Charles Reginald Haines.

A complete memoir of Richard Haines (1633-1685), a forgotten Sussex worthy, with a full account of his ancestry and posterity ... online

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Order ; for ... I have never been exercised in such publick
endeavours."^ In another place, writing during the same year, he
alludes to his " Unworthiness and Obscure Condition," and to his
treatise as " these mean lines " and *' these unpolish'd Papers."^
" Though incapable, and not sufficiently qualified to do any con-
siderable Service,"^ and though he had met with little encourage-
ment,* yet he boasted that he had " improved his small Genious
to the utmost."^

Caffyn does not hesitate to accuse him of disingenuousness
and mock humility in tlms depreciating his works, in that he
employed " a transcril)er, a man learned in the law "** who (by
R. H/s own confession, says Caffyn) " supplied with amendments
his matter when he had not made it tiue English."'^ Again in his
Introduction to Envy's Bitterness, Caffyn asserts that " another
person, whom both Nature and Education had furnish'd with
accomplishments necessary for such public concerns, did frame
his matter into that form and manner of language in which it
now appears." I cannot think there was much in tliis alleged

* New Lords^ Pref . p. vii.

- Prevention of Poverty, Pref. i, ii, iii. '* Ibid,, p. 2.

^ Ibid.y Pref. p. iii. ^ Proposals, p. 4.

« A Baging Wave, p. 22.

7 I cannot trace this admission in R. H.'s existing book?.

E 2



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52 RICHARD HAINES'S LITERARY STYLE.

assistance.^ Eichard Haines's later works, in which it is not lik(;ly
that he received any help, show the same characteristics of style as
his earlier ones. The language in all is racy and rather homely,
proverbs and proverbial expressions are common, and Scriptural
allusions incessant.

Here is a specimen of his homelier style : — " Thus my beloved
Brethren, But his weak Little Children, whilst he is as it were
Singing to you a pleasant Song of Eome's ruin being at hand and
Eocking you into the peaceable sleep of vain Confidence in his
Cradle of pretended Safety, Hath he not all on a Sudden Led you
over this Bridge of Infallibility quite Across Scripture Authority,
and Squat you down in the very Lap of the Great Whore of
Babylon."*

He speaks of Caffyn's "groundless, boundless quarrelsome
humour,"^ his " tjTannick love, or love by antipathy,"^ and again,
" as for his Wisdome is it not from beneath ? And his Love as
deep as Hell ? Oh rare Love ! "^ " In brief, he kills you with pure
kindness, and under pretence of the highest Love, makes you an
example of sober Eevenge."^ "What an Innocent, a Turtle, to
turn Devouring Eagle ; or a Lamb couchant on a sudden to start
up into a Lion Eampant ! "^

Metaphor is frequently used. Prosperity is compared to a
refreshing stream,® poverty to the camp of a warlike king^ ; " his
Proposals are as a Ship without Governour, running a drift among
the raging waves between the highest Eocks, and the shallow
Sands, attended with Storms, Calms, and Cross-winds ; yet laden
with Treasure sufficient to enrich the whole Kingdom."'^ The
recent discovery of the circulation of the blood supplies a favourite
simile.^^

The sentences occasionally have an epigrammatic form to point
the argument, e.g., " The Industry of one is gratified with the
Contempt of Others " ; " We talk of brave things if Words would

^ At the end of Neto Lords (p. 58) the author says some errors are due to his
absence from the press.

2 New Lords, p. 43. =* Ibid., pp. 23, 28.

* Ibid,, p. 33. « Ibid., p. 34.

6 Ibid., p. 21.

^ Ibid., p. 24. This is the only reference to heraldry.

^ Prevention of Poverty, p. 17.

« Ibid., p. 28.

*" Model of Government, p. 7.

