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Social Programmes in the West



THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS



Agrnta
THE CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

LONDON AND EDINBUEGH

THE MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHA

TOKYO, OSAKA, KYOTO

KARL W. HIERSEMANN

LEIPZIG

THE BAKER & TAYLOR COMPANY

NEW YOEK



SOCIAL PROGRAMMES
IN THE WEST

LECTURES DELIVERED IN THE FAR EAST ^

BY

CHARLES RICHMOND HENDERSON, PH.D.

Professor of Sociology in the Uni'versity of Chicago



THE BARROWS LECTURES
1912-1913




THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS



Published July igi^



Composed and molded for plates by

Macmillan & Co., Bombay, India

Sterotyped and printed by

The University of Chicago Press

Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.



H3as



CONTENTS

PAOC

Preface - . - ,__.- vii

Letter of Commission ....-_. viii

Aims of the International Associations on Social

Legislation - xi

By Professor E. Fuster, Paris

Syllabus - xv

LECTURE I

Foundations of Social Programmes in Economic Facts

and in Social Ideals - 1

LECTURE II

Public and Private Relief of Dependents and Ab-

NORMALS 30

LECTURE III

Policy of the Western World in Relation to the

Anti-Social - - 55

LECTURE IV
Public Health, Education, and Morality - - - 80

LECTURE V

Movements to improve the Economic and Cultural

Situation of Wage-Earners 125

LECTURE VI
Providing for Progress -, - - - 156



■._a_'*.^'''.K: v.. <ii3



PREFACE

My University, through our honored President
H. P. Judson, has opened the way for me to visit the
Orient and deliver my life-message there on the foundation
of the Barrows Lectureship. The limits of time and space
precluded detailed discussion of the vast themes which
are opened up in the lectures here presented. But the
necessity of selecting elements from the social activities
of Europe and America which might have value in the
Orient under widely different conditions, compelled a
consideration of the materials from a new point of view.
Instinctively the mind sifts the ideas which must be
transported across the ocean, and gives to them a different
form and dress.

While in attendance at the memorable "social week"
at Zurich in September, 1912, my colleagues in the three
great international associations for labor legislation, added
to the responsibilities of my journey in the Orient, by
asking me to present their aims wherever it was possible
in India, China, and Japan. For this mark of their confidence
I am truly grateful, and I have done what I could to carry
out their wishes as expressed in the official letter herewith
printed and signed by men made famous throughout the
world for their high merit as servants of humanity and
social science.

While my grateful appreciation of courtesies and
friendly service shown me by numerous kind persons
cannot be expressed in words, I wish here to record my
sincere thanks for the many helpful deeds which have
made my journey fruitful and instructive to me.

Owing to the conditions of printing, proof-reading
by the author was impossible ; I am grateful to the publishers
for their attention to the corrections.

Charles Richmond Henderson.
Bombay, Nov. 1912.



LETTER OF COMMISSION



Zurich, September 11, 1912.

Dear Mr. Henderson,

The International Associations for the Legal Protection
of Workmen, for the Combat with Unemployment, and for Social
Insurance, have learned with intense pleasure that you are about
to travel in the Extreme Orient, and particularly in China, fapan,
and India, to speak on social questions, with special reference
to the aims pursued by the international associations which deal
with the labor problem.

Our associations, which have not yet been able to come
into contact very closely with the countries you are about to visit
and to establish sections there, feel keenly the need of a
movement in this matter, and they will be grateful to you for
any assistance you can render in this task. The study of
problems of emigration makes this effort indispensable.

In working for the establishment of sections in those
countries which have so great interest, you will at the same
time render a service to all our three associations. We should
be very grateful to all those who take an interest in one or all
of our associations, or in the work which we represent in Europe,
and who support your effort in any way possible.

Our three associations wish for your large success.

Accept, dear Sir, the assurance of our great respect



LETTER OF COMMISSION ix

In the name of the International Association for the Legal
Protection of Working-Men, of the Permanent Committee
of Social Insurance, and of the International Association
for the Combat with Unemployment:

The General Secretaries: The Vice-Presidents :

ST. BAUER (Bdle) ADRIEN LACHANAL (Geneva)

Legal Protection Legal Protection

ED. FUSTER (Paris) G. VON MAYR (Munich)

Social Insurance Social Insurance

MAX LAZARD (Paris) MARQUIS FERRERO DE CAM-

Unemployment BIANO (Turin). Social Insurance

LOUIS VARLEZ (Ghent) RICH. FREUND (Berlin)
Unemployment Unemployment

The Presidents:

R. POINCARE
Insurance

LEON BOURGEOIS

Unemployment

HENRY SCHERRER
Legal Protection.



