Charles Richmond Henderson.

Introduction to the study of the dependent, defective, and delinquent classes, and of their social treatment online

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Suspended sentence and probation. — N. P. A., 1899, p. 198 (G. Tufts).

Manual training in reformatories, — N. P. A., 1898, p. 244 (R. C. Bates).

Prevention of prostitutio7i. — Int. Prison Congress, Paris, 1895.
N. C. C, 1879, p. 178 (Mrs. C. R. Lowell).

Reform schools for girls. — N. P. A., 1898, p. 450 (Mrs. A. Mitchell).

Prevention, morally endangered children. — N. P. A., 1888, p. loi (Reeve);

1891, p. 39 (F. Wayland, legislation); 1891, p. 250 (Ottersen); 1898,

p. 52 (Hart); p. 488 (Caldwell).

Pedagogics. — The science and art of teaching are important aids in the work
of the reform school or the prison. Correctional education is a special branch
of the general subject. References are given in : —

W. S. Monroe : Bibliography of Education, especially pages 81 ff., 105 ff.,

p. 165 ff. A valuable book is —
H. Barnard: Reformatory Education, Hartford, 1857.

Juvenile offenders. — To illustrate the law that juvenile waywardness is
largely due to defects in domestic care and parental health, note : Social and
domestic relations of 306 boys in the Wisconsin Industrial School for Boys : —



Both parents living
Parents separated
No parents
Mother only .
Father only .
-Report Wisconsin Board of Control, 1898, p. 224,

In the Reform School of the District of Columbia

Both parents living

Both parents living but separated .

Father dead

Mother dead . ...

Both father and mother dead

Personal habits : —

Bad company ....

Doubtful record ....
Doubtful record, but good home .

Employment prior to commitment : —

Not employed ....
Employed part of the time
Attending school regularly
Attending school part of time
















Report Charitable and Reformatory Institutions of the District of Columbia,

Statistics of crime. Records. — There are several kinds of records from
which criminal statistics may be made up. We do not know from counting
the number of criminals in a state or nation, because no census taken can find
them. Judicial statistics are of little significance, for they merely tell us
the number of judges and other officers, the number of cases tried, and the
kinds of cases. In the administration of justice the clerical force record the
number of persons accused, acquitted, and convicted, with the penalties
decreed ; and these facts are of interest in indicating the volume of crime and
of police activity. For our country the most significant figures are those col-
lected by the Federal Census relating to the number of prisoners in jails and
prisons at a given date.



Increase and decrease of crime. — Historically and practically it is desirable
to know how crime is affected by the agencies used by society to repress or
prevent it. But the widest divergence of views is found among statisticians in
relation to the interpretation of the census and court records.

References to statistics of crime : Sources. — Eleventh Census ; Crime, Pau-
perism, and Benevolence.

Convenient summaries are found in the Statesman's Year Book.

Mayo-Smith : Statistics and Sociology.

Drahms : The Criminal.

N. P. A., 1890, p. 48 (Falkner); 1891, p. 71 (Falkner); 1894, p. 13 (Brink-
erhofif); 1897, pp. 182, 369 (F. H. Wines); p. 204 (H. H. Hart).

R. P. Falkner: Prison Statistics of the United States (1889); Criminal Statis-
tics, Publications of the American Statistical Association, No. 15, Septem-
ber, 1891 ; Crime and the Census, Ann. Am. Acad., January, 1897; Statis-
tics and Crime, Publications of American Economic Association, 1899.

Is crime increasing in the United States? — This question is the subject of
controversy. The following table, compiled from the United States Census,
is usually employed to prove that serious crime is rapidly advancing.

Census Year.


Prisoners per 100,000
OF Population.
















Important authors have presented an alarming prospect from these figures;
D. A. Wells : Recent Economic Changes, p. 345 ; H. M. Boies : Prisoners and
Pauperism, p. i; W. Tallack : Penological and Preventive Principles, p. 140;
C. Lombroso: Nor. Amer. Rev., December, 1897. W- ^' Morrison also is
not optimistic, in Juvenile Offenders, p. 279 ff.

