did not make
much progress until the universities of
Yale (in 1843) and Harvard (in 1844)
took it up, followed bv other universities.
Yale and Harvard have competed an-
nually since 1878 and most of the other
universities have rowing clubs. The
chief regatta is held on different courses
in different years by the National Asso-
ciation of Amateur Oarsmen, founded in
1873. Holland, C^rmanv, and other
countries have rowing clubs of impor-
tance. Racing boats are called eight-
oared or * eights,' * fours,' * pairs,' etc.,
according to the number of rowers.
• Sixes ' and * double-scullers ' are more
common in America than in Great Brit-
ain. The use of outriggers was intro-
duced about 1844, that of sliding-seats, an
American invention, about 1871.
H/iwIotiiI (rO'land), Henbt Augus-
AOWiana ^g^ phvsicist, bom at
Honesdale, Penn^lvania, in 1845; died
June 16, 1901. He became professor of
physics at Johns Hopkins University in
1876 and was made a member of the
National Academy of Sciences in 1881.

He made important discoveries in mag-
netic activities and invented a process
for ruling diffraction gratings which is
of much value in spectrum analvsis.

Eowley Begis ([-;|^aa^; * *-»

land, partly within the parliamentary
borough of Dudley and similar to it in
its industries. Pop. 37,000.

a boats gunwale on which
the oar rests in rowing; as, a notch in
the gunwale, two short pegs, an iron
pin, etc
Boxa^na. See AZowncfcr.

Soxbnrfi'll (roks'burg), Roxbuboh-
o 8HIRE, or Teviotdale, an
inland border county of Scotland, is
bounded by Dunfries, Cumberland and
Northumberland, Berwick, Midlothian
and Selkirk. Area, 665 sq. miles. The
Cheviot Hills stretch along the south bor-
der, where the loftiest summit is Auchope-
cairn (2382 feet). The chief river is the
Teviot, a tributary of the Tweed, which
also traverses part of the county. The
minerals are unimportant, though lime-
stone and sandstone are abundant.
Roxburghshire is chiefly occupied by
valuable sheep walks, but its arable farms
are also among the best in Scotland.
The important woolen manufacture is
confined to the towns, of which the chief
are Hawick (county town), Jedburg
and Melrose. Pop. 48^04.
B.O'S'lniru' (roks'b6r-i), a former city
UrOXDUry ^f Suf£o]k CJo., Massachu-
setts, 3 miles s. w. of Boston. It was
incorporated with Boston in 1867. It
has many handsome residences and gar-
dens and numerous manufactures.
^jQyr (roi), WUiLlAM, antiquarian and
**^J geodesist, was bom in 1720, near
Lanark in Scotland; died in 1790. He
entered the army and attained the rank
of major-general. In 1746 he made the
survey of Scotland afterwards known as
the ' Duke of Cumberland's Map ' ; and
in 1784 he measured a base-line on
Hounslow Heath for the ordnance sur-
vey of England. He afterwards directed
the observations for connecting the Eng-
lish triangulation with the French. His
chief literary work is The Military An-
iiquities of the Romans in Scotland
(folio, 1793).
Eoyal Academy, ^ee Academy.

Eoyal Household, ;,t-,^,,rpi

in connection with the household of the
British sovereign, including the keeper
of the privy-purse and private secretary,
lord steward, treasurer, comptroller,


Digitized by


Boyal Institution



master of the household, lord chamberlain,
vice-chamberlain, master of the horse,
captains of the gentlemen-at-arms ana
yeomen of the guard, master of the buck-
hounds, earl-marshal, grand falconer, lord
high almoner, hereditary grand almoner,
mistress of the robes, maids of honor,
lords-in-waiting, master of ceremonies,
physicians in ordinary, poet-laureate, etc

Boyal Institution of Great
Britain, fo^^^ed in 1799, tocorpp-

^s,*vvm**M^ rated by royal charter in
1800, for diffusing knowledge and facili-
tating the general introduction of me-
chanical inventions, and for teaching the
application of science to the common
purposes of life. The members are
elected by ballot, and pay an admission
fee and annual subscription. The build-
ings at Albemarle St., Piccadilly, Lon-
don, contain a laboratory, library, and
museum, and among the lecturers occur
the names of Dr. Thomas Young, Sir
Humphry Davy, Faraday, Tyndall, Hux-
ley, Carpenter, Lord Rayleigh and other
eminent men.

aoyal Society ilf^^k^,f4

out of Italy, was founded for the study
and promotion of natural science. It
owes Its origin to a club of learned men
who were in the habit of holding weekly
meetings in London as earlv as 1645,
but the year 1660 is generally given as
the year of its foundation. Charles II
took much interest in the proceedings of
the society, and in 1682 granted a charter
to the * President, Council, and Fellows
of the Royal Society of London for
Improving Natural Knowledge.' Lord
Brouncker was first president of this in-
corporated Royal Society. Meetings are
held weekly from November to June for
the purpose of reading and discussing
scientific papers; and the more impor-
tant of these are published in the annual
PhUoaophicdl Transactions^ first issued
in 1665, and now forming a most valuable
series. Accounts of the ordinary meet-
ings, with abstracts of papers, etc. ap-
pear also in the periodical Proceedings,
begun in 1800. Scientific research has
at all times been both initiated and en-
couraged by the Royal Society, and many
of the most important scientific achieve-
ments and discoveries have been due to
its enlightened methods. It deservedly
enjoys an influential and semiofficial
position as the scientific adviser of the
British government, and not only ad-
ministers the £4000 annually voted by
parliament for scientific purposes, but
has given suggestions and advice which
have borne valuable fruit, from the voy-

age of Capt. Cook in the Endeavor in
1768 down to the Challenger expedition,
more than a centur;^ later. The society
has an independent income from property
of less than £5000. besides the annual
subscriptions of £4 from each fellow.
It awards the Copley, Davy and two
royal medals annually, and the Rumford
medal biennially, for distinction in
science; the first being the blue riband
of scientific achievement, and bestowed
both on foreign and British savants.
The Royal Society met in Gresham Col-
lege until 1710, with the exception of
eight years after the great fire of Lon-
don, in 1666, when they found a welcome
in Arundel House from Henry Howard,
who presented his learned guests with the
library purchased by his grandfather.
Earl of Arundel, thus forming the nucleus
of the present valuable library of the
Royal Society, which contains about
50,000 volumes. From 1710 till 1780
the meetings of the society were held in
Crane Court, thereafter in Somerset
House, and finally since 1857 in its

5 resent quarters at Burlington -House,
'he roll of the Royal Society contains
practically all the ^reat scientific names
of its country since its foundation.
Among its presidents have been Lord-
chancellor Somers, Samuel Pepys, Sir
Isaac Newtouj Sir J. Banks, Sir Hans
Sloane and Sir Humphry Davy.

Eoyal Society .fe'^Sia ^^<^

chartered in 1783 for the promotion of

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