Charles Richmond Henderson.

Introduction to the study of the dependent, defective, and delinquent classes, and of their social treatment online

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tions must be changed in order to diminish psychical defect and
moral depravity, but even to change outward conditions society
must be moved by inner sympathies and faith.

The Church of Christ is the chief organ of the Kingdom of
God, that ideal state of society in which all men know and
voluntarily obey the law of benevolence and justice, without
external constraint and coercion. And while no historical
church, local or national, has in any age fulfilled its ideal pur-
pose, no other social organization has even approached it in

342 Survey and Outlook.

efficiency, breadth, and spiritual exaltation. It is not necessary
to depreciate any auxiliary social organ to bring honor to this;
and it is not wise or honest to ignore the follies and the wrongs
committed in the name of religion by hypocrites and fanatics.
The value of the normal service of the church will be estimated
very much according to the view held of the teachings for which
it stands. To those who regard all religion as a transitory super-
stition or unverifiable "metaphysics," all worship and religious
teaching must seem to be so much waste of time and wealth
which ought to be turned to social account. This is not the place
to introduce a treatise on apologetics, an argument for theism
and Christianity; and there are many able books in that field
which present all that can be said in evidence to reason. There
are some who have no personal care for the religious truths and
hopes of the church, who yet value it for its services in relation
to charity, education, and social progress. They are willing to
give, sometimes very cheerfully, their financial aid because of
.these services.

Believers in Christianity will continue to hold, what is here
taught, that the spiritual contents of this faith are, in themselves,
the supreme good of mankind, and it will be generally acknowl-
edged that a social organization for the propagation of spiritual
truth is reasonable and necessary.

But the very fact that the religious life has brought together
powerful social organizations implies corresponding responsi-
bilities. Power means duty, and duty is determined for the
church by its creed of love and by the needs of the world in
which it is planted. It is not conceivable that a church can
continue to exist with such a creed and not feel under obliga-
tions to use all practicable means of diminishing the evils con-
nected with pauperism, misery, and crime. The unrest of
conscience, the sense of glaring inconsistency between creed
and deed, and the pressure of educated public opinion, force
the church to take hold of such social problems.

Many persons outside of the churches, and many bearing the

Survey and Outlook. 343

name of Jew, vie with professors of Christianity in the rivalry
of generosity and sincere devotion to humanity, and manifest
essentially the same disposition of heart and life.

That the churches themselves have become conscious of the
necessity of helping men physically in order to bring them into
the Kingdom of God is shown by the universal modern move-
ment of living Christian societies toward philanthropic work.
No man ever became a leader in the church who had a stronger
faith in mere preaching than C. H. Spurgeon, and yet his appre-
ciation of the meaning of the Bible made his church the centre
of a system of charities. R. A. Woods says of the English
churches: "There is probably not a single church of the Estab-
lishment in any working-class district in London but that has
definitely abandoned the plan which makes a church merely an
association of people for the culture and spread of the religious
life." It would be strange if the professed followers of Him who
healed disease and fed the hungry should regard the temporal
needs of the depressed members of society as beneath the notice
of religion.

The service of mere relief of physical wants is a relatively
small part of the future social work of the church. In modern
nations the state has taken over much of this relief work, and the
church is a distributer of only a part of the total alms of a com-
munity. Organized charities and state supervision are even
needed to prevent abuses of ecclesiastical charity. As wealth
becomes more diffused and the economic condition of working-
men further improves, church patronage will be more and more
resented as an insult, rather than hailed as a kindness. The
church will be compelled to touch the average man at a higher
level of his nature or lose contact with him. The laborer will
not ask so much for bread as for books, for leisure to read, for
justice, for a hearing and recognition, for a voice in control,
for democracy in fellowship. He will abhor "missions" and
spurn advances and patronage of the self-styled " superior classes."
Thus, while there will long be use for Salvation Army and slum

344 Survey and Outlook.

work, the really great service of the church will lie in personal
fellowship on terms of equality in genuine churches where the
best talent is employed. And this advance movement is neces-
sary to save the church from extinction and the people from slow,
but sure, descent to a godless social state, without a sky and
without moral ideals.