But on the more hopeful side we may quote Professor Falkner's argument
(Forum, July, 1900). There is no necessary connection between the number
of prisoners and the number of offences. If the length of sentences is increased
there will be more prisoners without increase in crimes. If the death penalty
is abolished and life sentences substituted we must have more prisoners, but
not more crimes. The increase may be due to praiseworthy activity of the

JQ4 Appendix.

police in catching offenders, and thus the larger population of the prison will
be a sign of moral vigor rather than social decay. The summary of Professor
Falkner's view is in this language : " Crime, in the broadest sense, including
all offences punished by law, has probably increased slightly in the last twenty-
five years. On the other hand, crime in its deeper moral sense, as we are apt
to picture it, has decreased." The state records cited by this authority are as
follows, the number of commitments for all offences per 100,000 inhabitants : —

Massachusetts .... 939 in 1879 .... Iii9ini898
Pennsylvania (jail) . . . 1209 in 1875 • • • • 1 156 in 1895
Michigan (jail) .... 502 in 1875 .... 739 in 1897

Crimes of violence against the person decreased in Massachusetts from 94 (in
100,000 population) in 1880 to 69 in 1898; Ohio from 54 in 1885 to 46 in
1895 ; Michigan from in in 1875 to 91 in 1897. ^^' ^- ^- Wines (Eleventh
Census; Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence, Vol. I, p. 126) warns us to
accept the census figures with caution : " The increase in the number of pris-
oners during the last forty years has been more apparent than real, owing to
the very imperfect enumeration of the prison population prior to 1880." Cf.
Wines, Punishment and Reformation, p. 267, on the uncertainties of statistics.
The volume of crime cannot be measured by our statistics, but is indicated
with sufficient clearness and accuracy to arouse all reflecting and public-spirited
patriots from apathy and wicked optimism.


Admission and discharge, 80.
Admonition, 325.
Age, 25, 248.
Aims of charity, 40.
Alcoholism, 199, 251.
Almshouses, see Poorhouse, 71.
Anthropology, criminal, 215.
Architecture, of prisons, 281.
Associations, benevolent, 140; finances,

Baby farms, 106.

Beliefs, 242.

Bertillon, 308.

Biology, 12.

Blind, 169 ff.

Boarding out children, 112.

Boards of charitable institutions, 202.

Capital ptmishment, 307.

Case card, 64.

Causes of crime, 237.

Causes, removing, 319.

Centralized administration, 300.

Charities Aid Associations, 149.

Charity Organization Society, 151 ff.

Children, dependent, 98 ff. ; in poor-
houses, 107; state system, 116; delin-
quent, 322.

Church, duty to poorhouse, 81 ; in char-
ity, 158, 336, 341-

Classification, 8.

Classification of crimes, 266.

Colonies, 306.

Compulsory education, 333.

Comte, 13.

Conditional discharge, 292.

Conditions, 259.

Congregate system (prisons) , 282.

Conjugal relations, 240.

Convalescents, 130.

Cooperation of agencies, 157.

Corporal punishment, 327.

Correctional agencies, 324.

Country week, 100.

County care of insane, 190.

Courts, 270, 315.

Creche, 99.

Criminals, study of, 217 ; classes of, 219.

Criminal type, 225.

Crippled and deformed children, 116.

Culture, 32.

Day industrial schools, 327.
Day nursery, see Creche.
Deaf mutes, 169 ff.
Definitions, 8.
Degenerates, 229, 252.
Density of population, 240.
Dependence, 9.
Dependent insane, 189.
Detention, 277, 327.
Detention hospitals, 193.
Directories of charities, 142.
Discharged prisoners, 311.
Discipline (prisons), 288.
Disease, 25.
Dispensaries, 130.
District nursing, 135.
Drink and drug habits, 26.
Duration of relief, 65.

Ecclesiastical charity, 144.
Economic conditions, 241.
Education, 37, 169 ; of officials, 213,

248, 333-
Education of public in charity, 158.
Emergency relief, 91, 156.
Employment, defects, 29, 30.
Endowed charities, 147.
Environment, spiritual, 19, 334.
Epilepsy, 176, 195.




Evolution of inferior t)q5es, 12.
Experiment, 13.
Expert advice, 159.
Explanatory science, 23.

Factory laws, 332.

Farm colonies, 96.

