Charles N. Baldwin.

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MAGANZA, John Baptist, a historical pain-'
ter, of Vicenta. died in 1617.

MA6ELHABNS, John Hyacinth de, F. R. 8.,l
a studious, ingenlons, and learned man, partl-l
Cttlarly distinguished among the literati in Eng-



matliematician, philosonheir, and critic, of Ttw-
cany, Judge of the admiralty for the Venetians,
in the isle of Cyprus, which city lie bravely de-'
fended against the Turks, inventing several ma-
chines to annoy the besiegers and destroy tbeir
works ; but, the city being taken, tlraae savaaefl
burned his curious library, carried him in chaint
to Constantinople, and strangled him in prison,
in 1573.

HAGIUS, Barthotomew, brother of Jerome,
a physician of Bologna, author of a treatise on'
gunshot wounds, died In 1553.

MAGLIABECCHI, Antony, librarian to the
grand duke of Tuscany, and editor of some
scarce Latin authors, b<mi at Ftorence, in 1633«
died in 1714. His name is very famous among;
tlie learned ; but a prodigiotis memory was hia
distinguishing talent Aa an instance of this.
Mr. Spence tells the following story of hinit
which indeed seems hardly credible: ^ A gen-
tleroan, to make trial of the force of bis memo-
ry, lent him a manuscript that he was going to
print Some time afler it was retunied, the
gentleman came to him witli a melanch<dy fkce,
and pretended that it was kMt MagliabecCbi,
being requested to recollect what he remMBber-
ed of it, wrote the whole witliout mlsStng a.
word, or varying the spelling.** His attentton
was wholly absorbed by bis books and studies..
As he led a most sedentary life, and yet arrived



to an extreme old ate, (for he died in bis 81st
irious to subioin an account
of the regimen that he observed ; which is given
us by Marmi, who composed his eutogiom. " Ha
always kept his head warmly covered, and took^
at certain times, treacle, which he esteemed an
excellent preservative against noxious vapours..
He k>ved strong wine, but drank it soberly, and
in small quantities. He lived upon the plainesi
and most ordinary food. He took tobacco, to
which be was a slave to excem ; but was abso-
lute masterof hinwielf in every other particular.**

MAGNENTIUS, a German, who, from a
private soldier, becameemperor of Rome, A. D.
350.

MAGNI, Valerian, a native of Milan, sent
missionary to the north of Europe, by popeCl .
iban VIII., died in 1661.



25*



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MA



~ HAONON, John, a Preneh poet, whofonDed
• plmnof writing an BncjrdopediA in t«im ; lie
WM murdered in 166SL

MAGNUS, John, arehblshop of tJpMl, who
wanoly oppoeed the reforuiation In Sweden, of
which country he wrote a history in 24 boolu
iMdiedlnlSU.

MAGNUS, Olans, brotlier tiX the preceding,
and hie succewor as archbishop. He is author
•f a folio warli on the manners and customs of
the Deople of the Nertii ; he died in 1S60.

MAHMEO, Aga, a noUe Persian, of great
venown as a warrior ; be died in 1788.

MAHOMET, or MOUAMMBD, a celebrated
Impostor, and rounder of the Mahometan reli-
gion, bom in 571, at Mecca, a city of Arabia,
•r the tribe of the Koraabites, which was recli-
«Md the noblest in all thatcounlry^ and was de-
•eendod In a direct line from Pher Koraish, the
Ibander of It. In his 40th year he began to
talie upon him the style of the Apostle of Gqd,
and under that character to propagate the im-
posture which he had concerted. On his first
appearance, K^ was treated with derteioo and
fontempt, and called by the people, a sorcerer,
magician, liar, impostor, and teller of fables, of
wmcb he frequently complains in the Koran ;
■0 tlua for the first year he made little or no pro-
gress ; but persevering in his design, which he
■anaged with great address, he aAer wards galn-
' ad many proselytes, among which were some
•r tba most considerable men of the city. The
■nin arguments which Mahomet used to delude
Bien into a belief of this imposture, were pro-
mises and threat*, being those which be knew
would work the easiest on the affections of the
▼vlgar. His promises were chiefly of parad'se ;



