Charles Plumb William Frear.

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of flesh, especially, should be long rather than short, A month's
test is too unsatisfactory.

On page 230 is given an interesting table of different methods of
cutting potatoes, but as it is all embodied in a one-page table, the
results are not made so effective as they would have been had the
main points been brought out in the text.

An analysis of Rocky mountain locusts, in the interesting re-
port of the entomologist, shows them to containio.71 per cent,
nitrogen, thus forming a valuable manure.

Several of the bulletins of this station, that we have reviewed
in the past are incorporated in this report. The book is illustrated
with numerous rather inferior illustrations from photographs, but
the pictures give one a conception of the elegant buildings on the
grounds. As a whole this report makes a creditable showing.

Ninth annual report of the New Jersey state agricultural
experiment station and the first annual report of the New
Jersey agricultural college expefiment station, for the year
1888. Trenton, N. J.: 1889, pp. 255.

■ In the second annual report of this station, for the year 1881, is
recorded the beginning of a line of investigation with sorghum, in
New Jersey, that has gradually grown up to the present time, and
yielded results of importance alike to the state and country. In
the report before us, this station takes up a field of inquiry new to
agricultural investigation, viz. : oyster culture. For 40 pages the
biologist gives his attention to the subject in a preliminary re-
port, in which he discusses son^e points of practical importance in
the natural history of the oyster; the extent, product and condition
of the natural beds; the clamming grounds; extent and condition
of the oyster-planting industry, and the means for improving the
oyster-cultural industry. Much statistical data is given, and the
entire report is interesting from an agricultural standpoint.

The report upon sorghum is practically the same as issued in
bulletin 51 of the station, which we have previously reviewed.

The subject of fertilizers meets considerable attention, and aside
from analytical work, the field tests are of special interest, notably
those of Mr. Arnold, which began in 1882, (i) to determine the ef-
fect of barn- yard manure upon a rotation of crops, compared with
the effects of the leading elements of plant food used separately
and in combination, and (2) to note the financial results which
follow the use of commercial fertilizers. The crops rotated were
com, sweet potatoes, clover and millet. Whenever potash was
used with the sweet potato, the improvement in the crop value,
varied from eight to 107 per cent. In all cases where potash was
excluded, the decrease in the value of the second potato crop was
serious, ranging from 36 to 63 per cent. The value of barn-
yard manure in improving the crop-producing power of the land



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210 Agricultural Science. Voi. iii. No. 8.

was estimated at $2,74 per ton. Very generally the use of fine
barnyard manure gave the best results, though the quantity used
made it less profitable than some others.

The eflfect of fertilizers on peach trees showed that superphos-
phate, plaster and barnyard manure could be used profitably.

Considerable data is furnished on fodders and feeds, valuable
tables of analyses, of feeding standards, and maximum, minimum
and average compositon of fodders. An interesting and brief
report on alfalfa is also given.

In view of the high character of the balance of the volume,
comparatively speaking, the reports of the entomologist and chemi-
cal geologist are rather mediocre, as embracing almost no original
work, being mainly compilation. We trust that another year
will find these two departments engaged in work equally pro-
gressive with the other departments.

The English Sparrow {Passer domesiicus) in North America,
especially in its relations to agriculture. U. S. department of
agriculture, division of economic ornithology and mammalogy.
Bulletin one, pp. 405, figs. 7, map I. Prepared under the di-
rection of Dr. C, Hart Merriam, ornithologist, ])y Walter B.
Barrows, assistant ornithologist. Washington : Government,
1889.

This report of Mr. Barrows has involved a vast deal of labor,
and is no doubt the most elaborate document yet published regard-
ing the relations of any one bird to man, and certainly reflects
great credit upon the industrious writer.

