Charles Richmond Henderson.

Modern methods of charity; an account of the systems of relief, public and private, in the principal countries having modern methods online

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ing influence upon those children, who, by virtue of their sur-
roundings, are morally imperilled.- In New York, the Educa-
tional Alliance has established a building in the heart of the
Ghetto district, which is the Hull House for all the Jewish poor
of that densely settled vicinity. Besides all these worthy
agencies for good, the sisterhoods of churches, in connection with

^ See Report of Bureau of Personal Service from May i, 1902-May i, 1903, by
Miss Minnie F. Low, Superintendent, published in Reform Advocate, Chicago,
June 6, '03. Also "Juvenile Delinquents and Probation Officers," by Hannah
Solomon, 2d Conference of Jewish Charities, '02.

*The Manual Training School in Chicago and Hebrew Technical School in New
York are among the finest institutions of their kind in this country.


the local charities, conduct religious and industrial schools,
kindergartens, sewing and cooking classes, girls' clubs and dra-
matic circles and thus encourage a healthier moral life.

Other corrective and preventive movements are being cham-
pioned by the Jewish Agriculturists' Aid Society of America,^
the National Farm School,^ the Society for the Aid of Jewish
Prisoners,^ and the Jewish Agricultural and Industrial Aid So-
ciety, with headquarters at New York.* All of these organiza-
tions may be said to be the result of the terrible conditions which
now exist in the so-called Ghetto or congested districts of Chi-
cago, New York and Philadelphia. These are undoubtedly re-
sponsible for the great bulk of the misery, crime and degrada-
tion which now threaten the fair name of the Jew. The heads of
the charities of these cities realize that the proper dismember-
ment of the ghettos and the placing of their residents in decent
localities and suroundings will do much towards the solution of
the largest and most perplexing problem which has ever con-
fronted them. The traditional energy and indomitable per-
severance of the Jew augur well for their future success.

In the last century various places in the United States and
Canada have been the scenes of praiseworthy attempts to win
the Jew back to the soil and give to every deserving and willing
unfortunate of the race an opportunity to become independent
and self-supporting. But, of the numerous colonies that have
been established since the great Russo-Jewish immigration of
1881, very few now remain and only two or three may be said
to be successful. In Canada but one colony remains to tell the
story of the many heroic but fruitless efforts to give to the sub-

^ During the first decade of the activity of this Society it assisted from three to
six families annually, and since 1900 it has helped each year, respectively, 28, 32,
56 and 80 poor families who have taken up farming as their vocation. See the
Report of the Secretary, Rabbi A. R. Levy, of Chicago, in Reform Advocate, Jan.
23, 1904.

^This school, located near Philadelphia, was founded in 1895, and instructs
Jewish youths in the rudiments of scientific farming, encouraging them to make
this their life-work. It is an immense step forward in Jewish child-saving.

° This society cares for the families of prisoners and aids the latter to again
become law-abiding citizens after their discharge by securing positions for them.

* This fund is the result of the munificence of the great philanthropist and is
devoted to the amelioration of the condition of all struggling Jews.


merged an opportunity to cultivate the soil. The colony of
Hirsch, founded by Baron Hirsch in 1892 in the district of As-
siniboi, near the border-line of the United States, is now the only
struggling community of Jewish farmers in the dominion apart
from those established at Moosomin, Oxbow, Hirsch, Wapella,
Red Deer, and other places. In the United States, the first ex-
periment was unsuccessfully made in 1837 at Warwarsing, N. Y.,
by 13 Jewish families. After five years of struggle and disaster,
the little colony, discouraged by the many difficulties which beset
it, gave up the struggle. Like many of its successors, it failed
because of the inexperience of the settlers, the infertility of the
soil and the great distance from the nearest railroad station. To-
day, four colonies are carrying on the same experiment in New