^* Prevention of Poverty, p. S; Pro^osa/j, postscript, ji. iv;" ffwy/awrf'.? Weal^^.9,



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RICHARD IIAINES'S LITERARY STYLE. 53

do the Work " ; and again, quoting the cynicism of his opponents —
" Let the Poor beg, starve, steal, and be hang'd and damn'd."^

There is a fair sprinkling of unusual words and expressions,
perhaps some that may serve to illustrate the New English
Dictwn-ary or the Dialect Dictionary. Thus, directions are given
to prevent the "huzzing and sputtering of cider," or " \t^ fretting, if
it be pQ'icl^'t" viz., become eager^ ; to teach the poor how to svnngle
or hitchel hemp or flax^ ; to detect the size, i.e. the strength, or
proof, of spirit.* A statute is mentioned enacting that " on every
Fall of Underwoods so many Standelsy Telloivs, or young Trees
should be left to grow up for Timber.!'^ Ground is spoken of as
being ''' as warm and Lioe from the wind as may be."^

We find many good, but now obsolete, words and expressions
as " Card " for " Chart," '' Vapour " (subst.) for " Brag," " docible "
" outlandish,"^ " stand in " for *' cost " ; also some quaint ones, as
'• to levy an objection," " midland " for " inland " counties,
" scandle," for " scandalize,"^ " expenditors," " otherways," " uneasi-
ness " {i.e. difficulty), " asquint," '* natives of ships," " neighbour "
(adj.), " great belly,"^ " deputation "( = '* allowance") "less plenty,"
" more plenty," " very plenty," "overture" (= preface), "companies"
(= committees), "arch" coupled with dexterous. A compound
not without merit is " self -ended," used of men whose thought
and wishes end in self. " Pent-house- wise," which also occurs, is
Shaksperian.

Some phrases of a more modem cast also appear, as " com-
petent " distance, " substantial " yeoman, " at a pinch," " on that
very score," " hair-brain'd,"^^ " on a firmer basis."^'

The grammar, though in the main correct, is not always above
suspicion, e.g. in the sentence " for the sake of she that he loveth
best." A Quakerism appears in " What hast thee to say ? "

Worth noting perliaps are " certainest," " put case," " land kind
for corn,"*^ " wool kindest to be converted," " toUage," " consump-

1 England's Weal, p. 9.

^ Aphorisms on Cyder, p. 12. ^ Proposals, p. 7.

'* Aphorisms, p. 13, and Supplement to same.

^ Prevention of Poverty, p. 9. " Aphorisms, p. 16.

' See Nehemiali xiii, 26.
^ Sliakspere's Julius Caesar.

^ Shakspere's Measure for Mfasure, II, 1, 100. New Lordsy p. 12.
*" Shakspere has " hare-brained."

*^ The strong term " Devilish " is used once, and in one place a blank is left for
a " swear " woi'd to be supplied. See Appeal to General Assembly,
*2 Prevention of Poverty, p. 7.



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54 RirHAKD HAINEI^'S I.ITRHVRY STYLE.

tive of/' " high country wines," " vast shice of treasure/' and the
curious phrase " we may modestly, though at rovers, guess it."^
The expression " cross the great design " is found in Cowley.
Among names of liquors we get Stum, a sort of " must/' Mum^ a
decoction of wheat malt, Frontimadc, old Hockamore, and also
Purl Royal, or wormwood. Proverbs and maxims abound such
as :

One soweth, another reapeth^ ;

To make a mountain out of a molehilP ;

Idleness in youth is the seed plot of the hangman's harvest* ;

Much talking, little doing* ;

Crush the cockatrice in its egg ^;

Zeal without true knowledge is most dangerous^ ;

Kissing goes by favour^ ;

The case is as broad as long*' ;

Like rotten wood in the dark, of more show than substance*" ;

Let charity begin at home" ;

Inttn^est governs all people in the w^orld, botli good and bad^-;

No good man can jjossibly be uncharitable*^;

A whetstone, though blunt itself, sliarpeneth other things** ;

Most dangerous is it to play with thunderbolts; and to jest
with things that are sharp and burning.*^

Two homely ones are — '' to cry for a fairing*^ " and " if the cap
be made of wool, he shall pay the debt,"*^ which the writer calls
'' the vulgar proverb." In this connection we may perhaps quote
the fable of the magpie and pigeon : " The Old Fable is significa-
tive of the Mag-Pye teaching tlie Wood Pigeon to build a Nest ;
to every Direction the other contemptuously cry'd — Tim I can do
and this I can do ; which at last so incensed the Pye, that she left
her in the midst of her work with the Eeprimand — Then do't,
then do't ; and ever since the simple Pigion for want of a little



* Prevention of Poverty, p. 2. Is it an areherj term ?