The following are the principal topics discussed : Introduction
of the sparrow to America ; summaries of evidence by many par-
ties concerning the various good and bad traits of this bird ; meth-
ods of destroying and catching ; recommendations for legislations ;
legislation aflfecting the sparrows. Dr. C. V. Riley reports upon
the insectivorous habits of the bird. Dr. A. K. Fisher gives some
experiments upon their destruction by poisons ; the trapping of
sparrows is described by W. T. Hill, and Otto Widmann gives
the history of the house sparrow and European tree sparrow {Pas-
ser montanus) at St. Louis, Mo,

The following items are of special interest. The first English
sparrows were brought to America in the fall of 1850 by Hon.
Nicholas Pike and other directors of the Brooklyn institute, who
imported eight pairs into Brooklyn. Since then it has rapidly
spread over America, approximately spreading, from 1880 to 1885,
500,760 sq. miles, and during 1886, 516,500 sq. miles. A single
pair, it is estimated, in ten years will increase to 10,604,499,373
in progeny.

The relation of the sparrow to buds, blossoms and foliage is tes-
tified to by 584 observers, of whom 265 allege positive damage to
them, 12 are indeterminate, and 307 report no damage. Goncern-



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1889. Agricultural Science. 211

ing injury to fruits, garden seeds and vegetables, evidence was re-
ceived from 788 persons, of whom 472 testified against the sparrow,
279 testified more or less favorably, and 37 for and against.

The relation of this bird to our native birds is of importance,
and of 1048 reports bearing on the question, 168 gave no injurious
results, while 837 were unfavorable to the sparrow as driving
away the native birds from their accustomed haunts.

The English sparrow was originally brought to America to de-
stroy noxious insects, yet the testimony shows fhat the bird is not
strictly insectivorous, or in fact to a slight extent. Of 102 stom-
achs examined by Dr. Riley, 17.6 per cent, contained insect re-
mains, but, **as a general rule the amount of animal food was but
small compared with the vegetable food and gravel.** Hymenop-
tera and Coleoptera mostly prevailed. Of 522 stomachs examined
by the agricultural department, 22 contained wheat, 327 oats, 71
maize, 57 fruit seed (mainly mulberries), 102 grass seed, 85 weed
seed, 219 undetermined vegetable matter, 19 rice, bread, etc., 47
noxious insects, 50 beneficial insects, 31 insects of no economic
importance.

First annual report of the kansas experiment station,
state agricultural college. For the year 1888, pp. 357,plates vi,
figs, several. Topeka : 1889.

Kansas is strictly an agricultural state, and a large part of the
population are farmers. To reach these people, and teach them
that which will materially aid and advance them in their labor is
the work of the experiment station. Neither the people nor the
station officials need feel ashamed of this report, for it shows that
a class of work is being done, and answers sought to questions,
that directly affect farming interests. We feel no desire to com-
pare this report with those of other stations, but to say that, as a
whole, it contains much more grain than chafi*.

The reports of the farm, chemical, horticultural and botanical
departments follow each other. Prof. Shelton reports on waste of
man4ire in summering manures in the yard ; experiments in the
com field ; experiments with wheat; tests of forage crops^; how
milk and butter are influenced by feeding ; the pressure of ensilage
on silo walls ; and the relation of rainfall to the com crop.

Prof. Failyer has tested the shrinkage of hay in the mow ; com-
pared sorghum varieties and tested keeping qualities of sorghum,
as well as examined the individual stalk with a view to improving
the plant, and also tested with fertilizers. He gives a new
method of milk analysis.

Prof; Popenoe besides reporting upon spraying orchards, and
giving observations on injurious insects, reports upon trials of va-
rieties of potatoes, peas and tomatoes.

Dr. Kellermann discusses investigations upon sorghum blight
and hackberry knot, cross fertiHzing varieties of corn, germination
of weed seeds, and the fungus parasites of weeds.



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f^



212 Agricultural Science. Voi. iii. No. 8.

Most of the illustrations are generally good. The tabular mat-
ter is frequently unpleasant to refer to, on account of the headings
so often reading at right angles to the rest of the page-matter, an
unnecessary evil. We shall have occasion to make a few abstracts
from this volume in future.

PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED.

Arkansas industrial university agricultural experiment station, Fayetteville,
Ark. Bulletin No. 9, May, 1889, pp. 15. Cotton seed hulls for fattening.

California, University of. Agricultural experiment station, Berkeley, Cal. Bulletin No.
82, pp. 4. The lakes of the San Joaquin valley.

Colorado, The state agricultural college of. The agricultural experiment station. Bul-
letin No. 8, July, 1889, pp. 24. Alfalfa : Its growth, composition, digestibility, etc:

Cornell university college of agricolture. Bulletin of the agricultural experiment
station. VI. June, 1889, pp. 21-28. I. On the determination ot hygroscopic water in
air-dried fodders. II. The determination of nitrogen by the azotometric treatment of
the solution resulting from the Kjeldahl digestion. III. Fodders and feeding stuffs.

Kmbry, Frank E. Report of the farm superintendent to the New York agricultural expe-
riment station, Geneva, N. Y. Extracted from the 7th ann. rep't N. Y. agr. exp. sta. for

1888, pp. 316-403. From the author.

Georgia, University of. State agricultural and mechanical college. Georgia agricultural

experiment station. Bulletin No. 4, July, 1889, pp. 64-71, Analyses of cattle foods.
GoPF, Emmett S. Report of the horticulturist to the New York agricultural experiment

station, Geneva, N. Y. Extracted from the 7th ann. rep't N. Y. agr. exp. sta. for 1888,

pp. 86-225.
Indiana, Bulletin No. 24 of the agricultural experiment station of. Purdue university,

May, 1889, pp. 16, illustrated. Experiments on milk production by C. H. Wulff", June,

1889, No. 24, pp. 18. Entomological experiments

Iowa agricultural experiment station. Bulletin No. 5. May, 1889, pp. 141-196. I.
Sorghum. II. Important mjurious insects.

Kansas state agricultural college. Experiment station. Manhattan, Kan. Bulle-
tin No. 6, June, 1889, pp. 16. bilos and silage.

Kansas state agricultural college. Experiment station. Extracted from annual
report, 1888. Farm department, pp. 108. Report of botanical department, pp. 281-351.
From the authors.

Kew, Royal Gardens. Bulletin of miscellaneous information. No. 30, June, 1S89, pp.
127-152, plate I. XCVIII. Jamaica cogwood. XCIX. Cocoa-nut coir Irom I^agus. C. A
wheat ptrst in Cyprus. CI. Patchouli. CIl. P' U-:ferh tea. CIII. Agricultural ludustrits
at the Gambia. No. 31, July, 1889, pp. 153-189. Guide to the botanical literature of the
British empire.

Ladd, E. .F. Report of the chemist to the New York agricultural experiment station,
Geneva, N. Y. Extracted from the 7th ann. rept. N. Y. agjr. exp. sta., for 188S, pp.
234-314. From the author.

Massachusetts agricultural college. Hatch experiment station of the. Bulletin No.
5, July, i8>9, pp. 10. Division of entomology. Household pests.

Massachusetts state agricultural experiment station. May, 1889, pp. 4. Analyses
of commercial fertilizers. Bulletin No. 34, June, 1889, pp. 16.

Michigan, Agricultural college of. Experiment station. Bulletin No. 49. May, 1889, pp. 8.
Dep't of chemistry. Chemical composition of corn-stalks, hay and screenings, bul-
letin No. 50, June, 1889, pp. 6. Zoological department. The grain plant louse.

Minnesota, University of. Agricultural experiment station. Bulletin No. 7, April, 1889,
pp. 94. Soil temperatures. Comparison of varieties of com for ensilage, etc.

Mississippi agricultural experiment station. Bulletin No. 6, pp. i. Charbon. Bul-
letin No. 7, ]-p. 12. Hay presses.

