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Appendix. 357

Sweating. — L. A. Banks: White Slaves (1892). J. A. Hobson: Problems
of Poverty. Hull House Papers, pp. 27-45 (Mrs. Kelley). U. S. Labor
Bulletin, No. 4, May, 1896 (H. White).

Immigration. — R. Mayo-Smith : Emigration and Immigration.

N. C. C, 1876 (M. B. Anderson), 1887, 1891, 1893, and 1895 (^r. Hoyt).

Mass. Rep. Board Charities, 1900, p. no.

111. Rep. Board Pub. Char., 1898, p. 52.

Char. Rev., Jan. 1894 (J. B. Weber) ; June (Ward).

Statistical enumeration of causes of poverty and distress.
A committee of the National Conference reported in 1899
favoring a new classification of causes, as follows : —

( 1 ) Causes of distress within the family. — Disregard of family
ties (desertion, neglect to contribute by children, by brothers,
sisters, or other natural supporters) ; intemperance (abuse of
stimulants or narcotics) ; licentiousness ; dishonesty or other
moral defects ; lack of thrift, industry, or judgment ; physical or
mental defects (blind, deaf, crippled from birth, insane, feeble-
minded, etc.) ] sickness, accident, or death.

(2) Causes of distress outside the family. — Lack of employ-
ment, not due to employee (changes in trade, introduction of
machinery, hard times, strike or lockout, partial or complete shut-
down, removal of industry, etc.) j defective sanitation ; degrading
surroundings ; unwise philanthropy ; public calamity.

(3) Unclassified.

Statistical blanks corresponding to these methods of classifica-
tion can be obtained from the Charity Organization Society of
New York. The class of cases studied from these records are
very different from those enumerated in the United States census
figures, which deal chiefly with public paupers in almshouses ;
although some of the States secure approximately correct returns
from the local outdoor relief agencies, with scant information as to
causes.

The table of the C. O. S. societies presents a summary of the
opinions of the local workers in regard to the principal cause of
distress in the cases which came under their observation.



358



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360 Appendix.



Part II. Social Organization for the Relief and Care of

Dependents.

Chapter I. Directive Aims.

References. — N. C. C, 1 899, C. R. Henderson, President's Address.

Grounds of community care. — Eden : State of the Poor, I, 413.

Lamond : The Scottish Poor Laws.

Cohn : Arbeit und Armuth.

F. Wayland: Moral Science; Political Economy, p. 120.

E. Miinsterberg : Armengesetzgebung, pp. 68, 232, 271.

N. C. C, 1875, p. 30 (Dr. N. Allen).

N. C. C, 1883, p. 429 (Dr. Walk).

N. C. C, 1875, P- 22 (F. H. Wines); 1887, p. 271.

N. C. C, 1895, P- To-

111. Rep. Pub. Char., 1874, p. 37-41.

Nicholls : History English Poor Law, I, 2.

Montesquieu : Spirit of the Laws, Bk. XXIII, ch. 29.

Menger : Right to the Whole Produce of Labor, p. 13.

E. M. Leonard : The Early History of English Poor Relief (1900).

Chapter II. The Public Budget and Poor Relief.

References. — H. C. Adams: The Science of Finance, pp. 59-61.

A. Wagner : Grundriss zu Vorlesungen iiber Finanzwissenschaft (list),

C. F. Bastable: Public Finance, 2d ed., pp. 81-86, 119.

J. E. F. Rogers : Economic Interpretation of History, p. 487.

Public subsidies to private institutions. — N. C. C, 1 88 1, p. 173 (Mrs. Lowell) ;
1883, p. loi ; 1886, p. 161 ; 1875, P- ^^*

Subsidies from Public Funds to Private Charities.

A good illustration of the evil tendency of this method is found in the District
of Columbia. Between 1880 and 1892 under this policy the public institutions in-
creased in number from 7 to 8, while private institutions increased from 8 to 28,
under the stimulus of the subsidy. The public appropriations for construction and
maintenance in the 12 years, were for public institutions ^1,351,256.65, and for
private, ^1,141,752.53; the total appropriations in 1892 for maintenance being
^237,105.50 (Warner).

In the Report on Charitable and Reformatory Institutions of the District of
Columbia for 1900, the total estimates were ;^65i,890, a large part of which still



Appendix. 361



goes to private institutions over which public control is difficult or impossible ; and
the board declares that it " is convinced that the history of the charities of the Dis-
trict of Columbia clearly demonstrates that the policy of granting public subsidies
to private charities, heretofore pursued, has been unwise. The almost universal
experience has been that a charity has been organized by private parties, and for a
time supported from private sources, but soon a small appropriation has been
asked, and an increase has been demanded from year to year until the point is
reached where the charity is practically dependent upon the public treasury for
support, while at the same time its management remained entirely in the hands of
a private corporation."