- Aphorisms, Supplement. •* Netv Lords, p. 5.

"* Prevention of Poverti/, p. v. ^ Ibid., vii.

« New Lords, p. 25. ' Ji^id,^ p. 22.

8 Ibid., p. 12. 9 Ibid., pp. 13, 44.

^" Ibid., p. 55. " Proposals, postscript, p. xi.

'*^ Model of Government, p. 5.

'^ Ibid., p. 8 ; Proposals^ postscript, p. xv.

1* Prevention of PovcHii, p. 20. See Hor. Ars Poet., U. 304, 305.

^» New Lords, p. 53. ' '6 Ibid., p. 58.

'7 Ibid , p. 1»2.



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RICHARD Haines's litekaky style. 55

patience and gratitude is forc'd to be content with a sorry im-
perfect Lodging for her young ones."^

The spelling is throughout erratic. Consonants are frequently
doubled, e.g. "leggs," " upp," "pattent," "pitty," though the
reverse sometimes occurs, e.g. " jugler." The letter y is a common
substitute for i, as in "joyn," "dayly." Incorrect plurals are
found, as in " boyes," " girles," but " moneys " is spelt rightly.
The letters i and e are constantly confused, e.g., in " diserve," " des-
tinguish," " devel," and " divel " ; and we meet with the older t for c,
in "physitian," " vitiousness," etc. We naturally find "thred"
(but also " thread "), welth, neer (but nieak) supream, enow,
neighbor (but neighbour too), " pallet " for " palate," " oar " for
" ore," " Allege '* appears as " alleadge " and " allegdg," and we
have " priviledg." Both " queries " and " quaeries," " permote "
and " promote," " phlegmatic " and " flegmatic " are found, and all
three forms " murther," " muther," " murder."

Perhaps the unknown transcriber is responsible for some of
the variations. The spelling is on the whole respectable enough
for the time, and seems to show that llichard had some grammar
school education. He may have gone to Steyning Grammar
School, but the records there do not go back so far. The only
allusions to schools in our author are where he expresses a prefer-
ence for Public Schook^ and Universities over private schools and
tutors, and where he alludes to the ill efiFects of long sitting on
growing boys.^

Knowledge of History. — He had, as we have seen, a con-
siderable knowledge of Papal and Italian history, and he quotes
one remark from Bacon, that " to make even wishes that are not
absurd deserves commendation."* One reference there is to early
English History, where he says that Edgar, King of England, took
" greater delight in his shipping, than any Kecreation whatsoever
. . . and therefore once every, year he would sail round his
kingdom with a navy of stout ships, consisting of 4000 sail, which
(saith the Historian) we find upon Eecord "^ ; while of Henry VII
he says " tho* justly numbered amongst the wisest Monarchs of
that age, his Incredulity is reported by some Authors to have cost
him the Immense loss of the West Indian Treasures . . . And
even Ferdinand of Castile was beholding to the Importunities of

* Aphorisms, p. 2. ^ Provision for fhe Foor. p. v.

•* Proposals, postscript-, p. xii.

■* Prevention of Poverty, p. 21. ^ Ihid., p. II.



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5G RICHARD HAINES'S LITERARY STYLE.

the Lady Isabella, for accepting the Discovery of this New World
from a despised Columbus."^

There is no evidence that Kichard Haines had ever read
Shakspere, or, what is more surprising, Milton, or what is most
surprising of all, Bunyan, who was a Baptist like himself. There
is no reference to Cromwell, but the words, " I love the word
Eeformation well, but the thing better,"^ seems to me an echo of
some expression in one of Cromwell's speeches.