The most successful of these is located at Woodbine and com-
prises a population of 1,400, there being 160 Jewish and 34 Gentile
families. It was established in 1891 by the Baron Hirsch fund
and is still maintained under their supervision. The tract of
land comprised 5,330 acres, of which 1,800 are now cleared and
improved. The original population consisted of 300 persons,
and to each family were assigned 15 acres of land. The pay-
ments were in installments. In 1897 the town site was laid. Fac-
tories were transplanted there from crowded cities, and houses
were erected. To-day 50 per cent, own their homes, 40 per cent,
are engaged in agriculture, 60 per cent, in industrial pursuits.
There are : i clothing factory, employing 168 hands ; i lock fac-
tory (40 hands) ; a machine and tool company (28 hands). ^ At
Alliance, N. J., the colonists are meeting with much success, and
at Rosenhayr, which now has a population of 800, one-quarter
of the 1,900-acre tract of land is under cultivation. Russian Jew-
ish farmers have succeeded well in Connecticut. It happens to
be a good neighborhood for summer boarders. Two hundred
families living there are quite successful. Recently there has
taken place a considerable colonization of Russian Jews in New
England States. While on the whole attempts at the founding
of Jewish agricultural colonies have not met with as great suc-
cess as might have been wished, yet Jewish philanthropy is not
discouraged in its endeavor to encourage and assist worthy and

^Industrial Commission Report, Vol. XV, p. 512, Jewish Agriculture.


deserving poor to establish themselves as farmers in the United
States or Canada. The Jewish Agricultural Aid Society of
America, with offices at Chicago, is one of the new agencies which
has entered the field, determined to succeed where others have
failed. Since its establishment in 1888, it has been a decided
factor in the campaign against the misery of the sweat-shop and
the poverty of the "Ghetto." It has taken no Jewish families
out of the most sordid and degraded of conditions and has made
manly and self-respecting citizens of them. Its beneficiaries
have not been established in one or two colonies, but have been
scattered throughout such States as Illinois, Michigan, Indiana,
Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, North and South Dakota, Florida and
Oklahoma. It has discouraged mendicancy and alms-receiving. It
has made its beneficiaries feel their responsibility and recognize
that their relations with the society were strictly business ones.
It has seen to it that these families have received all the neces-
saries for successful farming and, as a result, it can to-day point
proudly to its thriving farms and energetic farmers. Money is
furnished by the society in the shape of a loan, protected by a
lien on the property of the settler. Sufficient time is given for
the liquidation of the debt. This plan, if followed out, promises
to be an important factor towards the solution of the Jewish
question which now looms up largely on the horizon.

Statistics in Cities. — Taking Chi(5ago as typical of all the Ameri-
can cities, a few statistics are given as to the amount of money
collected and the methods employed in its distribution. Last
year $136,000 were collected from the Jewish citizens. This sum
is independent of numerous subscriptions and endowments which
were given to some of the institutions. This money, controlled
by the Associated Jewish Charities, was used to defray the ex-
penses of such local institutions as a hospital, a home for aged,
an orphan home, the Jewish Training School, a dispensary, a
settlement and a home for friendless. Of this money, $40,000
were used by the United Hebrew Charities in its relief v.^ork ;
2,351 cases, comprising a total of 9,087 persons, were assisted and
not one worthy applicant was refused the desired aid ; 496 per-
sons made application for employment ; 453 were provided with
work ; 43 did not return, while yy refused the work provided. At
the hospital, 1,814 patients were treated, while in the dispensary


26,840 patients were given the proper medical attention.
Twenty-six thousand seven hundred prescriptions were filled at
the dispensary, for all of which, except 4,630, a nominal charge
of 10 cents was made. Loans have been given to many in need
of temporary help and nearly all of these have been returned at
the proper time, A workroom, employing 50 women, at a
monthly expense of about $500, was for a while maintained with
great benefit to the beneficiaries in teaching them lessons of thrift
and energy.

Working independently of the charities, but doing good work,
are 14 loan societies, all in the district falsely termed the Ghetto,
but which may with all propriety be called the district of the
submerged. There are also 16 congregations in this same dis-
trict, each of which maintains a cemetery and provides free burial
to the poor besides contributing to Hebrew free schools, to
charity in Palestine and to the orthodox schools of Russia.

In Canada the charity problems that demand solution are not
so complex nor insistent. The entire population does not num-
ber more than twenty thousand souls, and the great majority of
these live in Montreal, Toronto and Winnipeg. The Jewish
communities of these cities maintain benevolent societies and
are as zealous in their ministry to the worthy poor as are their
brethren of this country. In fact, what has been said of the
charities of this country applies equally as well to those of the

In conclusion, it seems hardly necessary to say, that the past
excellent record of the Jew and his present activity in the vine-
yard of noble charity endeavor, promise golden efforts in the
future for the advancement of civilization and the glorification
of God.