Chapter III. Outdoor Legal Relief.

References. — Reports of State Boards of Charities in Indiana, Ohio, Michi-
gan, etc.

E. T. Devine: Char. Rev., May, 1900.
Char. Rev., Vol. VIII, pp. 129, 186; Vol. IX, pp. 22, 65.
A. G. Warner: American Charities, p. 162.
Hartford Report, Special Committee on Outdoor Alms.
N. C C, 1894 (C. R. Henderson); p. 86 (Wilcox).
N. C. C, 1895, pp. 44-66.

Char. Rev., 1894 (Art. by C. R. Henderson), and 1896.
Int. Cong. Char, and Cor., 1893.
U. S. Bulletin of Labor, January, 1897.
Rep. Legislature of Mass., 1896.
Chance : Better Administration of the Poor Law.
Poor Law Conference Reports (British).
Lamond : Scottish Poor Laws.

N. C. C, 1881, p. 196; Methods of Tenth Census, F. H. Wines; cf. Compen-
dium Tenth Census, II, 166.
N. C. C, 1875, PP- 99-102.
C. A. Ell wood, A. Jour. Soc, November, 1899.
Economic Journal, Vol. II, pp. 186 ff, pp. 369 ff.
T. Rogers: Six Centuries of Work and Wages, ch. 15.

Poor Laws. —

J. Cummings : Poor Laws of Mass. and N. Y.
H. A. Millis: Poor Laws of U. S., A. Jour. Soc. 1898.
N. C. C, 1898 (C. R. Henderson and H. A. Millis).

Summary and Index of Legislation by States : New York State Library Bulle-
tins. Albany.



362 Appendix.

Statistics of Public Relief.

Outdoor relief in American Cities. — The following figures, collected by the
Buffalo Charity Organization Society, shows the tendency to abolish this form
of relief and substitute private charity.

1900. 1897.

New York None. None.

Brooklyn None. None.

Chicago ^98,363 jJ5 136,200

Philadelphia None. None.

St. Louis Trifling. Trifling.

Boston ^^65,030 ^69,667

Baltimore None. None.

Cleveland $21,342 ;?532,i28

Buffalo 51,000 108,920

Cincinnati 4,693 5,520

Washington None. None.

San Francisco None. None.

Detroit ^44,005 ^50'545

New Orleans Trifling. Trifling.

Pittsburg $ 7,975 J^ 15*323

Milwaukee 35,502 76,987

Louisville Coal only. Coal only.

Minneapolis ^11,485 ^23,528

Newark 18,140 20,792

Jersey City 5,295 6,000

Kansas City None. None.

;g 362,830 ^545>6io

Reduction in three years, $ 182,780; 33 J per cent.



It is impossible to secure even approximately correct statistics
of outdoor relief; and those here given from recent reports have
value only as they help to correct the impression, made on unin-
formed persons, by the treatment of the Census, that there is com-
paratively little outdoor relief in the United States. They may
also serve in a measure to correct exaggerated ideas of the extent
of such relief among those who are rather pessimistic in tempera-



Appendix.



3^3



ment. Mr. F. B. Sanborn (N. C. C, 1877, PP- 20 ff), quoted Mr.
Canning's saying : " I can prove anything by figures, except the
truth," and added : —

"Professor Fawcett, some years ago, proved to his own satisfaction, I be-
lieve, that pauperism vi^as more common in Philadelphia than in London,
simply by doubling the actual number of the indoor poor of Philadelphia, and
multiplying the outdoor poor by seven. . . . The fact being that pauperism
in London is two or three times as bad as in Philadelphia."

N. C. C, 1881, p. 196; 1885, p. 383; 1886, p. 212 (Wines: Value of Sta-
tistics); 1887, p. 79, 83; 1891, p. 222.

Pauperism in the United States : indoor.

Mr. C. D. Wright (Practical Sociology, p. 325) gives the following table,
which is confessedly based on imperfect statistics of the Census: —



Sex, Nativity,

AND


Number of Indoor Paupers.


Ratios to 1,000,000 of
Population.


Color.


1850


i860


1870


1880


1890


1850


i860


1870


1880


1890


Male ....
Female . . .

Native born
Foreign born .

White. . . .
Colored . . .


36,916
13.437


50,483
32.459


53.939
22,798

67.337
9,400


35.564
30,639

43.236
22,967

60,486
5.717


40,741
32.304

44,626
28,419

66,578
6,467


1.765
5.986


1,849
7.843


1.635
4.095

2,005
1,928


1.394
1,244

994
3.438

1.394
847


1,270
1.057

836
3.072

1,211
847


Total . .