The transformation of city life, morally and religiously, waits
for wiser methods and greater zeal. There must be a general
and carefully planned readjustment of agencies to. population.
It is essential that there should be in every neighborhood resi-
dents who are willing and able to stimulate the higher life and
help the people fight their battles for health, sociability, beauty,
culture, and faith. This work can never be done wholly at long
range nor by hired missionaries. It must be done by men and
women who are filled with the religious spirit, who are known in
each neighborhood as belonging to it, suffering with its suffering,
personally interested in having its alleys clean, its sewerage in
order, its atmosphere pure, its politics honest and efhcient. Such
leaders would find many humble and unlettered folk ready to
gather about them and recognize them as friends. People must
rise by their own endeavors and must create and maintain their
own institutions. If each rich, strong church would plant small
colonies of suitable persons, perhaps sometimes without young
children, in less favored localities, their influence on the con-
ditions of life would soon be felt. Those who undertook the
work would find a mission in life which would give worth and
dignity to their existence. Such a career would not require
money so much as intelligence and enthusiasm for humanity.
The people on the field would generally support their work.

It is the object of the Federation of Churches and Christian
Workers to study each quarter of the city in detail, to unify the
efforts of the many denominations, to promote courtesy and
consideration in making plans and reaching the people by
ministries. Side by side with the Federation works the Charity
Organization Society, which brings individuals and churches

Survey and Outlook. 345

into personal relations with those who have fallen in the battle
of life and need the aid of friendly hands to set them on their
feet again.

All these spiritual agencies have a tendency to diminish the
number, the influence, and the misery of dependents, defectives,
and delinquents. Indeed, when we regard the whole of society
and its vast future, we see that these preventive and educational
measures are the only ones which give satisfactory promise of
bringing these forms of misery to an utter end. How great this
hope may be depends largely on one's own temperament, diges-
tion, circumstances, and beliefs. An optimism which looks for
the end of pauperism and deformity without patient, earnest, and
prolonged effort and sacrifice, is an optimism not justified by
history, and it is practically foolish and wicked. But the meas-
ure of success already attained in every branch of remedial, pre-
ventive, and educational effort of philanthropy gives rational
ground for a sober hope, a burning zeal, and a deathless strife
with error, pain, disease, and pauperism.

The treatment of these forlorn members of the race is a part
of the universal movement of humanity forward. If we regard
these classes as the foot, down in the mire, we may so far adopt
the analogy and figure as to conclude that if the foot remains fast
in the mire the body cannot march on in the journey of progress.
May we not partly explain the frequent outbursts of savage traits
in refined circles of society, bestial lust and drunkenness, selfish
greed, barbaric ostentation, fondness for display, murderous
indifference to the suffering of employees, by the near presence
of neglected members of the human family? The hovels of
neglected paupers furnish the nidus for germs of plague, and in
the same hovels are prepared moral temptations for the sons
of the elect. The atomistic notion of society, the philosophy
of selfishness, which regards each individual as a separate unit
with whom we have no relations, is evil and cause of evils. To
prevent dependency and diminish the number of defectives
society must learn to move together and work all its institutions

346 Survey and Outlook.

of school, family, church, and state in conscious harmony toward
a purposed end.

Pessimism and agnosticism deny that we really know that the
ground of the world's life is the Ideal One, perfectly holy, just,
and good : the Will that wills for us all perfect happiness, beauty,
and goodness. But none can deny that we. possess the ideal, for
the denial itself must restate the ideal. We have traversed the
most difficult and rocky regions, the darkest valleys, the most
sombre caverns of human experience, the road where faith stum-
bles. We have analyzed and measured as precisely as we could
the saddest elements of human life. And even here, where faith
and philosophy alike pass into eclipse, we have discovered facts
which point toward the ultimate justification of man's noblest
belief. Human beings, once regarded and treated as hopeless
•idiots, wild and soulless brutes, or demonized outlaws, are now
regarded and treated as human brethren, capable of gaining
thought, truth, love, beauty, and happiness.

It is faith in the unseen ideal which has given courage and
patience to Howard, Wichern, Howe, Mrs. Fry, and other un-
canonized saints of the ages. Such men and women, those who
struggle in closest grapple with the serpent of evil, are precisely
those who have no time or disposition to nurse morbid pessimism.
With them the world is ever young and fresh and growing.

It was the strong and devoted Kingsley who sang : —

" Who will say the world is dying ?
"Who will say our prime is past?
Sparks from heaven, within us lying,
Flash, and will flash to the last.
Fools ! who fancy Christ mistaken,
Man a tool to buy and sell;
Earth a failure, God-forsaken,
Ante-room of hell.
Still the race of hero-spirits
Pass the lamp from hand to hand;
Age from age the Word inherits
* Wife and child and fatherland.'

Survey and Outlook. 347

While a slave bewails his fetters;
While an orphan pleads in vain;
W^hile an infant lisps his letters,
Heir of all the age's gain;
While a lip grovi^s ripe for kissing;
While a moan from man is v^^rung;
Know, by every want and blessing,
That the world is young."

