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Virgin Mary, with head crowned and mitred the child in her
arms, and the sun and moon above her head. In Saxon characters
there is the following inscription :

" Hie jacet Domina Anna Donaldi Terliti, filia
quondam Priorissa de lona quo obiit anno m d xliii ejus
auimam Altissimo commendamus. Sancta Maria, ora pro me."

In the chapel of the Nunnery, a mutilated stone is thus

" Hie jacet Mariota filia Johannis Lauchlani Domini de."

The nunnery was founded not earlier than the twelfth century,
monastic establishments for women forming no part of the religious
system of Columba. In Eomish times ladies of rank were buried
in the Nunnery chapel.

According to tradition 360 stone crosses were erected as votive


offerings in different parts of the island. Two only are entire.
These are known as Maclean's and St. Martin's crosses. Maclean's
Cross (situated midway between the monastery and the granary),
is evidently the more ancient. It is supposed to suit the descrip-
tion of one which stood in the same locality in the time of Columba,
as described by Adamrian. On both sides it is decorated with a
profusion of carved work. On one side of the circle from which
the arms project is a rude representation of the crucifixion. The
figure on the cross is clothed in a long robe with loose sleeves, and
girt round the waist with a belt. On one arm of the cross is
sculptured the sacramental chalice, and a cruciform figure on the
other. It consists of a single stone of trap rock, and stands eleven
feet high, raised on a pedestal of granite.

St. Martin's Cross stands at a short distance to the south of the
other. It is a solid column of mica schist, fourteen feet high,
eighteen inches broad, and six inches thick. It is fixed in a
massive pedestal of red granite. On its western front the cross
represents on the upper part six lions with tails entwined. A lion
or other quadruped occupies each arm of the cross. In the centre
is a rude representation of the Virgin and child, with four cherubs.
On the stem appear a priest administering the right of baptism,
two musicians, one playing the harp and the other using a wind
instrument, and a man erect shaking hands with another sitting
on a stool. Besides other representations, there are at the base six
granulated balls, entwined by twelve serpents.

Reilig Ourain, the burial-place of Oran, is the grand cemetery
of the island. In this place of sepulture were interred, according
to an early tradition, forty kings of Scotland, two Irish monarchs,
a French king, and two Irish princes of the Norwegian race. The
last kings who here found sepulchres were Duncan I., slain in 1034,
and his assassin and successor the celebrated Macbeth. The
Macdonalds, Lords of the Isles, also interred in Eeilig Ourain.
The graves are arranged in nine rows. Of these, the third from
the entrance, is the Eidge of Kings. According to Dean Monro,
who wrote in 1549, the Royal tombs were then covered by three


small chapels of which portions of the foundations only remain.*
From the recumbent tombstones every vestige of inscriptions has
long been obliterated. An elegant monumental sculpture cele-
brates four priors of lona. In old English characters it presents
the following inscription :

" Hie jacent quatuor priores de Y ex una natione, v. Johannes,
Hugonius, Patricius, in decretis, olim Bacularius et alter Hugonius,
qui obiit anno domini millesimo quiugentesirno."t

In Oran's burial-place three sculptured stones commemorate
McLean of Duart, McLean of Coll, and McLean of Loch Buy.
The first is represented in armour, with a spear in his right hand,
and a greyhound at his feet. McLean of Coll is in the act of
drawing his sword, while on .either side of his head is the figure of
an angel, one armed with a sword. McLean of Loch Buy is
buckling his sword. There is a tradition that he was a parricide,
and that his headless body was wont to appear to those members
of his House who were at the point of death. Dr. John Beton, one
of the Betons in Pennycross in Mull, a family of eminent physi-
cians, who died in 1567, is commemorated by a mural tablet, thus
inscribed :

" Ecce cadit jaculo victrici mortis iniquse,
Qui toties alios solverat ipse malis.
Soli Deo gloria."J

* These chapels covered the remains of the kings of Scotland and of Ireland and
of the Norwegian princes respertively. Of the Scottish monarchs interred in lona,
sixteen were of the race of Alpin. Malcolm Canmore, who succeeded Macheth,
removed the hurial-place of the kings to Dunfermline. According to the Annals of
Ulster, Beatus Nial, King of Ireland, having abdicated his kingdom, died at lona in
765 ; and B. Artgall McCatheld, King of Connaught, who likewise abdicated, died at
lona in 786. In his " Notitia Hybernite," Dr. Keating states that Cormac McAird,
one of the kings of Ireland, was buried here. According to the Annals of Ulster,
Amulabh or Aulay, son of Stirich, Prince of the Normen of Dublin, on his defeat at
the Battle of Tarah, in 980, sought refuge in lona, where he died.

t Translation : Here lie four priors of Y (lona), all of one clan, viz., John,
Eugene, Patrick, formerly bachelor in degrees, and a second Eugene, who died in the
year of our Lord 1500.