North Carolina agricultural experiment station. Bulletin No. 63, June, 1889, pp.
101-115. XIII. Tests of seeds, XIV. I,aboratory notes.

Ohio agricultural experiment station, Columbus, Ohio, Bulletin of the. Vol. II, No.
2. Second series. No. 9. April and May, 1889, pp. 19-69. Article IV. Colic of horses.

Shelton, E. M. Report of experiment in pig-feeding, made by the farm department,
State agricultural college, Manhattan, Kan., pp. 19, plates VI. To test the value of
mixed shorts and bran, as compared with corn meal, for fattening fully grown pigs.
Extracted from Rept. Kan. state board of agriculture, for April, 1889.

United States department of agriculture. Office of experiment stations. Farmers*
Bulletin, No. i, June, 1889, pp. 16. The what and why of agricultural experiment
stations.



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1889. Agricultural Science. 213

ABSTRACTS.

THE SALTS OF MILK AND THEIR RELATION TO THE BEHAV-
IOR OF CASEIN.
(By F. SoLDNER : Landw. Versuchs-Stat.y^^^w, pp. 351-436,)

Two series of determinations of the ash constituents of milk gave
the following results in grams per litre of milk :

Cl. P«06. K2O. NaaO. ' Ca O. Mg O.

1 0.820 2.437 1.885 0.465 1.720 0.205

II 0.980 2.400 1.720 0.510 1.980 o 200

The sulfuric acid was not determined, as it does not preexist in
the milk, but is produced from the sulfur of the albuminoids ; the
small amount of iron was also neglected. In grouping the ash
constituents as salts, account has to be taken of the fact that a por-
tion of the phosphoric acid found in the ash is derived from the
phosphorus of the casein. The amount of phosphoric acid to be
deducted is 0.581 gram per litre of milk, assuming the latter to
contain three per cent, of casein.

Hammarsten showed that casein has acid properties, yielding
salts with bases, and obtained a calcium-derivative which con-
tained 0.8 to 1.2 per cent, of lime. The author finds that there
are two distinct compounds with calcium ; the one containing
2.39 per cent, of lime, shows an alkaline reaction with litmus, but
not with phenolphthalein ; while the other compound does not
react either with litmus or with phenolphthalein ; and contains
only 1.55 per cent, of lime. The basicity of casein was also de-
termined by titration with soda, using phenolphthalein as indi-
cator. Neutral or slightly alkaline solutions of calcium casein,
prepared b}^ rubbing together the corresponding amounts of casein
and calcium carbonate, become turbid only when kept for some
time ; but when an alkaline calcium-casein solution is neutralized
or acidified it at.once becomes turbid. Alkaline, neutral, or just
perceptibly acid solutions of calcium-casein do not curdle when
boiled ; the addition of more acid causes the solutions to curdle,
the temperature required becoming lower as the amount of acid
present increases. The calcium-derivative which reacts alkaline
with litmus is not curdled by rennet. Hence it is probable that
casein is present in milk as neutral calcium salt (with 1.55 per
cent, of lime). Assuming this to be the case, and making the cor-
rection for phosphoric acid already given, a litre of milk will con-
tain in grams :

NaCl. KCL. KaP04 K2O CaaPjOe MgaPjOe Ca O (in

casein).

1 0.877 0.603 1.653 0.405 2.315 0.447 0.465

II 0.962 0.830 0.903 0.595 2.793 0.436 0.465

The excess of base is probably present in the milk as organic
salts, Henkel having shown that citric acid is a con tan t constitu-
ent of milk to the extent of at least one gram per litre.



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214 AGRICUI.TURAL SCIENCE. Vol. III. No. S.