The evolution of the race, the victory over evil, the prospect
for the entire disappearance of the defective stock, the hope
born of past achievements, indicate that we are moving toward
an age when it will be easier to hold unquestioning and unclouded
faith in the absolute and eternal truth, love, and beauty of God.
All rational ministries of science and art and philanthropy to
human welfare are arguments for theism, and the most convincing
of all.

We are not here merely to medicate and dress an ever open sore
of pauperism, insanity, idiocy, and crime, but to cure it. It is
in that faith we began these studies, and with increased faith we
close. Dante, the sublime genius of the mediaeval ages and
Italy's best gift to mankind, passed through Inferno and Purga-
tory on his way to the effulgent glory of Paradise. "The Divine
Comedy" is the story of human progress, and its meaning is:
believe, love, act.

Take heart ! The waster builds again;

A charmed life old goodness hath.
The tares may perish, but the grain

Is not for death.

God works in all things, all obey

His first propulsion from the night;
Wake thou and watch ! the world is gray

With morning light.

Aid the dawning, tongue and pen ;
Aid it, hopes of honest men,

34^ Survey and Outlook.

Aid it, paper, aid it type ;

Aid it, for the hour is ripe ;

But our earnest must not slacken

Into play;
Men of thought and men of action,

Clear the way !


Suggestions to the Student in the Use of the Text.

1. Make an abstract of each section of the chapter, and be
prepared to state every point in your own language.

2. Read the works and articles cited, so far as they are acces-
sible, and note down : {a) any additional facts, arguments, or
recommendations ; {h) any contradictions of the text. Weigh
the different views, form your own judgment, and write it out.

3. Visit institutions of charity and correction in your own
community, and make careful drawings, plans, and descriptions.
Use the " schedule " printed herewith (p. 351).

4. Cut out of newspapers, and keep together in envelopes,
drawers, scrap books, or other devices, all illustrative items.
Seek to add to your direct and personal observation and experi-
ence by all available means.

Abbreviations. — Some of the books to which reference is most
frequently made are indicated by the following abbreviations : —

N. C. C. Proceedings of the National Conference of Charities and Correction.

N. P. A. Proceedings of the National Prison Association.

I. C. C. Proceedings of the International Congress of Charities, Correction, and

Philanthropy, Chicago, 1893 '■> published by Johns Hopkins University.
A. Jour. Soc. American Journal of Sociology.
Char. Rev. Charities Review.


350 Appendix.

The list of books, pamphlets, and articles is intended to be select
rather than exhaustive ; and select in relation to the needs of
beginners, and of college and university students who wish to push
their studies beyond the materials of the text. The bibliography
is not intended for specialists. Any person who has mastered the
text and the literature cited will be able to help himself.

German, French, and Italian works are occasionally named, since
familiarity with the European languages has become quite common.

For a fairly full list of books and articles see American Journal of Sociology,
January, 1898, p. 561 (Mrs. Fairchild and Miss Lord); H. B. Adams, "Notes
on the Literature of Charities," Baltimore, 1889; Johns Hopkins University
Studies ; A. MacDonald, " Abnormal Man and Criminology."


S. A. Barnett: Practical Sociahsm, 2d ed. 1894.

W. G. Blaikie : Leaders in Modern Philanthropy.

H. M. Boies: Prisoners and Paupers. 1893.

Charles Booth : Life and Labour of the People in London.

B. Bosanquet : Aspects of the Social Problem. 1895.
Mrs, B. Bosanquet: Rich and Poor. 1897.

C. L, Brace : Life, chiefly told in his own letters. 1894.

International Congress of Charities, Correction, and Philanthropy. Johns

Hopkins Press.
Mrs. F. A. Goodale, ed. : Literature of Philanthropy. 1893.
Hull House Papers and Maps. 1895.
E. Kelly : Evolution and Effort.
Margaret Lonsdale : Sister Dora. 1892.
W. H. Tolman : New York City Report to Mayor on Public Baths and Public

Comfort Stations. 1897.
Louis Paulian : The Beggars of Paris. 1897.
H. Fawcett : Pauperism (1871).

Appendix. 351


This form may be used for poorhouses, jails, prisons, reform schools, and all
other institutions where there is a community of persons under care.


1. NAME (legal)


3. DATE OF FOUNDING Date of incorporation.



Average space per inmate

Surroundings (grounds of institution, neighborhood, etc.).
Sanitation (water, sewerage, air, light, heat, etc.) :

5. BOARD OF CONTROL. (Title, number, and names of members).

By whom appointed or elected When ?.