To Mr. CH. HENDERSON, Vice-President of the International
Committee on Social Insurance, Professor at the University of Chicago.



AIMS OF THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS
ON SOCIAL LEGISLATION

Statement of Professor E. Fuster, Paris.

You cannot conceal from yourselves the unhappy fact
that where there is rapid economic progress there is also,
unless great care is taken, an increase of human suffering;
the exaltation of certain forces works to the detriment of
the feeble; there is a disturbance of the equilibrium of
the social body; but no country can escape the tendency.

The problems which cannot be avoided are: an

increasing number of persons unemployed, inadequate
adaptation of forces to the demand, and subjection of the
weak to rough labor, excessive duration of toil, unwhole-
some arrangements in the workplace, absence of devices
for the prevention of accidents and poisoning, want of
protection of income for the workman and his family in
times when sickness, accident, and old age deprive him
of his ability to earn wages.

It is generally the waste of human life resulting from
accident, and the exploitation of women and children em-
ployed in factories, which seem to appeal most to public
sentiment and which torment the conscience of men of
political influence. But it would be wrong to act, as has
been the case in some countries, as if with two or three
reforms the work has been achieved; all the problems
arise and a country must pass through the entire series,
soon or late. For, the labor problem is in reality only the
expression of the most profound and universal needs of
humanity, and is the same in all lands, — the laborer in
the world without resources.

To have employment in a trade one has learned, thanks
to fit means of knowing the places where labor is wanted;
to make sure that this work is the normal play of energy



Xii BARROWS LECTURES

and not exhaustion; that it is done under safe and whole-
some conditions; that growing children and the mothers
of future generations are not used up; to be assured that
when in spite of all precautions the producer is exhausted,
a compensation shall be provided for himself and his
survivors, — this is the object.

The social history of the last twenty-five years reveals
some noble efforts of certain nations to respond by law,
by regulations, by the action of local authorities, by unions
of workers to this threefold and universal need. One after
another the nations have come to comprehend the value
of a policy which v/ithout discouraging economic initiative,
and even in its interest, conserves the health and productive
energies of the people.

You know through how many difficulties and by
what experiments these nations have opened the road of
reform. It is the privilege of countries which to-day enter
this policy, and whom we solicit to enter freely without
neglecting any element of the problem, to profit by the
inspiring experiments already made.

It is here that our three associations proffer their
assistance. They arose separately, at different times, but
each from the need felt everywhere for information and
international discussion.

They respond to the three great needs which we have
described and cover the whole field of the precarious
condition of workers.

In 1889, the first international congress on accidents
of labor gave birth to a permanent international committee
which became an international association under the name
of the Permanent International Committee on Social In-
surance and which is devoted to the diffusion of knowledge
of legal and voluntary experiments in the matter of in-
surance against sickness, invalidism, accident, old age, and
premature death.



AIMS OF THE ASSOCIATIONS ON SOCIAL LEGISLATION xiii

In the following year, 1890, the International Confer-
ence for the Protection of Labor convened at Berlin, may
be considered as the point of departure for the efforts
which resulted in the creation of the International Associ-
ation for the Legal Protection of Labor, an association
which, supported by the official bureau of labor founded
by a considerable number of governments at Basel, has
succeeded in introducing into various legislations fruitful
measures for protection against abuses of working men
and women.

Finally, and more recently, the need having been felt
of devoting a new organization to the study of the problems
of unemployment, the International Association on Un-
employment now works side by side with the others.

The executive committees of these three associations,
united in the conviction that they have a common object,
and that, if a nation does effective service for the protection
of laborers and national conservation, it must include citi-
zens informed in respect to all aspects of the problem, have
agreed to make appeal to persons interested in public
good in countries where the protection of workmen has
hardly begun and where public opinion has not yet made
a satisfactory response to our individual efforts.