+ Translation : Behold ! he who saved so many others fiom ills, himse'.f falls
by the conquering dart of wicked death. Glory to God alone.


The cemetery contains 159 tombstones, of which the greater
number are broken and illegible. In 1833 the members of the
lona Club made a search under the surface, and brought up several
tombstones elegantly sculptured. Two bishops' tombs, in good
preservation, are uninscribed. Some fragments of tombstones
denote that numbers of the Macleods and Macdonalds had been
interred in the ground.

The roofless chapel of St. Oran adjoins the cemetery. Sixty feet
long and twenty-two feet broad within the walls, it is filled with
monuments. A triple arch in the wall forms the canopy of a tomb,
which, according to tradition, celebrates St. Oran. Near the arch,
is the tomb of Macdonald, Lord of the Isles. On the upper part
is a galley with furled sails. The following inscription is en-
graved in antique characters :

" Hie jacet corpus Angusii, fili Domini Angusii, MacDomnill de Ila."

Angus, son of Sir Angus Macdonald, thus commemorated, was
known by the name of Angus Og, or Young Angus. He was a
friend of Eobert the Bruce in the time of his greatest distress, and
is the hero of Sir Walter Scott's " Lord of the Isles." His genea-
logy is presented in the notes to that poem.

An elaborately-decorated tomb in the centre of the chapel cele-
brates McQuarrie, of Ulva. The chieftain is sculptured in full
armour, but the inscription is nearly effaced. Adjoining is the
tomb of McLean, of Grulin, adorned with various sculptures.

Under the triple arch lies the lower part of the Abbot Mac-
kinnon's Cross. It is inscribed :

"Haec est crux Lachlani Mac Fingone et ejus filii Johannis,
Abbatis de Hy. Facta anno doniini MCCCCLXXXIX."*

St. Mary's, or the Abbey Church of lona, seems to have been
completed in the twelfth century. On the north side of the altar

* Translation : This is the cross of Lachlan Mackinnon, and his son John,
Abbot of Hy (lona), made in the year of our Lord 1489.


is the tomb of the Abbot Mackinnon. Around the recumbent
figure of the abbot is the following inscription :

" Hie jacet Johannes Mac-Fingone, Abbas de Hy, que obiit anno
domini millesimo quingentessimo, cujus aninise propitietur Deus
altissimus. Amen."*

South of the chancel is the tomb of Abbot Kenneth Mackenzie,
much defaced. In the centre of the chancel a large tombstone
commemorates a Macleod of Macleod. Another tombstone in the
chancel celebrates Maclean of Ross, in MulL His head with
bearded face rests upon a pillow, and a dog crouches at his feet ; he
is girded with a shield and claymore, and holds a spear in his right
hand. From the other monumental sculptures in St. Mary's
Church the inscriptions have disappeared.


In the parish church a handsome marble monument, erected by
the heritors and kirksession, commemorates the generosity of
Colonel Norman Macalister, of Clachaig, Governor and Com-
mander-in-Chief of Prince of Wales' Island, East Indies, who
bequeathed 1,000 to the parochial poor. Colonel Macalister was
drowned in 1810, on his voyage to Britain.


Near the church of Lismore a plain stone, with a two-handed
sword engraved upon it, denotes the grave of Donald Stewart,
known as JDomhnull nan ord, Donald of the hammer. During his

Translation : Here lies John Mackinnon, Abbot of lona, who died in the year
of our Lord 1500, to whose soul may the most high God be merciful.


infancy his family, the Stewarts of Invernahyle, were cut off by
the Campbells of Dunstaffnage ; but he escaped through the
fidelity of his nurse, who fled with him to Ardnamurchan, where
her husband, a blacksmith, resided. Informed of his descent when
he attained to manhood, he formed a party, and proceeding with
them to Dunstaffnage, slew Carlein Uaine and fifteen of his
retainers. Till his death he waged war against the Campbells.
Donald of the Hammer lived early in the seventeenth century.


In the churchyard of the monastery are a number of ancient
monuments, variously sculptured, but uninscribed. A Lord of the
Isles is commemorated by the figure of a warrior, girt with a
two-handed sword. There is the tombstone of an abbot in his
pontifical robes and in the attitude of prayer. The inscription is
illegible. Mackay, a warrior to whom Robert the Bruce made a
grant of the lands of Ugadale, is commemorated by his figure on
a gravestone. In this churchyard rest the remains of Archibald
Campbell, of Carradale, who fell at the battle of Inverlochy, when
engaged with the forces of Montrose.