which with great art he framed agreeably to the
•ostoms and taste of the Arabians : for they, ly-
ing within the torrid xooe, were, through the
feature of their cHmate, as well as the then ex-
•easiye corruption of their manners, exceeding-
ly given to the love of women ; and the scorch-
ing heat and drynen of the country making ri-
vers of water, cooling drinks, shaded gardens,
and irf^asant fruits, roost refreshing and delight-
fttl to them, they were from hence apt to place
tfieir highest ehjoyment in things of this nature ;
and tbuerefore, to answer the height of their car-
nal desires, he made the Joys of lieaven to con-
aisc totally in these particulars, which he promt-
aea them abundantly in many places of the Ko-
ran. On the contrary, he described the punish-
ments of hell, which he threatened to all who
would not believe in him, to consist of such tor*
menis as would appear to them the most afllict-

a\ and grievous to be borne : as that they should
uk nothing but boiling and stinking water,
nor breathe any thin^ but exceeding hot winds
fkinis most terrible in Arabia ; that they shoul



nor breathe any thin^ but exceeding hot winds,
fkinis most terrible in Arabia ; that they should
dwttl for ever In continual fire, intrmsely bum



Ing, aad be surrounded with a Mack, hot, sak
MnoKe, as with a coverlid, 4tc, and, that he
might omit nothing which could work on their
Ibars, be terrified them with the threats of griev-
•os punishments in this life. He pretended to
leeeive alt his revelations from the angel Oa-
kHd, who, he said, was sent from God on pur-
pose to deliver them to him. He was, it seems,
•ulMcrt to the failinff sickness, so that, whenever
cue fit wa« upmi him, he pretended it to be a
tratce, and thai then the angel Gabriel was
come from God with some new revelations to
him. Hi* pretended revelations he put into ae*
vrral chapters, the collection whereof makes up
the Kor«» 1 whkb is the Wble of the Mabomef
:234



ana. It Is the universal dot^rine of the Mano
motans that their religion is to Ik propagated
])y the sword, and that alt true nrmssultuen ftre
jbound to fight for it. To reconcile the minds
of the cowardiv, and add vigour to the brave,
he invented his doctrine of fate and destinv
telhng them, that those who were slain in battle^
though they had tarried at home in their housee,
muse, nevertheless, have died at tliat moment,
the time of every man*s lile being predctermin
led by God; hut that those who died fighting
for the faith, gained the advantage of dvmg mar
tyrs for their religion, and immediately entered
into Paradise, a* the reward of It. Having ar
length been eMabllslied In the temporal s(iv«
rei^ty, which he liad lone been aimingat. Ma
bofliet assunaed all the hMgnia belonging there
10 ; stin retaming tha sacred character of chief
pootiflT of his religion, as wen m the royal, with
which he had bnea invested. He trannnitte^
them both tomther to all his" successors, who
by the tiUe <» catipha reigned after him. Ha
died Sept. lit, 633, to consequence of having, >
years before, eaten of a shoulder of mutton
which bad been poisoned bv a daughter of hia
host, at Calbar. He was burled in the plac«
where lie died, whicb was In the chamber of hi*
best-beloved wife, at Medtaia, wh^e he lies !•
thisdav.

MAHOMET Im e mp er or of the Turks, wn*
MTO of Bajazet I., aiid succeeded Ms brother
Moses, whom he slew in 14IX He restored tha
power of the Ottomans to he micient glory.

MAHOMET [|., the lltli sultan of the Turica
was bora at Adrianople, In 14S0 ; and is to ba
remembered chiefly for taking Coosiantl^ople|
in 1453, and thereby driving many learaed
Greeks into the West, which was a greatcausa
of the restoration of teaming in Europe, as the
Greek Hteratnrewas then introduced there. lie
was the first of the Ottoman emperors whom
the Western nations dignified whli the title of
Grand Seignior, or Great Turk ; which posteri-
ty has preserved to his descendants. He di«^
in 1481.

MAHOMET ni. succeeded his fathet Amo-
rath III., in 1599. He began hisretgn by stranf-
ling 19 of hlk brothers, and drowning 10 of hki
father's wives. He invaded Hungary witb
900,000 men, and died in 1003.

MAHOMET IV., emperor of the Turks, i«
dnced Candla with the loss of 900,000 men ; he
then invadedPoland, and laid the kingdom un-
der an annual contribution, of 30,000 erowna.
He wiM afterwards deposed, and died in 1691.

MAHOMET v., succeeded to the throne, in
1730. He was more respectaUe for his pacific
disposition than for his military exploits; be
(lied in 1754.