For what term

Name of superintendent (official title also)

Names of important assistants

By whom appointed. Superintendent Assistants

Number of paid employes How

appointed How discharged


Income Endowment Property Con-
tributions (amount, how secured — by solicitors, letters, entertainments, etc.)

From whom (classes of persons)

2S^ Appendix.

What amount and per cent from beneficiaries L

Aid from other institutions (societies, churches, city, county, state).

Is an officer furnished ?

Expenses — for last year (dates)

Salaries (all working force)

Supplies (food, fuel, light, heat, etc.)

Other expenses (rent, interest, cost of securing and maintaining plant, improve-
ments, etc.)

How do expenses for the past year compare with previous years ?

Control of Finance.


Who decides upon expenditures

What provision for auditing accounts-


Qualifications (sex, age, religion, nationality, character, references, condition, any
payment required)

Exceptions (persons above possibly excluded).

Applications To whom ?

By whom ? When made ?

Who decides upon applications ? (Names and addresses)

Limit of residence of persons admitted

Mode of dismissal Return.


Educational activities

Employment (required, optional or possible)

Does worker receive any direct benefit or payment _ _
At what rate

Appendix. ^^^


Classification (as to different treatment, separation of the sexes, ages, differences

of character and needs)



Capacity of institution

Number brought over from precedingyear

Received (by departments)

Discharged (by departments)

Died (in each department)

Average daily attendance


Separate cards for each Ledger accounts

Items of information recorded

Time and rules for the admission of visitors

Reports and publications

Who, if any one, officially inspects the institution..

This form is too minute for ordinary use ; but it is easy to omit
those points where information is not obtainable.

354 Appendix.

Part I, Theoretical: the Description, Classification, and
Explanation of the Phenomena of Dependence.

Chapter I. The Problem Stated.

References. — Social Pathology.

Small and Vincent : Introduction to the Study of Society, Book IV, pp. 235-

Schaffle : Bau und Leben, 4 vol. ed.; I, 256-264, 506, 823, etc.
F. H. Giddings : Theory of Sociology; Principles of Sociology, pp. 121-130;

N. C. C, 1895, P- iio-
A. G. Warner : American Charities, pp. 22-59.
Ratzenhofer : Die Sociologische Erkenntniss, p. 260 ff.
Webb: Problems of Modern Industry, p. 166.

Philanthropy and Social Progress. T. Y. Crowell & Co. H. C. Adams (ed.).
Charles Booth's method of classification of population, in Life and Labour of

the People in London. Cf. R. Mayo-Smith : Statistics and Economics,

PP- 451-552.

A. The lowest class — occasional laborers, loafers, and semi-criminals.

B. The very poor — casual labor, hand-to-hand existence, chronic want.

C and D. The poor — including alike those whose earnings are small, because
of irregularity of employment, and those whose work, though regular, is ill-paid.
E and F. The regularly employed and fairly paid working class of all grades.
G and H. Lower and upper middle class and all above this level.

Mr. Booth estimates, on the basis of his investigations, the following numbers
and ratios : —

Number. Per Cent. Per Cent.

A (lowest) 37,610 or 0.9 \

B (very poor) 316,834 or 7.5 \ In poverty, 30,7

C and D (poor) 938,293 or 22.3 j

E and F (working class, comfortable) 2,166,503 or 51.5
G and H (middle class, and above) . 749,930 or 17.8

4,209,170 loo.o lOO.O

Inmates of Institutions 99,830


It must not be assumed that the same ratios for these classes will be found in
other cities, and in communities having different conditions. The table is given
as an interesting illustration of classification, and of a method which may be used

[ In comfort, 69.3

Appendix. 355

Chapter II. The Evolution of Inferior and Antisocial Elements.

References ; many of these also useful in Chapters III and IV.

F. H. Giddings: Theory of Sociology, p. 54; N. C. C, 1895, P* ^lo*

Ammon : Die Natiirliche Auslese beim Menschen.

A. G. Warner : American Charities, Ch. V.

Closson: Jour. Pol. Ec, Sept., 1896; Quar. Jour. Ec, Jan., 1896.

Otto Seeck : Geschichte des Untergangs der Antiken Welt. Berlin, 1895.

Kidd: Social Evolution, pp. 190-191.

Con. Rev., Feb., 1893; March, 1893; May, 1893.

Forum, May, 1891.