50.353


82,942


76,737


66,203


73.045


2,171


2,638


1,990


1,320


1,166



Mr. Wright says, "It is a matter for congratulation that the computed
ratio dropped from a little over one pauper in almshouses to each five hundred
of the population in 1850, to a little over one in each thousand in 1890." But
how far this is a subject of congratulation and optimism remains uncertain
until we know how many have been transferred from almshouses to the rapidly
enlarging hospitals and asylums for the insane, feeble-minded, epileptics; and
how many are cared for by outdoor relief, whose quantity is unknown to the
Census; and how many are cared for by the enormously increased work of
private charity and child-saving institutions.



364 Appendix.

Illustrations from Records of Certain States.

Minnesota (^outdoor relief). — Report (1898) State Board of Corrections and
Charities.

Number of families or cases 4*485

Boarded in poorhouse or elsewhere 965

Relief without board 9*014

Medical relief only 901

Total persons 10,870

Number in million inhabitants 6,903

The Bulletin, December, 1900, p. 34, gives for 1900: "The midsummer
semiannual pauper census . . . shows that in Minnesota 6676 persons re-
ceived relief in June, 1900. . . . The midwinter enumeration shows 8722
aided in December, 1899."

Massachusetts . — 2 1st Annual Report of the State Board of Charity, 1900, gives
the following figures, p. xlix. Table VIII : —





City and Town Poor.


State Poor
Partially Supported.


Year.


Whole

Number

Fully

Supported.


Whole

Number

Partially

Supported.


Net Expenses
Reported.


Number.


Cost.


1880
1890
1899


9,196
13.099
17.094


58,916

45.487
76,252


$ 1,332,902
1,805,641
2,492,928


14,000
16,491
26,442


^35.000

73.746

154.731



Vagrancy cases in 1880-1881, 154,164; in 1899 there were 207,081. Popu-
lation of Massachusetts, 1890, was 2,238,943, and in 1900 it was 2,805,346
(i2th Census Bulletin, No. 20).

It does not seem possible to give a separate statement of the entire outdoor
relief, and to distinguish it from other items.

Massachusetts. — 22d Annual Report of the State Board of Charity, January,
1901.
For 1900:

Cost of full support at almshouses of all paupers . . $928,342

Cost of full support at insane hospitals $995>399

Cost of full support at elsewhere $513,548

Partial support, cost $898,498

Partial support, average number relieved . . . . I9>i92



Appendix. ^6^



This item of partial support "covers most cases of temporary support at
general hospitals, as well as medical and other relief at home"; outdoor relief
is not given separately.

The number of cases of vagrancy was 164,760, and their cost ^29,300 (esti-
mated).

/iew Hampshire. — Report State Board of Charities and Correction, 1900, pp.
34-35-

Outdoor relief, 1899 ^248,038.02

County farms, 1899 155,626.96

Total poor relief, 1899 403,665.58

Total poor relief, 1889 . . = 287,840.32

New York. — Report State Board of Charities, 1897, p. 739.

Number in the almshouses, Oct. i, 1896 5*839

Number received during year 12,924

Number born in the almshouses 170

Number supported ............ 18,933

Number temporarily relieved . . 127,540

Total number supported and relieved ...... 146,473

Amounts expended in almshouses ^789,668.02

Amounts expended for temporary relief ^^909,067. 15

Total amounts ^1,698,735.17

Indiana. — The Eleventh Report of the Board of State Charities of Indiana,
1900, p. 178, — a valuable discussion of outdoor relief. See article in
Am. Jour. Soc, May, 1901, A. Johnson.

In 1895 ^^ amount of outdoor relief given by the overseers of the poor and
the medical relief amounted to $630,168.79. The amount for 1900 is $209,-
956.22, a decrease of $420,212.57, or 66 per cent in six years. Total number
of persons receiving aid, 1900, 46,369; in 1896, 71,414. The reduction is due
in part to improved financial conditions, but chiefly to a more strict investiga-
tion of the applications, and to changes in the laws which require reports
from township trustees and make each township responsible for its own out-
door poor. The county poorhouses have not been crowded in consequence
of these changes, and their population has actually diminished.

Pennsylvania. — 29th Report of Board of Commissioners of Public Charities,
1898.
Township poor, " indigent persons relieved in boroughs and townships in
which almshouses do not exist," $316,169.51. This includes some payments



366



Appendix.



for indoor relief of the insane and feeble-minded (p. 305). Vagrants, 42,248;
97.52 per cent of whom were males (p. 304). Outdoor relief in almshouse
districts, 1898, 37,447. A complete statement cannot be given.