References : The Jewish Encyclopedia, Articles on Alms, Charity and Can-
ada ; The American Jewish Year Book of the years 1899, 1900, and 1901 ; the
Annual Reports of the Charity Organizations of New York, Philadelphia, Balti-
more, Boston, Cincinnati, Chicago, St. Louis, Pittsburg, Cleveland, San Francisco
and other cities; Proceedings of ist Nat. Conference of Jewish Charities, 1900, in
Chicago; Proceedings of 2d Nat. Conference of Jewish Charities, 1902, in Detroit
(most important) ; The Poor in Great Cities, R. A. Woods, etc., pp. 221-2, 352-3.


It has been concluded, though with some misgiving', not to
print the elaborate bibliography which was prepared for this
work. The chief reason for the numerous omissions is that there
are lists of authorities and sources easily accessible and to which
reference may here be made once for all. Chief among these is
the Bibliographic des Armenwesens, by Dr. E. Miinsterberg.
Camille Granier, Essai de bibliographic charitable is useful. Th.
Schafer (Die weibliche Diakonie, 1887, and Leitfaden der inneren
Mission, 1904) gives many titles. G. Uhlhorn (Die christliche
Liebesthatigkeit) at the end of each volume supplies numerous
references to the literature.

The writers are greatly indebted to the Schriften des
Deutschen Vereins fiir Armenpflege und Wohlthatigkeit, the va-
rious articles of which are carefully indexed in the Bibliographic
of Dr. Miinsterberg, the secretary of that society. In this same
connection may be mentioned the lists appended to the very
valuable articles on poor-relief ("Armenwesen") in the Hand-
worterbuch der Staatswissenschaften (2d edition, 1898). In foot-
notes many references are cited.

American references are found in A. G. Warner's excellent
treatise, American Charities (1894) ; and in Introduction to the
Study of the Dependent, Defective and Delinquent Classes, by
C. R. Henderson (2d ed., 1901). The list of books and articles
here presented is not complete, but it will serve as an introduc-
tion to the field and will indicate the more important titles. The
books having chiefly historical interest are generally omitted.

It is thought that these indications will guide any student who
needs such help for the beginning of his investigations. After
the earlier studies one makes his own list.

44 689


I. Systematic and Historical

Chalmers, Thomas : The Christian and Civic Economy of Large Towns.

Glasgow, 1821-26. (Abridged ed. published by Charles Scribner's Sons,

New York. Edited by C. R. Henderson.)
Bohmert, V. : Das Armenwesen in "]"] deutschen Stadten und einigen Land-

Emminghaus, A. : Das Armenwesen und die Armengesetzgebung in euro-

paischen Staaten. 1870. (Translated into English.)
Loning, Edgar : Armenwesen. In Schonberg's Handbuch der politischen

Oekonomie ; 4 Aufl., 1898. Lauppsche Buchh, Tubingen.
Monnier, A. : Histoire de I'assistance publique dans les temps anciens et mo-

dernes. 1866.
Miinsterberg, Emil : Die deutsche Armengesetzgebung und das Material zu

ihrer Reform. Duncker und Humblot, 1887.
Ibid., Die Armenpflege. Einfiihrung in die praktische Pflegethatigkeit. 213

S. Berlin, O. Liebmann, 1897.
Ratzinger, Georg ; Geschichte der kirchlichen Armenpflege. 2 umgearb. Aufl.

Freiburg i. Br., 1884.
Uhlhorn, G. : Die christliche Liebesthatigkeit. 3 Bde. 2 Aufl. Stuttgart.

I Bd., In der alten Kirche, 421 S. 2 Bd., Im Mittelalter, 531 S., 1884.

3 Bd., Seit der Reformation, 520 S., 1890.
Florian, Eugenio : Cavaglieri, Guido. I vagabondi. Torino, 1900,

Important Sources and Discussions

Schriften des Deutschen Vereins fijr Armenpflege und Wohlthatigkeit (the
national conference of charities for all Germany). Die Berichte des Ve-
reins wurden anfanglich den Mitgliedorn direkt zugesendet und sind daher
im Wege des Buchhandels (mit Ausnahme der zleichzeitig in Carl Hey-
mann's Verlag, Berlin, erscheinen Schriften, 1881-83) nicht erhaltlich.
Seit 1886 erscheinen sie in fortlaufend numerirten Heften bei Duncker &
Humblot, Leipzig. Seit 1887 erstattet E. Miinsterberg regelmjissige Be-
richte fiber die Jahresversammlungen des Vereins in dem Jahrbuch fiir
Gesetzgebung, Verwaltung und Volkswirtschaft von G. Schmoller.