^ Aphorisms, Introduction. ^ Appeal to Assemhly.



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(57



CHAPTER VII.
ErcHARD Haines as Social and Political Economist.

There is no doubt that Richard Haines spent a great deal of
thne and money (in fact he seriously impoverished himself by it)
in publishing his books, and perhaps in taking out his patents/
tlie most promising of which he did not live to exploit. As has
been seen, he met with much opposition and discouragement. This
is how he speaks of it, " I know wlioever will attempt anything
for publick Benefit, may expect these Three things (the first is
necessary, the second Customary, and the third Diabolical),
viz. To be the Object of wise mens Censure, other mens
Laughter, and if advantagious to himself. Envies implacable
displeasure; of which last, I have had share to the highest degree
that Revenge could express ; and this too from a pretended
loving Brother, a person of an honest Profession, and of as
debauched a Conscience ; yet I say, notwithstanding such dis-
couragements, I have spent some time for Publick Advantage."^

The Prevention of Poverty. — In the same year in which he
was engaged on his book Neio Lords, New Laws, Richard brought
out his first book on matters of public interest, entitled The \
Prevention of Poverty. His object was partly economical and I
partly social. He wished to deal with the question of the poor, '
and to improve trade. That his political economy was at fault in
several particulars is not surprising, but no one who reads his
pamphlets can doubt that he was actuated by the sincerest
patriotism and religious feeling.*^ The title of this, his first book
of the kind, was as follows :

The Prevention of Poverty : or, A Discourse of the Causes of the Decay
of Trade, Fall of Lands, and Wafit of Money throughout the Nation ; with
certain E.vpedimts for remedying the same, and bringing this kingdom to an
eminent degree of Riches and Prosperity : By Saving many Hundred
Thousand Pounds yearly, Raising a full Trade, and Omstant Imi)loyment

' Caffyn says that liis first patent did not bring liim in anything to speak of.
- Proposals, etc , p. 4; Aphorisms, p. 2.
•* See Prevention of Poverty, p. 21.



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58 RICHARD HAINES AS SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ECONOMIST.

for all sorts of People, and increasing His Majesties Revemce, by a Method
noway burthensome, but advantagious to the Subject.

This shows that Richard Haines*? attention was first turned to
the question of the balance of trade, the fall of lands in the
country, and the want of money. He describes the general poverty
(1674) thus : " A General Poverty seems to have invaded the
whole Nation, Leases being continually thrown up in the Cotmtrey,
and Tradesmen daily Breaking in ilie City, In brief, all conditions
of men seem to have changed their stations, and sunk below
themselves ; the Gentry, by reason of the fall of their Lands and
uncertainty of Rents, being brought to live at the rate of a
Yeoman ; the Yeoman can scarce maintain himself so well as an
ordinary Farmer heretofore ; the Farmer is forced to live as liard
as a poor Labourer anciently ; and Labourers generally, if they
have families, are ready to run a begging."*

He fii^st deals with the causes of this poverty and their
suggested remedies. The causes he takes to be the increase of
imports and decrease of exports. Among the former are French
wines, brandy, linen cloth, iron, timber, mum, coifee, chocolate,
suet, and saltpetre,* all of them except the first and third being
imported within the last forty years. The total value of these (at a
guess) he puts at two or three millions. On the other hand English
manufactures, especially woollen cloth and iron, had decreased.
Much bullion was consequently lost to the nation by going
beyond the seas, and a general impoverisliment was the result.
Some attributed this to the great taxes and imports le\'ied at this
time.^ In combating this objection our author enunciates the
economic fallacy, that the taxes paid to the King merely caused
money to circulate, none being hoarded by the King, or sent
beyond seas.* The real cause he says is our bad husbandry and
bad economy. The only remedies are, to make new manufactures
for English goods, wliicli may employ the idle lands in other ways
than for corn and cattle; and to prohibit imports that are superfluous
as linen cloth^ or injurious, as brandy. English ground can grow-
enough flax and hemp for tlie whole nation, and not only so but
the result of their cultivation will be to raise the value of land
from 206\ to 40s. or even 50s. an acre per annum.^ All idle

^ Prevention of Poverty, p. 1, 1674.