Aiialj'ses of milk serum, prepared by Zahns' method, by filter-
inj; milk through porous battery cells, showed that the whole of
the potash, most if not all, of the soda, and the greater part of the
magnesia present in milk are in the form of soluble salts, so that
the casein salt can only h^^ a calcium-derivative. The acidity of
milk to phenolphthalem is probably due to the presence of acid
phosphates, and to the ])Ower of casein of uniting with a further
amount of base without becoming alkaline towards phenolph-
thalein. Calculated from the result of series II, the salts present
in milk may be grouped as follows (in grams per litre) :

Sodium chloride 0.962 Magnesium citrate 0.367

Potassium *' 0.830 Dicalcium phosphate 0.671

Monopotassium phosphate 1.156 Tricalcium " 0.806

Dipotassium " 0-853 .Calcium citrate 2 133

Potassium citrate 0495 Lime (m casein) 0.465

Dimagnesium phosphate 0.336

Hammarsten {Jahr. f. Tierchem., 1874, p. 135) considers that
casein acts as a solvent for calcium phosphate, while Eugling be-
lievfs that the casein enters into combination with tricalcium
phosphate, a view which is also held by SchafFer {Landw. Jahr,
d. Scliweiz, 1887). Eugling's theory is rejected as being based on
ernmeous suppositions.

Determinations of lime and phosphoric acid were made in milk,
in the serum of milk filtered through porous cells, and in the in-
soluble portion of milk. Thirty -six to 56 per cent, of the phos-
phoric acid and 53 to 72 per cent, of the lime are undissolved, being
probably in suspension. The undissolved lime, not in casein, is
in combination with phosphoric acid as a mixture of di and tri-
calcic phOvSphatts. It was found, that of the undissolved phos-
phoric acid and lime, 44 to 72 per cent, and 26 to 67 per cent, re-
spectively, could be dissolved in carbonic or acetic acids.

Eugling states that the calcium salts in milk are not precipitated
by ammonium oxalate. The author finds that 85 per cent, of the
calcium is precipitated ; at the same time there is a change in the
appearance of the milk which indicates that the reactions which
take place extend to the casein, probably with formation of an
ammonium salt. Serum obtained by sodium chloride, and that
obtained by alcohol, are both precipitated by ammonium oxalate,
just like the serum produced by rennet. Eugling's negative re-
sult with alcohol serum was, no doubt, due to the presence of al-
cohol, which is shown to prevent the formation of calcium oxalate.

With regard to the decrease in the acidity in milk, observed by
Schaifer to be produced by the action of rennet, it is found that if
the casein is made to separate in a finely divided state, so that the
whole of it may come into contact with the alkali, and if, at the
same time, unnecessary dilution of the curdled milk is avoided,
the acidity of the milk remains constant. Boiling has no effect on
the acidity of milk.



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1889. Agricultural Science. 215

The belief that casein in milk is in combination with calcium
phosphate, originated in Hamraarsten's ohservation that the cur-
dling of milk by rennet is connected with the presence of calcium
salts. Hammarsten showed that other alkaline earths may be
substituted for lime, and that they may be present as sulfates and
carbonates, and still have the same action. It is shown that cal-
cium phosphate suspended in a casein solution does not help the
curdling by rennet, but that the presence of a soluble calcium salt
is necessary ; it is immaterial whether the salt is phosphate or chlo-
ride, etc.

According to Mayer {Milch Zeitung, x, p. 36) when milk is
heated at 75° it undergoes a change, and at still higher tempera-
ture, but still much below 100°, it loses its power of being curdled.
Experiments made by the author show that milk does not neces-
sarily quite lose the power of being curdled by being heated at
100°, although the time required to curdle milk so treated is much
lengthened, especially with milk of less than the usual acidity.
The reason that boiled milk will either not curdle at all, or requires
a longer time to curdle than fresh milk, is that a part of the dis-
solved calcium salt is precipitated as tricalcic phosphate. For the
same reason curdling of milk by rennet is also prevented, or retarded,
by adding more or less alkali. In either case, the property of being
curdled by rennet may be restored to the milk by adding acid,
passing carbonic anhydride through it, or by the addition of a
soluble calcium salt. The author confirms Schaflfer's statement
that boiled milk treated with carbonic anhydride curdles more
quickly than fresh milk.