ConnectictiL — Report State Board of Charities, 1897-1898, pp. 292 fF.

Population, 850,000, in 1898.

Cost of almshouse support, ^234,941.

Cost of poor outside of almshouses, ^494,356.

Tax per capita of population for support of poor, ^0.977.

Number of almshouse inmates, 2694.

Number of poor outside, 14,581.

Number insane poor not in asylums, 435.

In Indiana : for outdoor relief, 13 cents per capita; for poor asylums, 16
cents per capita. In Illinois: for outdoor relief, ^760,445.25, 16 cents per
capita; for poor asylums, ^889,823.27, 18 cents per capita. In Ohio: for
outdoor relief, ^167,782, 4 cents per capita; for poor asylums, ^729,858, 18
cents per capita. This estimate is given by Professor David Felmley in the
report of the Illinois Board of Public Charities, 1900, p. 380. Ohio: Bulletin
of Charities and Correction, Vol. 6, No. 4, Dec, 1900.



Statistics of English Relief. — This table, taken from the Journal of Statistical
Society, 1892, p. 133 (Mayo-Smith, Statistics and Sociology, p. 229),
shows at once the vast number of public dependents in England and the
hopeful tendency toward a decrease of legal pauperism.



Year.


Receiving Indoor
Relief.


Receiving Outdoor
Relief.


Total.


Number.


Ratio
per 1000.


Number.


Ratio
per 1000.


Number.


Ratio
per 1000.


1850


123,004


7.0


885,696


50.0


1,008,700


574


i860


II3»507


5.8


731,126


37-1


844,633


42.9


1870


156,800


7-1


876,000


394


1,032,800


46.5


1880


180,817


7-1


627,213


24.7


808,030


31.8


1890


185,838


6.3


573.892


19-5


759.730


25.8



The cost in 1890 for the mean number of paupers of all classes was ;^io, I'^s.
*ld. per head, or ;,^8,444,345 in all.



Appendix. 367

Chapter IV. Poor Relief in Families.

References. — Argumetits for abolition of outdoor legal relief.

T. Chalmers : Christian and Civic Economy of Large Towns, Chas. Scribner's

Sons, 1900; abridged and edited by C. R. Henderson.
J. H. Hyslop: Forum, June, 1897, P- 476-

N. C. C, 1877, p. 94 ; 1879, pp. 200 ff ; 1881, p. 144 ; 1890, p. 81.
N.C.C., 1883, p. 74.
Rep. N. Y. Board of Charities, 1884.
Hartford Report, On the Advisability of Establishing a Workhouse.

Favorable io retaining outdoor legal relief — Lamond : Scottish Poor Laws.

Webb : Problems of Modern Industry, ch. vii.

F. B. Sanborn: N. C. C, 1890, pp. 73-80; 1878, p. 73.

F. B. Sanborn : in Lalor's Cyclopedia Pol. and Soc. Science, Art. Pauperism.

Comparison of views. — C. A. Ellwood : A. Jour. Soc, July, 1900.
Administration of outdoor relief — M. E. Richmond: Friendly Visiting.
E. Miinsterberg : Die Armenpflege.

Outdoor relief in cities of United States. — N. C. C, 1 898, p. 1 82; 1 894, pp.
65 ff.

Elberfeld system..

I. C. C. P., 1893, Sec. VI, pp. 187-189 (E. Munsterberg).

A. Jour. Soc, January, 1897* (E. Miinsterberg).

Old age pensions (as substitute for poor relief). — Willoughby: Workingmen's

Insurance.
W. M. Ede: Econ. Rev., April, 1892.

G. Lubbock : Some Poor Relief Questions, ch. 2.
L. R. Phelps : Econ. Rev., October, 1893.

Division of labor and cooperation between public relief and private charity. —
I. C. C. P., Sec VI, pp. 210-227 (V. Bohmert) ; idem. Sec. I, pp. 89-97 (C« R-
Henderson); idem, Sec VI, pp. 120-132 (A. G. Warner).

Chapter V. Local Public Indoor Relief. (For statistics, see Ch. III.)

References. — M. R. Smith : Almshouse Women (Am. Stat. Asso., Sept., 1895).
N. C. C, 1879, p. 104 ; 1889, p. 197 ; 1884, pp. 295, 300 ; 1890, pp. xxiii, and

79; 1894, pp. 132, 119.
R. W. Hebberd: Char. Rev., February, 1901.
A. G.Warner: American Charities, p. 139.
John Cummings : Poor Laws of Massachusetts and New York.
New York State Charities Aid Association, Reports.
New York State Board Charities, 12th and 24th Reports ; articles by W. P.



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