Congres international pour I'etude des questions relatives au patronage des
detenus et a la protection des enfants moralement abandonnes. Anvers,
1890. Compte rendu stenographique. I Partie : Documents, Bibliogra-
phic. II Partie: Discussions. Bruxelles, E. Guyot, 1891, 533 p.

Congres pour I'etude des questions relatives au patronage des condamnes, des
enfants moralement abandonnes, des vagabonds et des alienes. Anvers,
1894, 2 vols. I vol. : Documents. II : Discussions. 394 p. Bruxelles, J.
Brouwers, 1894-95.

Congres pour I'etude des questions relatives au patronage des condamnes, des
enfants moralement abandonnes et des alienes. Anvers. 1898.

Handworterbuch der Staatswissenschaften. Herausg. von. Conrad, Elster,
Lexis, Loning. 2 Aufl., i Bd., S. 1052-1231 ; 20 vcrschiedene Aufsatze
fiber Armenwesen. Jena, G. Fischer, 1898.

International Congress of Charities, Correction and Philanthropy, Chicago,
June, 1893, 5 vols. Baltimore, J. Hopkins Press, 1894.

National Conference of Charities and Correction : Proceedings. (One vol-
ume each year since 1874.)

Der Arbeiterfreund, Organ des Centralvereins fur das Wohl der arbeitenden
Klasscn. Erscheint seit 1863, zucrst unter Leitung von K. Briimer, dann
von V. Bohmert. Dazu ein General-. Sach- und Namcnregistcr liis 1895
einschliesslich, bearbeitet von P. Schmidt, Berlin, 1896, Leonh. Simion.


Charitas. Zeitschrift fur die Werke der Nachstenliebe im kath. Deutsch-
land. Mit der Beilage „Katholische Massigkeitsblatter." Unter Mitwirk-
ung von Fachmannern herausgegeben voni Vorstand des Charitasver-
bandes fiir das kathol. Deutschland. Verantwortlicher Redakteur: Geist-
licher Rat Dr. Lorenz Werthmann zu Freiburg i. Br. ; erscheint seit 1896
monatlich einmal. No. 4, 5, 6, 8, 12 des i Jahrg. sind vergriffen.

Fliegende Blatter aus dem Rauhen Hause zu Hamburg-Horn. Organ des
Central-Ausschusses fiir die innere Mission der deutschen evangelischen
Kirche, herausgeg. von Lindner, Hesekiel, Wichern. Jahrlich 12 Hefte.
Erschienen seit 1844: 1864 und 1875 sind vergrififen. Dazu ein General-
register fiir die Jahrgange 1844-45-1890, bearbeitet von Brandt, Hamburg,
1891, 116 S. Agentur des Rauhen Hauses.

Monatschrift fiir Diakonie und innere Mission. Herausgegeben von Theodor
Schafer. Hamburg, W. L. Oemler, 1876-1880. i38i forgesetzt als Monat-
schrift fiir innere Mission.

Das Rothe Kreuz. Central-Organ fiir alle deutschen Wohlfarts- und Wohl-
thatigkeitsbestrebungen, fiir offentliche und hausliche Gesundheitspflege,
mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung des Heilstattenwesens. Organ des Cen-
tral-Komites der Deutchen Vereine vom Rothen Kreuz. Herausgegeben
von Dr. Gotthold Pannwitz, Berlin. Dazu die Monatsbeilage : Verein-
samtliche Mitteilungen.

Soziale Praxis. Centralblatt fiir Sozialpolitik. Zugleich Organ der Verbind-
ung deutscher Gewerbegerichte. Herausgegeben von Dr. E. Francke,

Zeitschrift fiir das Armenwesen. Organ der Centralstelle fiir Arbeiter-Wohl-
fahrtseinrichtungen, Abteilung fiir Armenpflege und Wohlthatigkeit.
Herausgegeben von Stadtrath Dr. Miinsterberg, Berlin.