Federal functions, 208.

Feeble-minded, 174 ff.

Finance and relief, 48 ; of hospitals, 126.

Fines, 304, 326.

First aid to sick and injured, 137.

Foundlings and abandoned infants, 104.

Free employment bureau, 93.

Friendly visitors, 164.

Guardianship, 327.

Helplessness, 24.

Heredity, 14, 32, 178, 252, 316.

Holiday colonies, 100.

Homeless, 85.

Homes, of neglected children, 98,

Hospitals, social service, 121 ff. ; special,

124; for insane, 185.
Housing, 34.
Humane societies, 103.
Hypnotism, 261.

Identification, 308.
Idiocy, 175.

Illegitimate children, 104.
Immigration, 38, 245.
Indeterminate sentence, 290.
Individual charity, 138.
Indoor relief, 71.
Industrial conditions, 35.
Industrial training, 25, 243.
Industry in prisons, 286.
Inebriates, 199.
Insane, 183; convicts, 306,
Institutions for children, 108,
International law, 274.
Investigation, 63.

Jails, 278.

Juvenile court, 324.
Juvenile delinquents, 322.

Kindergartens, 102.

Laboratories in prisons, 230.
Law, criminal, 262.
Licentiousness, 27.
Lockup, 277,
Lodging houses, 95, 116.

Manual training, 333.

Mark system, 288.
Material relief, 156,
Matrons, 280.
Medical charity, 121.
Medical jurisprudence, 273.
Morality and crime, 210, 255.
Motives, 255.

National charity, 208.

National Prison Association, 230.

Negroes, 247.

Normal types, 216.

Nurses, 132.

Occupation, 251.

Orders and societies, 146.

Organization of institutions of states, 202.

Outdoor relief, 52; statistics, 53, 364;
laws, 54 ; rules, 55 ; abolition, 55 ; ar-
gument for, 58 ; principles of admin-
istration, 62 ; medical relief, 123.

Parole system, 292.

Pauper, defined, 10 ; civil privileges, 73.

Penal laws, 268.

Penalties, 275.

Penology, 276.

Pensions for nurses, 134.

Personal ministration, 69, 160.

Placing out children, 112.

Police, 316.

Political influences, 243.

Poorhouse, 71 ; law, 72 ; amelioration,

Poor laws, grounds, 42 ; principles, 46.

Prevention of crime, 308, 332.

Prison laboratories, 230.

Prison science, 276; officials, 283, 300.

Prisons, 280 ; punishments in, 289 ; labor,

Private charity, medical and nursing,

Probation system, 303.



Procedure, 270.
Propagation of defects, 178.
Prostitution, 335.
Psychology, 216, 217.
Public, education of, 337.

Race traits, 29,

Reformatories, 331.

Reform schools, 329.

Registration, 308.

Rehef, grounds of, 41; administration,

50; methods, 62; in cash or goods,

Religion and crime, 211, 243 ; in prisons,

289, 341.
Reparation, 304.
Right to relief, 87.

Sanitarium, for children, 99.

Schools, industrial and parental, 102,

327 ff.
Selection, 20.
Self-help, 159.

Separate system (prisons), 281.
Settlement, pauper, 50.
Sex, 25, 247.
Shiftlessness, 28.
Sisterhoods, 134.
Slow children, loi, 182.
Social service, 167.

Social settlements, 143.

Sociology, criminal, 211.

Sources of knowledge and interest, 3.

State board and control, 202.

Statistical groups, grades, 24.

Struggle for life, 17.

Subsidy policy, 209.

Substitutes for imprisonment, 302, 311.

Suggestion, 244.

Supervision of homes, 115.

Sympathy, i.

Theoretical science, 6.
Training, 95.
Tramps, 95.
Transmission, 14.

Unemployed, 83.

Vagrant residuum, 94.
Variation, 14.
Visitors, 164.
Voluntary charity, 138.

Whipping, 306.

Wisconsin, care of insane, 191.

Woodyards, 95.

Workhouses, 280.

Women, prisons for, 298.



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Online LibraryCharles Richmond HendersonIntroduction to the study of the dependent, defective, and delinquent classes, and of their social treatment → online text (page 34 of 35)