Therefore, they now address you to place at your
disposition the united forces of the three international
groups, and their information and publications.

They ask you to create an agitation, in respect to
some form of organization adapted to your country.

Note. — Requests for further information about any one or aH of these
associations, the cost of publications, and the conditions
of membership, may be sent to Mr. LouiS Varlez, Coupure,
Ghent, Belgium.



SYLLABUS



LECTURE I

FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIAL PROGRAMMES IN ECONOMIC
FACTS AND IN SOCIAL IDEALS

The generous and friendly reception accorded my prede-
cessors in this Lectureship assures me of a welcome and a
sympathetic hearing. The subject is of world-wide interest,
because of the common elements and needs of human nature
and the industrial transformation of the East.

Not as an advocate of a policy for the East, but as an
interpreter of the struggles of men of the West, the lecturer
seeks to disclose the growing human purpose of Christian
people as manifested in movements and institutions. 'The
promotion of the highest interests of humanity' was one of
the purposes of Mrs. Haskell in founding the Lectureship, and
one of these highest interests is the blessing brought by
Christianity to the world. With Christianity all kinds of good
flow to all the continents.

I

The economic evolution of the modern world defines the
forms and sets some of the problems of social programmes.

1. Characteristics of the mediaeval in contrast with the
modern economic organization of society in Europe. In the older
industrial order we find the isolated, self-sufficing village
community, rudimentary division of labor, meagre capital,
small craftsmen, local market, inadequatetransportation, operatives
servile or semi-servile. Modern industry reveals interdependence
of industries, large scale of production, aggregation of capital,
expert management, creation of a wage-earning class, legally
free, but economically dependent. India, China, and Japan
are passing from the former condition to the latter (Sir
Theodore Morison, k. c. i. e.. The Economic Transition in India).
This progress in the West has cost much suffering, waste, and



XVI BARROWS LECTURES

loss; India may avoid our mistakes, secure the advantages of
the great industry and 'not lose the lofty idealism by which
she has hitherto been so nobly distinguished'. The Western
peoples groped their way for centuries without the aid of
modern science and medical art; the Orient can have this
as a free gift.

2. India is not stagnant, is capable of development. Reason-
ing from European history, we learn that ideas are permanent
forces and outlast conquests; a great race is not annihilated;
metaphysical meditation needs to be enriched and made sane
by scientific method and practical effort; the nations of the
East have already shown capacity for mastering the new
organization; science is not patented nor monopolized, and
has no frontiers.

II

SOCIAL FAITH IN THE SOCIAL POLICY OF THE OCCIDENT

Social faith is the inspiring principle of the programmes.
It is a religious conviction that the universe has a meaning
and that meaning is good, which moves the people. Charity is
the life of religion, certainly of Christianity. It is morality exalt-
ed, religion with ethical direction which gives a soul to the
campaign for welfare. Out of the heart are the issues of life,
and the issue itself is helpful action. By works faith becomes
visible, luminous; the test of Christian discipleship is treatment
of the hungry, the sick, the blind, the criminal. New knowledge
increases responsibility. Ways once tolerable are now sinful.
The scientific method is to find facts, and proceed by a sensible
way to solve problems.

Ill

PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THESE LECTURES

1. Not to interfere with the native development of a
strange people; each nation must grow from within.

2. A description of the aims and methods of Western
policies may be suggestive and helpful.

3. Principles of organization and conduct are based on
universal factors of human nature.



SYLLABUS xvll



4. In fellowship of discussion we all rise to broader
views and deepen our charity.

5. We are to consider those who are dependent upon
public or private charity for relief or support, the members
of anti-social groups, the wage-earners, and the unskilled toilers
on the land, and finally, the function and mission of exceptional
men as starting points of a new advance of the race.

6. The elements of a social policy must include a con-
sideration of public health, the means of increasing industrial
efficiency, and spiritual satisfactions in science, art, morality,
and religion. 'Social welfare' means infinitely more than
material comfort. War, misery, deep poverty, hateful revolution,
partisanship, sedition, class hatred, are hindrances.

7. The interest of all humanity is the ground of a social
policy, not the interest of a class, a sect, a party. Human life
is precious. Our relations are vital. The truly great nation
'lifts up the manhood of the poor'.