MAHUOEL, Nicholas, a physkian, at Paria,
author of a ** DitMertation on the ancient 8pi^
uish Money ;*' He died tn 1747.

MAIER, Michael, a celebrated German al-
ehymist, who wrote 10 treatises on his profea-
^n. He lived In the 17th century.

MAIGN AN, Emanuel, a native of Tbotonfee,
an able mathematician, and philosopher, and
'or some time, filled a professioiial chair, at
Rome : he died in lOTfi.

MAIGROT, Charles, a learned doctor of U>e
^rbonne, bishop of Coaon. He went mis-
sionary to China, and wrote an Examintifloo of
the Chinese worship, Jcc ; he died in 1790.

MAILLA, Joseph Anne Maria de Movrice
le, a Jesuit, bora in Savoy, amost learned and
m» who spent 45years as a missioo



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isr

■17 in CUaa. He traiMlated tbe " Onmt Annali
•r China,** pablubed iu 13 volt. 4to. ; ami died,
atPekiminl748.

MAILLARD, CMiver, a French doctor of di
Tinity, eminent as a preacher, and author of
Svols. of Latin Sermons ; he died in 1730.

MAILLE D£ BREZE, Simon de, archbishop,
of Tours, was distinguished at tlie council of
Trent. He died in 1597.

MAILLE, Francis, a native of Provence,
celebrated for his longevity and the gallantries
of his old age ; he died in 1709. aced 119.

MA ILLE, Urban de, marquis de Breze, wtU
known as a warrior, and afterwards as ambas-
sador, from France to Sweden, and Holland ;
bediediaieSO. His son was distinguisbsd as
a naval officer.

MAILLEBOIS, N. count de, lleoteoant gene-
ral in the French armies, distinguished himself
in the German wars ; and died in 1703.

MAILLEBOIS, John Baptist Desraarets, dis-
^nguished himself in the wars of Spain and
Italy, and tbe conquest of Corsica, for which he
was made marshal of France ; be died in 17^.
MAILLET, Benedict de, a learned French-
man, for 16 years consul general, in Egypt, and
author of an account of that country ; he died
In 173a

M AIMBOURG, Lewis, a French divine, cele-
brated in the republic of letters, bom in 1610,
died in 1686. He wrote the " Hbtory of Art



11, ana ai^ in i^vo.
IE, AntUbny le. bom in Paris, re*
1 tbe bsTf he led a life of austeriry.
tbe Ufa of St. Bernard, Itc ; he died



MA

quired euinenct by his treatises on the Nervooa
Fluid, and on Magnetism ; he died in J7S7.

MAIRET, John, a French poet, pauonised
by cardinals Richelieu and La V alette ; he died
inl68B.

M A1SIERE8, Philip de, who was made coun-
sellor of state by Charles V., and governor of
the dauphin. Dbgusted with the world he re-
tired from it, and di^ in 1405.

MAISTRE, AntUbny le, bom in Paris, re
tiring from tbe '
and wrote tbe I
inlOSe.

MAISTRE, Lewis Isaac le. He took orders,
but being suspected of Jansenism, he was
thrown into the bastile, where he translated
the Bible, with anaotatioos, in 38 vols. 8vo ;
he died in 1684.

MAITLAND. John, lord of Tbyrlestane. Ha
practlsed^lawwkh great success, and was by
James VI., made secretary 1^ state, and the
lord chancellor of the kingdom ; he died in 1595

MAITLAND, WUHam, a voluminous writer,
who published histories of *' Scotland*' and
" London,** was bora in 1693, aiid died in 1757.

MAITTAIRE, Michael, a learned editor of
the Latin and Greek classics, bora In London,
in 1668. died iu 1747.

MAIUS, or MAY, John Henry, a Lutheran
divine, of Germany, professor of oriental, lan-
guages at several universiiies, and author of



anism, of the Croisades, of the Decay of the several works ; he died in 1719.



Empire, of Lutheranism, of Calvinism, of the
Pontificate of St. Leo ;*' and was composing
the " History of the Schism of England*' when
be died.

BtAlMONIDES, Moses, or Moses the son of
Maimon, a celebrated rabbi, called by the Jews
The Eagle of the Doctors, born in Spain, in
1131, died in ISOl. Of the works of Maimoni-
des, the most considerable is his " Jad,** which
Ims always been esteemed a great and useful
work, beitig a complete code or pandect of Jew-
kh law, digested into a clear and regular form,
and illustrated throughout with intelligent com-
noents of his own.