Zeitschrift der Centralstelle fiir Arbciter-Wohlfahrts-Einrichtungen. Heraus-
gegeben von Geh. Rat Post, Prof. Hartmann, Prof. Albrecht. Berlin, C.

Der Congress der katholischen Wohlthatigkeitsvereins Oesterreichs in Wien.

Congres international du patronage des liberes. Paris, 1900.

Congres international d'assistance publique et de privee tenu du 30 juillet an
5 aoiit, 1900, a Paris.

Charities, a weekly review of local and general philanthropy.

The Charity Review, quarterly by Charity Org. Society of Melbourne, Aus-


Der Armenrath. Mittheilungen iiber das gesammte Armenwesen. Wochent-
liche Beilage der „Sozialen Rundschau" in Wien, seit Jan. i, 1900.

Die Soziale Reform. Halbmonat-Schrift fiir soziale Wissenschaft, Gesetzge-
bung und Praxis. Herausgeber C. v. Zenker, Wien.


Schweizerische Zeitschrift fiir Gemeinniitzigkeit. Organ der schweizereschen
Gemeinnutzigen Gesellschaft, Zurich.


The Charity Organization Review. Monthly. Published by the Charity Org.
Society, London, 1884.


Trudowaja Pomoschtsch (Die Arbeitshilfe). Herausgegeben von dem Kura-
toriuni der Hauser der Arbeitshilfe unter Redaktion von Prof. W. Djeru-
shinski, St. Petersburg. (Since 1897.)



Bulletin de la Societe Internationale pour I'etude des questions d'assistance.
Siege social a Paris, 1890-1893.

Revue d'Assistance, bulletin de la Soc. intern, pour I'etude des questions d'as-
sistance. (Since 1894.)

La Revue Philanthropique, paraissent le 10 de chaque mois. P. Straus, Di-
recteur. (Since 1897.)


Rivista della Beneficenza pubblica, delle istituzioni di previdenza e d'igiene
sociale. Roma. (Since 1873.)

The United States of America

Charities. The official organ of the Charity Organization Society of the City

of New York. Editor, Edward T. Devine. 1897.
The Indiana Bulletin of Charities and Correction. Published quarterly by

Board of State Charities.
Proceedings of National Conference of Charities and Correction.
The Ohio Bulletin of Charities and Correction. Published quarterly by the

Board of State Charities, Columbus, Ohio. (Since 1895.)
The Quarterly Record. A review of charitable work in New York State.

Published by State Board of Charities, Albany, N. Y. (Since 1900.)



Der Wanderer. In Verbindung mit dem Central-vorstand deutscher Arbeiter-
kolonien und dem Gesamtvorstand deutscher Verpflegungs-stationen,
herausgeg. vom Deutschen Herbergsverein. Gadderbaum bei Bielefeld.

Medical Relief and Nursing

Deutsche Krankenpflegezeitung. Fachzeitschrift fiir die Gesamtinteressen des

Krankenpflegeberufs. Herausgegeben von Dr. Paul Jacobsohn, Berlin.
Zeitschrift fiir Krankenpflege. Herausgeg. von. Prof. Dr. Martin Mendelsohn,

Zeitschrift fiir Samariter-und Rettungswesen. Zeitung des Deutschen Samari-

Der Alkoholismus. Fine Vierteljahrschrift zur wissenschaftlichen Erorterung

der Alkoholfrage. Herausgeg. von Geh. San. -Rat Dr. A. Baer, Berlin,

Prof. Dr. Bohmert, Dresden, et al.
Zeitschrift fiir Tuberculose und Heilstattenwesen. Herausgeg. v. Prof. C.

Gerhardt, B. Friinkel und E. v. Leyden. I. Jahrg. 1900.

Care of Defectives

Der Blindenfreund. Zeitschrift fiir Verbesserung des Looses der Blinden.
The Association Review. Published by the American Association to Promote

Teaching Speech to the Deaf. Frank W. Booth, Philadelphia. 1899.
Blatter fiir Taubstummcnfreund. Herausgeg. von. Fran Anna Schcnk, Berlin.
Die Irrenpflege. Monatsschrift zur Hebung, Belehrung und Unterhaltung des

Irrenpflegepersonals, mit besondcrer Riicksicht der freien Bchandlung, der

kolon, u. famil. Krankenpflege. Herausgeg. von Direktor C. Alt. Ucht-

springe. 1897.