Ah, : Jour, chem, soc.Juney iSSg^ pp, 53-64.,

SOURCES OF THE NITROGEN OF THE GRAMINE^ AND LE-

GUMINOSE^.
(By H. Hellriegkl AND H. WiLFARTH: Beilage. Zeit. Rubenzucker-
Ind., Nov., 1888.)

The cultures made in 1 883-1 887 include barley, oats, peas,
buckwheat, lupines and sanfoin. The pots employed were of
glass, with holes at the bottom, and the soil consisted of quartz
sand, used for glass making, from 4 to 8 kilos, being in each pot, and
each kilo, containing 0.Q027 to 0.0054 gram of nitrogen. The
nutrient solution contained definite quantities of potassium phos-
phate, potassium chloride, magnesium sulfate and calcium nitrate,
containing nitrogen in quantities of 0.000, 0.007, 0.028, 0.056,
0.1 12, 0.168, 0.224 and 0.336 gram. Fromo.i to one per cent,
of calcium carbonate was added to the sand, and the plants were
watered with distilled water free from ammonia in regulated quan-
tities, so as to keep the percentage of moisture in the soil always
wMthin certain limits favorable to growth.

The seeds were selected with great care as to uniformity, and
were first allowed to germinate, then sown in the pots, and after



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2i6 Agrigultural Science. Vol. iii. No. 8.

the seedlings appeared, half were removed from each pot, leaving
only those absolutely uniform in size, hight, etc.

cSats and barley behave alike; without nitrate, there is no de-
velopment beyond the reserve in the seed, and with varying quan-
tities of nitrate the harvest of dry matter obtained is directly pro-
portioiial to the nitrate added, and, moreover, the same quantity
of nitrate gives always the same weight of dry matter, even in dif-
ferent years. For every milligram of added nitrogen, increases of
95 a»d 96 milligrams of dry matter are obtained with barley and
oats respectively. The harvest always contains less nitrogen than
the s€^, seed and manure, taken together, and when the added
nitrate is diminished, the nitrogen in the harvest is diminished,
in the same proportion.

When nitrogen is withheld^or is insufficient, the plants do not
die, but there is no production of new matter, the new organs,
even to the empty grain spikes, being produced solely at the
expense of the older leaves,which are successively exhausted and
withered.

Sterilization of the soil and the pots on the one hand, and the
addition of the microbes contained in the washings of cultivated
soil on the other hand, cause no variation in the above result.

Peas behave quite differently. Some plants languish in a soil de-
prived of nitrogen, and never develop beyond the reserve material
of ^e seed; but others suddenly acquire new life, develop rapidly,
amd yield a crop equal in weight to that obtained with a good sup-
ply of nitrate, the amount of nitrogen in the crop compared with
that contained in the soil, seed and nitrate (if any), varying from
a slight loss t& a ver}^ large gain (over one gram in many instances).
This gain occurs also when the pots are placed in a glass cage (as
in Boussingaults' experiments) the air of which is carefully de-
prived of all traces of combined nitrogen; it must, therefore, be
due to the free nitrogen of the air. When the soil is sterilized by
heat, and the pots and seeds by washing with very dilute mercuric
chloride, peas behave like oats and barley; there is no gain of ni-
trogen from the air, but good crops result proportionally to the
quantity of nitrate, and no tubercles are formed on the roots. In
all cases where there is a gain of nitrogen, tubercles are formed on
the roots. Their formation can be rendered certain by adding to
the sterilized soil(with or without nitrate) the washings of a small
quantity of arable soil, but the kind of soil, or the crop that has
been grown in it, greatly affects the result. When these washings
are boiled or even heated to 70°, before being added to the steril-



Online LibraryCharles Plumb William FrearAgricultural science, Volume 3 → online text (page 25 of 44)