"^ Ibid., p. 2. Mum was made of wheat malt. ^ Ihid., p. 3.

^ What about Charles's subsidies to the French King ?

'"* Prevention of Poverty, p. 5.



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RICHARD NATNESAS SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ECONOMIST. 59

hands/ that now only find work in harvest time will be employed
all the year round, while the tramps and vagrants that infest the
country will disappear.^ The many hundred thousand pounds
now paid for imported linen would be saved to the Kingdom.
Sails and cordage, too, which we buy from abroad, we could make
for ourselves of home-grown hemp. Nor would this restrict the
area for corn on the whole, but rather secure an advantageous
rotation of crops, beneficial alike to corn and cattle.

Other imports are described as absolutely pernicious, such as
the " growing trade of that outlandish^ rohhing, and (by reason of
its abuse) Man-killing Liquor, called Brandy."^ If any such
spirits are necessary (" for Seamen or the like "), they can be
made at home.* Under this head the nation would save £300,000.
Baysalt again could be procured from our own waste lands by the
sea and this would result in a saving of £50,000 jearly.^

Again iron most certainly need not be imported, as it is to the
amount of several hundred thousand pounds a year.^ Here
Richard Haines forgets not to quote the objection of the political
economist, that it is true Imsbandry to buy in the cheapest
market. Yes, says our author, but though it would cost us more at
first to make our own cloth, it would soon be otlierwise, and
besides it is better to give £20 for something of one's own growth'
than £15 for the same sort of article from beyond the sea, because,
in the first place, our idle hands are employed in the manufacture,
and in the second place there is more money in the country.
The second argument is unsound ; and the political economist

^ Estimated at 580,000 in the wliole country. Writing in 1678 he puts the
number of hegcjarfi at 100,000 or 200,00^"^, and in another place mentions 30,000 or
40,000 as yearly bred up to beggary. Proinsion for the Poor, p. v ; Breviat of
Proposal fi, p. 1 ; England's Weal, p. 2.

- He complains that the laws against them were not put into force, owing to
remissness of officers, a fear of retaliation by arson, etc. ; and he mentions a scene
at Cliichester Assizes (at which he was present), where they filled the court while
Lord Twisden was giving his charge and elicited some severe remarks from that
judge (1673). Prevention of Poverty, p. 6.

^ Ihid,, p. 8. ■* He is thinking of his cyder-royal.

" Ibid., p. 22. He includes saltpetre in this estimate. " Ibid., £400,000.

'' This is not recognised sufficiently by the Freetrader. There is an amusing
and instructive story of a Spanish Deputation to the Spanish Home Secretary, or
Chancellor of Exchequer, praying him to lay a heavier tax on foreign cloth. The
official in question, enslaved to the fetish of Free Trade, pointed out that they could
get the cloth so much cheaper and better made from abroad. The answer was
complete and crushing. " So could wo pjet a cheaper and better Minister from
abroad."



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GO RICHARD HAINES AS SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ECONOMIST.

rightly objects that it is goods not money which pays for com-
modities/ that consequently a large import trade implies a good
export trade.^ In answer to this Richard Haines can only say
that forty or fifty years ago, when imports were much less, we had
more to export and trade was better. Our chief imports then were
silver and gold, commodities we cannot produce at home. Now it
is essential for us to produce more commodities for export, or we
shall be drained more and more of our money. By prohibiting
the above-mentioned imports, therefore, we shall benefit ourselves
every way.

But, on the other hand, certain things should be prohibited
from being exported, e.g.; fuller's earth and wool,^ the con-
version of which latter into cloth would employ great numbers of
people. Here we hold an impregnable position, for woollen
cloth cannot be made without fuller's earth, and this is only
found in England.