MAINFROY, orlnce of Tarento,and King of
Sicily by usurpaflon. He besieged Rome, nut
«i as afterwards defeated and slain, in 1366.

MAINTENON, Francis d* Aubigne, Mad-
ame de, wife of Scarron, the Freocli poet, and
afterwards of Louis XIV.; she was born in the
prison at Niort, in 1635. She founded the cele-
brated convent of St. Cyr, at Versailles, for the
maintenance of 36 nuns, ladies of qualinr, and
t4 assistant sisters. Upon this foundation,
which the king sufficiently endowed, 300 young
ladies of distinction were received and educa-
ted gratis. Her life of penitential piety after her
marriage atoned for her ingratitude to madame
de Montcspan, who raised her from indigence,
and whom she supplanted ; her eztetisive chari-
ly 10 the poor, and exemplary life, from this
ppflod, made amends to society; she died in
1719.

MAIRAN, John James d*Ortonsde, a French
philnsAplier, wlio succeeded Fontenelle, as se-
cretary to the academy of sciences. He was
author of a ** Treatise on Phosphoric Light,*'
fc.c . and dM in 1771.

ftM I R K, JoliM le, a French poet, who wrote
BDivf iiiili^cent atfegorics, and died about 1548.

M.\!n r, James In, a Dutch navigsior, who ia
I 'If*. snMul !n Sriiih A merica, New-Guinea, and
JT" n'':a : Nr lUfd In 1617.

;.. A:!'r, X. k>, a surgeon of Lyons, who ae*



MAJOR, John an eminent English divine,
idivinity professor, and provost of the universi-
ty of St. Andrews. He wrote several works in
Latin, and died about 1550.

MAJOR, John Daniel, a native of Breslaw,
and medical ^rofessor at Kiel, where he found
ed a botanical garden. He wrote an natural
history, and died in 1693.

MAJORAGIUS, Mark Anthony, professor of
belles lettrls, and author of some learned cent-
mentaries ; he died in 1555.

MAJORIANUS, Julius Valerius, emperor of
the West, was successful in bis war aysinsi the
Vandals. He was universally respected for his
virtues ; but was murdered in 461.

HAKIN, Thomas, one of the first settlers of
Pennsylvania, known as the author of two Latin
poems, published in 17^28.

M ALACHI, the last of the 12 minor prophets.
He foretold chiefly the coming of John tbe
Baptist.

MALACHY, SL.a learned Irish bishop, who
died in 1148.

MALAGRIDA, Gabriel, an Italian Jesuit, for
a long time refaided as a saint, and consulted
as an oracle. He was afterwards burnt alive,
in 1761, at the age of 75, as a false prophet.

MALAVAL, Francis, a Frenchmsn, who
although be lost hbi sight when only nine months
old, acquired celebrity as a mystical writer on
quietism ; he died in 1719.

MALAVAL, John, a native of Pexan, who
gained eminence at Paris, as a surgeon ; he died
nl758.

MALBONE, Edward G., a distinfuished mi-
niature painter, burn at Rhode-Island ; he died
in 1807.

MALCOLM IV., grandson of David, king of
Scotland. He was a liberal and benevolent
prince, and founded several OMMiasterics ; he
died in 1165.

MALCOLM, James Peller, a native of Ame-
rica, who went to England, and studied painting
at the Royal Academy ; but afterwards took to
^95



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MA

•ngraTing. HebccaauiaineuiborortheSoeiecy
of Aouquartos; and amoog other worlw, pob-
Uihed ** LondinuQi Redivtvum/' "Anocdotea
of the MaoQera aod Custoiiu of Loiidoat" and
*' Misceilaneout Aiiecdotea." Mr. M. died in
di8trt>sted cireamttanceA, iu 1815.

MALDONAT, John, a Spanish Jetuit^'bom
tn 1534, made himself famous by an excellent
** Commentary upon the tioepels,** iu 158!l, and
died in 1583.

MALBBRANCME, Nicholas, a ceidirated
French divine and philosopher, bom in 1638,
died in 1715. Ho wrote several works; of
which the first and principal, as indeed it gave
rise tu almost all that followed, was his ** Search
aAer Truth.** His design in this boolc is, to
point out to us the errors into which we are
daily led by our senses, imagination, and pas-
flons ,* and to prescribe a method for discovering
Che truth, which he does by starting the notion
•f seeing all things in God.