The Western World has not realized its ideals and never
will realize them, for the nobler a life the more rapidly aims
expand. We have committed great mistakes and wrongs.
Yet our purpose is more elevated, our action is better directed,
our labors are more aggressive and effective than ever before.
We have achieved results once thought impossible, and our
victories give heart to good men the world over.



LECTURE II



PUBLIC AND PRIVATE RELIEF OF DEPENDENTS AND
ABNORMALS

Social policies have their roots in charity. Misery tests
our economic, legal, and moral systems. Some have proposed
to permit the incapable to perish. Our morality and religion
forbid this course. Life and personality are sacred; our beliefs
require us to show mercy to the unfit and kindness to animals.
I. Subnormal and dependent members of society have
always existed: feeble-minded, insane, senile, crippled, ignorant.



XvHi BARROWS LECTURES

II. Sympathy is organic; product of evolution; enlarged
and purified by Christianity. Charitable relief in Christendom
has passed through various stages: 1. in the primitive
Churches it was voluntary and congregational; 2. in the
mediaeval times it was ecclesiastical with state patronage,
administered by bishops, priests, orders, hospitals; 3. since
the Reformation the duty of relief has come to be regarded
as national, with private charity as supplementary — to help in
special cases, to try experiments, to criticize public relief, to
save from 'pauper' record. England had the ftrst poor law
under Queen Elizabeth.

III. Relief of needy families in their homes, to prevent the
disruption of family bonds. Families are responsible for each
member, so far as able.

The poor help each other, but require community-aid in
certain situations: 1. sickness of bread-winner; 2. moral
delinquency and neglect of parents; 3. death of parents;
4. enforced unemployment.

Danger of pauperization to be averted, by thorough
knowledge of the family, by discipline of delinquents, by
adequate relief, by refusal to aid those who refuse work they
can do. Co-operation of relief agencies: 1. by central
registration; 2. agreement among agencies in legal control,
where necessary ; 3. selection of proper fund ; 4. understanding
about refusal of relief.

CHARITY- ORGANIZATION SOCIETY IN GREAT BRITAIN AND AMERICA

It aims to secure co-operation: 1. a voluntary association;
2. local offices to discover the destitute; 3. prompt relief
of urgent distress ; 4. investigation of conditions ; 5. system
of records; 6. information about institutions of relief;
7. study of causes of misery; 8. policy of prevention;
9. education of the public and securing legislation.

The 'Elberfeld System', German municipal organization
of relief: 1. expert director; 2. convenient districts, with
unpaid visitors uniting in committees; 3. central records;
4. general ordinances to secure uniformity. Advantages of
this system are: 1. a corps of intelligent citizens study the



SYLLABUS XIX



needs of the poor; 2. adequate funds and personal attention
of many visitors.

IV. Institutional relief, for those who have no homes.
The hospice or hospital was, in the middle ages, of a
general character; modern institutions are highly specialized.

1. Children are separated from adults and placed in families;

2. old people in special establishments; 3. medical charity,
hospitals, dispensaries, nursing; 4. educational charity; 5. ab-
normals — insane, epileptics, feeble-minded — with appropriate
medical, industrial, and educational treatment; 6. the blind,
deaf, and crippled, to be trained to self-support.

V. Relief in times of public calamity.

Immunity from famines and pestilence due to: 1. favorable
climate; 2. irrigation, where needed; 3. effective trans-
portation systems; 4. insurance; 5. public subscriptions and
grants in emergencies. The Red Cross Society.

VI. Policy of prevention of misery.

The tendency of relief is to increase the number of weaklings
and so of the miserable; hence, to avoid defeat, charity must
become scientific and preventive.

A preventive policy must include: 1. eugenic action and
selection by segregation and gradual elimination of the
incapable; 2. education; 3. control and discipline of difficult
citizens; 4. reduction of the conditions which produce
sickness; 5. social legislation on behalf of the wage-earning
groups.

The eugenic action required is already demonstrated in
celibate colonies of the feeble-minded, epileptic, and insane.



LECTURE III

POLICY OF THE WESTERN WORLD IN RELATION TO THE
ANTI-SOCIAL

The West has achieved wonderful success in the conquest
of nature, the extension of science, the abolition of slavery,
the development of art and philosophy, the limitation and



XX BARROWS LECTURES

prevention of disease and famine; for coming generations it
remains to abolish war, misery, vice, and crime.