Then French wines should be more heavily taxed. If
necessary, wine can be produced in England,* and even if
not, our own home liquors can take their place,^ and the
nation will save £1,000,000 at least, the diminution in
customs would soon be made up by the general improvement of
trade, due to these measures.

Then follows a complete fallacy. By debasing the coinage
one-quarter of its value, the country, says Richard Haines, might
gain four millions. But, as we see from another passage, he holds
that money is principally intended for the convenience of traffic
between persons of the same nation only.^ He fails to see,
therefore, that by his own showing money is not wealth at all, but
a means of barter. One great advantage in debasing the coinage,
he believes, will be that we shall keep our money at home, as
foreigners will not take it at our valuation. Hitherto, and some
considered it an honour to the country, they had preferred English

^ Our author in another place recognizes that industry, not money, is the life
of a trade. England\9 Weaf, p. 6.

- Prerenlion of Poverftf^ p. 12.

•' Ibid., p. 13.

^ The Marquess of Bute makes a large sum by liis Welsh yineyards in favour-
able years at this day : in spite of a Mr. Lynn, who, in Notes and Queries, makes
the absurd statement that wine cannot be now made in England because the
Summer is one or tv/o days shorter than it was thousands of years ago.

^ Prevention of Poverti/y pp. 14, 18.

« Ibid,, p. 19.



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RICHARD HAINES AS SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ECONOMIST. 61

gold to their own, as being heavier in weight.^ Our money being
refused, our commodities would get a sale, as foreign nations
would have to take them in exchange for their own. If France
refuse to give her wines in return for our beer and our leathern
shoes, then we must fall back on our home-brewed liquors. By
making all the fiscal changes suggested England would save yearly
two and a quarter millions sterling.

The book was shortly, but favourably, noticed in the Philo-
sophical Transactions of the Royal Society}

The Scheme for Building Almshouses. — There is no
mention, so far, of any scheme for building almshouses. We
may, therefore, presume that Eichard Haines had not yet gone
abroad and seen the system of working these in Holland. Though
he has perceived the necessity of encouraging home manufactures,
he had not yet formulated any scheme for effecting this, nor
immediately connected it with the relief of poverty and the
abolition of vagrancy.

His next tract, three years later, entitled, Proposals for Build-
iTig in every County a Worhinrj Alms-House or Hospital as the best
Eoiypedient to perfect the Trade and Manufactory of Linneri-Cloth,
takes up the question in a more systematic way. This new-
scheme was no visionary one. It had been, and was being, suc-
cessfully worked in Holland, and Richard had evidently been
impressed by what he had seen there.

Example of the Netherlands. — More than thirty years before
this John Evelyn^ in his Diary had spoken in the highest terms of
the Spin-houses, Rasp-houses,* and Hospitals of Amsterdam. He
says the Spin-house " was a kind of Bridewell, where incorrigible
and lewd women were kept in discipline and labour, but all neat."^
The Rasp-house was where the " lusty knaves were compelled to
work, and the rasping of brasil and logwood for the dyers is very
liard labour."^ The hospital was for lame and decrepit soldiers,
and, Evelyn adds, for State order- and accommodation it was one of
the worthiest things that the world could show of that nature.

* Pretention of Poverty ^ p. 18. So it is still. Ihid,, p. 16, we are told that
" Guinny Gold " was light, and that an old groat hadn't 2d, worth of silver in it.

2 IX, 252, 22 February, 1674-5.

^ Richard Haines must, we would think, have had some acquaintanceship with
the author of Sylva.

•* Only in Amsterdam. The Spin -houses were in every city. Hee Provision for
Poor J p. viii.

» Diary, I, p. 22 (1641). ^ Ihid., p. 23.



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62 RICHARD HAINES AS SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ECONOMIST.

" Indeed it is most remarkable what provision has been made and
maintained for pul)lick and charitable purposes and to protect the


1 2 3 4 5 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Online LibraryCharles Reginald HainesA complete memoir of Richard Haines (1633-1685), a forgotten Sussex worthy, with a full account of his ancestry and posterity ... → online text (page 7 of 17)