MALB60ZZI- V ALBRI. Veronica, a learned
Italian lady, who supported pubHciy, two tlieses
on the liberal arts ; she died in 1090.

MALBLA3, John, author of a chronicle from
the creation to the tkff9 of Justinian, taught rtae
toric at Antioch, about 900.

MALBRMI, or MAREKBI, a Venctijin monk,
who translated the Bible into Italian, in the IStb
centiKy.

MALESHBRBES.Christian WilHamLamoig-
Bon, a celebrated Frenchman, and advocate at
Paris. In 1750, he was appointed president of
the court of Aides, and after serving his country
85 years, retired. He was recalled by Lewis
XVI., to become minister of the interior. When
Lewis was draped before the revolutionary
tribunal, Maleshcrbes boldly appeared to defend
bim, but it was in vain ; his noble and virtuous
defender, was condemned by the same tribunal
and with his daughter, and a grai^^hlld, as
eended the scalfold, where they were executed
i|i 1793. He wrote several celebrated works.

MALBZIEU, Nicolas de, a French aiuhor,
tator to the dukes of Maine and Burgundy. He
published *' Elements of Geograbliy,** ice., and
died in 1737.

MALPILLASTRR, James Charles Lewis,
a: French poet, who wtrote sonnets, odes, Itc
be died in 17G7.

MALHERBB, Francis de, a noted French
poet, who has alwajni been considered by bin
countrymen as the father of their poetry, bom
in 1555, died in 16%. Boilean observes, that be
was the first in France who taught the muse
hamionious numbers, a just cadence, purity of
langnaje, regularity of compradtlon, and order ;
In short, who laid down alt those rules for fine
writing wliich future poets were to follow if
they br>ped to succeed.

MALINORB, Claude, a French historian,
suthor of a " History of the Honorary Digniti«»
in France ;*' he died In 1655.

MA LIPIERRA, Olympia, a Venetian lady of
noMe birth, who wrote poeius of some merit;
•he died in 2559.

M ALLEM AN3, Claude, a professor of philo-
•ophy at Paris, and author of a " PhHosophtcal
System of the World ;'* he died in 1793.

MAIiLBMANS, John, brother of Claode,
took orders, and wrote a " History of Religion,**
from the creation to the reign of Jovian ; be
died in 1740.

MALLET, Henry, a writer of Geneva, aa-
tbnr of a " History of Denmark and of Northern
Antiquities.
29«



MA ^

MALLET, Davidf or MALLOCH, adrain«Hc
writer, born in Scotland about 1700. la n4«,
he wrote a " Life of Lord Bacon,** was aaiocl-
ated with Thompson the poet, in tlM composi-
tion of the ** Masque ot Alfred,'* and wrote a
tragedy or two, and several poems. The prin-
cipil works of this author have been cofleeted
in 3 volumes. As a writer, he cannot bo placed
in any high class ; there being no species of
composition in which he was eminent ; lie died
inl7B5.

MALLET. Edmund, a French divine, pn>-
fessor of divinity in the college of Navarre, at
Paris. Be was one of the writers for the Ea-
cydopedia, of the articleson divinity and beUea
lettres, and the author of several other works ; ^
he died in 1807.

MALLET, Dupan, an eminent potitieal wri-
ter^ who took refuge in England from the revo-
lutionary mania of France, and was no leas dim-
tinguished by the extent of his knowledge and
the vigour of his style, than by the probity and
independent spirit of his character. He was
born at Geneva, about 1750, and died in 1800.

MALLINKROTT, Bernard, a very learned,
but turbulent man, dean of the eathodral or
Mnnster. He was degraded and imprisoned ;
and died In 1064.

MALMSBURY. See WILLIAM.

ft| ALONE, Edmund, born in 1741, was tb«
son of an Irish judge, and was educated at tbe
university of Dublin. In 1767, he was called to
the bar in London ; but he continued a very
sitort time in the profession, and turned his par>
5ults to literature. In 1790 be ptiblished as
edition of Shakspearc ; and in 1795 exposc4J^
the Shakspcarean imposture of the Ireland fa-
mily. He brought out a " Life of SUr Joshua
Reynolds ;** a " Lifts of Dryden :** a " Biogra-
phical Sketch of the Right Hon. William Wbd-
hain.*» He died in 1812.