Care of Children and Youth

Bulletin de la Societe des Creches, Paris. Parait tous les trois mois. 1875.
Bulletin de la Societe centre la mendicite des Enfants. Parait tous les mois.

Redaction: M. Zeller, 90 rue d'Assass, Paris. (Since Oct. 1896.)
Die Kinderfehler. Zeitschrift fiir Kinderforschung mit besonderer Beriick-

sichtigung der padagogischen Pathologie. Herausgeg. von. J. Triiper,

Jena. 1896.

Education and Training for Social Service

Brackett, J. R. : Supervision and Education in Charity. 1903.

Richmond, Mary : Friendly Visiting Among the Poor.

Sociology in Institutions of Learning. Report from seventh section, Interna-
tional Congress of Charities, Correction and Philanthropy, Chicago, 1893.
Edited by A. G. Warner.

Rathbone, William : The History and Progress of District Nursing. Intro-
duction by Florence Nightingale. London, Macmillan & Co., 1890.

Bourneville : L'enseignement pratique dans les ecoles d'infirmieres laiques.
Paris, 1899.

Programme de I'Enseignement des Ecoles municipales d'Infirmiers et d'infir-
mieres de Bicetre, de la Salpetriere, de la Pitie et de Lariboisiere. 1899.

Circulars of the schools connected with Harvard University, the New York
C. O. S., and the University of Chicago, 1904.


Oesterreichs Wohlfahrts-Einrichtungen 1848-1898. Festschrift zu Ehren des

50 jahr. Regierungs-jubilaums S. M. Kaisers Franz Joseph I. 4 Bde.

Herausgegeben von der Commission des Oesterr. Wohlfahrts-Ausstellung,

Wien, 1898.
Oesterreichisches Stadtebuch. Statistische Berichte von grosseren-osterreich.

Stadten. Sternegg und Josef v. Friedenfels. Wien, K. K. Staatsdruck-

erei, 1893.
Berichte von Miinsterberg in den Schriften des Deutschen Vereins fiir Armen-

pflege u. Wohlthatigkeit. Heft 35 und 52, C.
V. Call in Handworterbuch der Staatswissenschaften. i Bd., 2 Auf., 1898.

Gerenyi, Fedor: Die Wohlfahrtspflege des Landes Nieder-osterreich. 1901.
Die Wohlthatigkeitsvereine der k. k. Reichshaupt-und Residenzstadt Wien.

Wien, 1900.
Kanocz, Etienne : L'assistance publique en Hongrie. Budapest, 1900.
Schindler, Fr. : Das sociale Wirken der katholiscTien Kirche in Oesterreich.
^Mitteilungen des Vereins gegen Verarmung und Bettelei in Wien.
Das Armenwesen, die offentliche Armenpflege in Wien und deren geschicht-

liche Entwicklung. Wien, Selbstverlag des Magistrats, 1898.
Inama-Sternegg, K. Th. von : Die pcrsonlichen Verhaltnisse der Wiener

Armen. Wien, Selbstverlag des Vereins.
Inama-Sternegg, K. Th. von : Dasselbe. 2 Bearbeitung. 1899.
Die Gemeinde-Ordnung und die Gemeinde-Wahlordnung fiir das Konigreich

Bohmen vom 16 April, 1864, samt alien Abanderungs-gesetzen. Taschen-

ausgabe der Gesetze fiir das Konigreich Bohmen No. i. Prag, 1890.
Statistik der offentlichen Armenpflege im Konigreich Bohmen im Auftrage des

h. Landesausschusses zurammengest. v. statist. Biireau des Landescultur-

rats fiir das Konigsreich Bohmen auf Grund der individuellen Erhebungen

von 1S90. Prag, O. Beyer, 1894.



Christinger, J. : Grundlinien der gegenwartigen Armengesetzgebung der

Schweiz, etc. Schweiz. Zeitschrift fiir Gemeinniitzigkeit. 1898.
Hunziker, O. : Geschichte der Schweizerischen gemeinnutzigen Gesellschaft.

Zurich, Ziircher & Furrer, 1897.

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