F. Scholz: Die Charakterfehler des Kindes, 189 1.

Morel: Traite des Degenerescences physiques. Paris, 1857.

Moreau: La Psychologie Morbide, 1859.

Dejerim: L'Heredite dans les maladies du systeme nerveux, 1886.

Ribot : L'Heredite, 1873.

Sanson: L'Heredite normale et pathologique, 1893.

A. H. Bradford : Heredity and Christian Problems.

T. Delage : Heredite.

Weismann: Essays on Heredity; Das Keimplasma, 1892.

Sully: The Human Mind, I, 138.

S. A. K. Strahan : Marriage and Disease, Ch. III.

J. Arthur Thomson : The History and Theory of Heredity.

G. J. Romanes : An Examination of Weismannism.
D. G. Ritchie : Darwinism and Politics.

W. Bagehot : Physics and Politics.

Westermarck : History of Human Marriage, p. 334.

J. B. Haycraft : Natiirliche Auslese und Rassenverbesserung, p. 26.

C. Fere: Degenerescence et Criminalite; La Famille Neuropathique, 1S94.

F. Galton: Hereditary Genius; Inquiries into Human Faculty.

Mercier : Insanity.

Bell : Memoir upon the Formation of a Deaf Variety of the Human Race.

R. Dugdale : The Jukes; N. C. C, 1877, pp. 81-95.

S. G. Howe : Causes of Idiocy in Massachusetts (1848).

O. McCulloch : The Tribe of Ishmael, N. C. C, 1888, p. 104.

Wright : N. C. C, 1881, p. 435.

C. Booth : Pauperism.

A. MacDonald : Abnormal Man.

McKim : Heredity and Progress (extremely radical).

M. Nordau: Degeneration (to be used with caution).

W. Hirsch: Genius and Degeneration.

H. Drummond: The Natural Law in the Spiritual World (on Parasitism).

^^6 Appendix.

Chapter III. Explanation by Study of the Nature of Dependents.

References. — C. Booth : Labour and Life, I, ch. v.

loth Rep. N. Y. State Board of Charities.

F. H. Wines ; N. C. C, 1886, p. 207.

Mayo-Smith : Statistics and Sociology, pp. 210-235.

A. G. Warner : American Charities, p. 27.

Char. Rev., June, 1894, p. 383.

Koren: Economic Aspects of the Liquor Problem (1899).

V. Bohmert: Armenwesen in 77 deutschen Stadten, I, 21, 25.

J. S. Mill : Logic, Bk. Ill, ch. 8 ; Bk. VI, ch. vi.

S. N. Patten: Economic Basis of Prohibition, An. Am. Acad., II, 59.

N. Kerr : Inebriety.

Cyclopedia of Temperance and Prohibition.

Encyclopedia of Social Reforms.

N. C. C. Rep. of Com. on C. O. S., 1899.

Licentiousness. — S. Amos : Prohibition, Regulation, and Licensing of Vice.

W. Acton : Prostitution Considered.

A. Leffingwell: Illegitimacy.

Earl Barnes: Studies in Education, 1896-1897, p. 301.

Lack of Training. — N. P. Oilman : Socialism and the American Spirit, ch. v.

N. C. C, 1895, pp. 195-203 (Richards).

Poor in Great Cities, pp. 275-299.

Chapter IV. Inheritance, Education, and External Conditions.

References. — Evils of defective housing and sanitation.

E. R. L. Gould : Housing of the Working People.

J. A. Riis : How the Other Half Lives.

J. A. Riis : A Ten Years' War.

Weber : Growth of Cities.

Jahrbiicher fiir Nat. u. Stat., March, 1892, p. 431.

E. Miinsterberg: Die Armenpflege, p. 18.

N. Y. Tenement House Reports.

N. C. C, 1885, p. 365 (A. T. White).

M. Talbot: Am. Jour. Soc, July, 1896 (on Sanitation).

W. H. Welch : Char. Rev., Feb., 1893.

Tr avers Twiss : Tests of a Thriving Population.

H. C. Adams : The Slaughter of Railway Employees, Forum, June, 1892.

111. Rep. Board Pub. Char., 1872, p. 181 ff.

N. C. C, 1886, p. 207 ff. (F. H. Wines). N. C. C, 1891, p. 222 (Wright).

Economic conditions. — F. A. Walker : Wages, ch. ii.
J. Mavor: An. Am. Acad., Vol. IV, July, 1893.

Online LibraryCharles Richmond HendersonIntroduction to the study of the dependent, defective, and delinquent classes, and of their social treatment → online text (page 30 of 35)