MALOUIN, Paul James, professor of medi-
cine in the royal college of Paris, and physlciao
to the queen. He wrote on ** Chymistry and
Medicine,** and died in 1777

MALPIGHI, Marcello, an eminent Italian
I^ijrstcian and anatomist, bom in 1038, died io
1694. His discoveries in anatomv were coo^
sfalerabic, particulariy respecting toe liver and
kidneys.

M ALTON, Thomas, author of a •*Treat1aA
on Perspective, illustmting the principles of Dr.
Brook Taylor,** well known for his public lec<
tnrcs on that art, and for bis theoretical and
practical giHNnetnr, was bora in 1736, and died
in 1801.

MALVASIA, Charies Cesar, author of an

Italian History of the Painters of Bologna,'* in
1660.

MALVBZZI. VlrgUio, maniuis of, an Ttaliag
student at law, who afterwards took to arma,
and was employed by Philip TV. He wrote vari-
ous works in Spanish and Italian ; and died io
1654.

MALUS. Stephen Louis, a French matbema
tician, professor in the military school at Mets,
afterwards served as an engineer in the army io
Egypt, where he distinguished himself by bli
discoveries and writings ; he died in 181S.

MAMBRUN, Peter, an insenious and learn*
ed French poet and critic, bora in 1581. He
is, in I«atln poetry, one of the most perfect aiMl
accomplished among the imitators or Virgil, and
has written, in the same metre, the same num-
ber of bookis aad in the three dUlbrent kinds
10 which that lllttstriotts poet appllad blmaeir.



dbyGoogk



fbtt



MA

have of Mambnin ** Edogoes ;'



Georgict/* and a heroic poem in IS bnuju itderabie reputation as a writer, but of a laaiiioa



tniitled " Constantioe, or Idolatry overthrown.
He diMi ill Ifttil.
MAMMCA, Julia, mother of the emperor



and licendona charaeter. 8be wrote play« ai.d
romanced, and dii-d in 1734.
MANLIUS, Torquaiiif, a famouM Roman,



feveriis, itnown Tor her virtues and Judicious wlio pot bis son to death for iigbihig without



fouduct; siie was assassinated in S35.

MAN, Corueliiis de,an eminent painter, of
Peltt, died in 170G.

MANARA, Prosper, an Italian marqni9,and
aoet, and tutor to prbice Ferdinand, of Parma ;
hedlfdmiaiO.

MANAS8EH, son of Hezelilah, succeeded
bis father at the age of 12. His conduct was at
Irst wiclted and disgraceful, but be became an
tyempiary monarch, and re-cstaUished the wor-
ship of the God of his fathers; be died 643

MANCINELLI, Antonio, an Italian poet, and
•rator, died in 1506.

MAN CO-CAP AC, founder of the Peruvian
tmpire, declared himself the descendant of the
ran, and was worshipped as a deity.

MANDEVILLE, s*r John, an Englishman,
famous for his tra%«i8, bom about 1300, died in
13^ He travellffd through almost all coun-
tries, made himself master of almost all Ian-
fuages ; and left, at his death, an account of
is travels, in English, French, and Latin,
which abounds in improbabilities.

MANDEVILLE, Bernard de, a celebrated
writer in the 18th centnry. l)orn in Holland,
where be studied physic^ and took the degree of
4octpr in that faculty. Be wrote several books,
all or them ingenious and witty, but some which
•re supposed to have had a verv ill effect upon
society. Ilia chief work is, ^* The Fable of the
Bacs ; or, Private Vices made Public Benefits.*'
Ha died in 1733.

MANDRILLON,L, a Frenchman, who ua-
velled in America, and Holland. On his return
to Franca, he became suspected by Robespierre,
who ordered him to the gulltotina, in 17&3. He
wrote the " American Spectator."



MANETTI, GianoxKO, a native of Florence,
lOuttrions as one of those men, to whom the
revival of literature may be attributed. He
was the autho r of many works, and died in 1459.

MANETTI, Rutllio, a native of Siena, eml-
•rat as a pain ter, died in 1639.

MANETTI, Xavter, professor of botanv and
Biedicine, at rlorence, was keeper of the impe-
rial garden, and author of several learned booln ;
be died in 1785.

MANFREDI, Eustachlo, a celebrated mathe-
matician of Italy, bom in 1674, acquired great



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