Macaulay's great codes make the principles of our law
familiar in the East; but our discussion touches the deeper
foundations of social treatment of offenders.
I. The anti-social persons.

Even public enemies are human, citizens, brothers.
II. Extent of crime.

1. Professional criminals, dangerous, but few.

2. A multitude of minor offenders. City life has

complicated regulations; contravention of these not
criminal; hence, statistics misleading.

3. JVlany real crimes concealed.

4. In any calculation crime is appalling and demands

serious effort to repress and prevent. Civilization
multiplies temptation, both downward and upward.

III. Kinds of criminals and offender j.

No organized tribes or hr xs of robbers.

1. The irresponsible offender . insane.

2. Border-land cases.

3. Defective delinquents.

4. Young offenders, educable, in moral peril.

5. Habitual criminals: {a) weaklings, probably defective;

(b) trained, dangerous, professional criminals.

IV. The social purpose in the treatment of offenders;

various aspects.

1. The protection of great social interests: order, security
of life and property, peace, health, reputation, morality. Pain
is a warning, a deterrent. 'General prevention'.

2. Doubtful, though often defended, is the purpose of
retribution; more and more rejected as civilization becomes
more clear in its vision and self-control.

3. Reformation of the offender; restoration of the erring
to his normal place in social relations, so far as possible.

V. Measures available to attain these ends.

1. The fine: deprivation of property.

2. Imprisonment.

3. Death penalty: gradually disappearing.



SYLLABUS xxi



4. Probation of offenders, without incarceration, and
parole of convicts after a period of deprivation of
liberty.

VI. Juvenile Courts.

Formerly children, from the twelfth year, were legally
regarded and treated as criminals; this led to dangerous leniency
or to association with depraved adults. Gradually the
educational purpose was adopted and in 1899, Illinois adopted
the juvenile court law, since then accepted in other states and
in Europe. First International Conference in Paris in 1911.

Essential features of the juvenile court: 1. a separate
court room, free from criminal suggestions, with a detention
home; 2. a suitable judge; 3. probation officers, agents of
the court; 4. a psychologist to study the children.
VII. A policy of prevention.

Cure comes too late; prevention is more effective and
economical.

Crime is prevented by the exercise of universal justice.
Incitements to vice and crime may be removed by public
authority, supported by public opinion. The normal satisfaction
of natural desires diminishes temptation; for example, by social
settlements. Young Men's Christian Association, municipal
recreations, the action of Churches, inspired by John Howard,
Elizabeth Fry, E. C. Wines, and others. Miss Jane Addams, ll. d.,
reveals the work of religion : ' The method of Jesus was. . . .
the overcoming of the basest evil by the august power of
goodness, .... the breaking up of long entrenched evil by
the concerted good-will of society'.

Bibliography on the social treatment of crime.

F. H. Wines, Punishment and Reformation, second edition,
1910.

C. R. Henderson, Introduction to the Study of the Dependent,
Defective, and Delinquent Classes (D. C. Heath & Co., Boston,
1904) contains a list of books and articles.

C. R. Henderson (editor). Prevention and Correction, 5 vols.

Charities Publication Committee, New York City.

W. D. Morison, Juvenile Offenders.



xxii BARROWS LECTURES

LECTURE IV

PUBLIC HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND MORALS
SECTION I. HEALTH, INTEREST, AND SOCIAL DUTY

Ethical justification of a social policy relating to health.
In personality physical conditions are causal factors: as in
injury to the brain, drugs, feeble-mindedness, illness.

The Western World assumes that care of health is a duty: the
value of all human life, not that of the rich alone. Pessimism
regarded as an oddity or a disease. The race which believes
will become strong; doubt tends to neglect and death of a
people.

The value of vigorous vitality: in family, in industry, in
business, in religion. Jesus was a minister of health. The
Christian idea of the body as a temple. The medical profession
in India an honor to the world; representing the fraternity of
science.

A few topics selected to illustrate the world movement.


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Online LibraryCharles Richmond HendersonSocial programmes in the West; lectures delivered in the Far East → online text (page 1 of 16)