In the roofless chapel of Kilmory stands an interesting monu-
ment, known as the Macmillan Cross. The shaft is eight feet in
height, and the pedestal consists of several stones loosely put
together and resting on the ground. On the upper portion of one
side the cross presents a representation of the crucifixion. The
shaft is sculptured with a broadsword, enclosed in chain moulding.
On the opposite side the upper part is decorated with a series of


intertwisted lines, while the shaft represents the progress of a
deer chase. On the base, in Saxon characters, are inscribed these

words :

" Haec crux Alexandri MacMulen."

The sept Mac Mullen formerly possessed lands in the district.
In the churchyard of Kilmory are a number of flat gravestones
sculptured with swords and shears, emblems common to ancient
tombstones in the Western Highlands.




A Tuscan column on the banks of the Leven commemorates
Tobias Smollett, M.D., the historian and novelist. The inscription,
prepared by the joint labours of Professor George Stuart, of Edin-
burgh, John Eamsay, of Ochtertyre, and Dr. Samuel Johnson, is

as follows :

" Siste, viator !

Si lepores ingeniique venam benignam,
Si morum callidissimum pictorem,

Unquam es miratus,

Immorare paululum memorise


Viri virtutibus hisce

Quas in homine et cive

Et laudes et imiteris,

Haud mediocriter ornati :

Qui in literis variis versatus,

Postquam felicitate sibi propria,

Sese posteris commendaverat,

Morte acerba raptus,

Anno eetatis 51.

Eheu ! quam procul a patria !

Prope Liburni portum in Italia,

Jacet sepultus.
Tali tantoque viro patrueli suo,

Cui in decursu lampada,
Se potuis tradidisse decuit,

Hanc Columnam.
Amoris, eheu ! inane monumentum,

In ipsis Levinise ripis,

Quas versiculis sub exitu vitae Ulustratas

Primis infans vagitibus personuit,

Ponendam curavit


Jacobus Smollet de Bonhill

Abi et reminiscere

Hoc quidem honore

Non modo defuncti memorise,

.Verum etiam exemplo, prospectum esse ;

Aliis enim, si modo digni sint

Idem erit virtutis praemium!"

Dr. Smollett was born in 1721, at Dalquhurn, in the parish of
Cardross. He studied at the University of Glasgow, and obtained
licence as a surgeon. Thrown on his own resources by the death
of his grandfather, Sir James Smollett, who, owing to the early
death of his father, attended to his education, he proceeded to
London, in the hope of obtaining professional employment. In
1741 he was appointed surgeon on board a man-of-war, which
joined the expedition to Carthagena. Quitting the naval service,
and entering upon matrimony, he in 1746 returned to London.
His first and most popular novel, " Eoderick Kandom," appeared in
1748; it was followed in 1750 by "Peregrine Pickle." He
attempted medical practice at Bath, but not succeeding, took up
his residence at Chelsea, In 1753 he published " Count Fathom,"
which was followed in 1755 by his translation of "Don Quixote."
His subsequent principal publications were " The Adventures of
Sir Lancelot Greaves," " The Expedition of Humphrey Clinker,"
" Travels through France and Italy," and his " History of England."
For some time he edited the Critical Review. He published
several elegant poems, and " The Eeprisal," a farce, which was
performed in Drury Lane Theatre. Dr. Smollett died on the 21st
October, 1774, at Monte Nuovo, near Leghorn, at the age of fifty-
three. His monument was raised by his cousin, Mr. Smollett, of


In the parish churchyard a handsome monument, in honour of
\Yilliam Scrogie, Bishop of Argyle, is inscribed thus :


"D. Gulielmi Scrogii episcopi Lismorensis meritissimi, memoriae

Stemmate de docto, dedit incunabula et artes,

Doctorum genitrix alma Abredona viro.
Primitiis fruitur felix Eathvena laborum ;

Hie radiosa micant ars pietasque diu.
Hinc mitram meruisse datum ; Lismora triumphis

Praesulis eloquii nobilitata sui.
Omnibus officiis bene functus, inutile tempus

Sprevit et (hac lasso corpore) Isetus obit.
Spiritus, alta petens, comprendit jubila cceli ;

Ossa, sub hoc tumulo (mox animanda) manent,
Exuvias mortalitatis posuit 6 cal. Feb. anno Dom. 1678."

Bishop Scrogie was son of Dr. Alexander Scrogie, minister of
Old Machar, Aberdeenshire. He was admitted minister of Eath-
ven before 1650, and consecrated Bishop of Argyle in 1666.

A mortuary enclosure denotes the family burying-place of Mr.
Eobert Napier, of Shandon.

In the cemetery a monument, erected by working men, celebrates
William Denny, shipbuilder ; it bears these lines :

" Genius and worth sleep in this honoured grave :
Here the quick brain the active fingers lie ;
But his mind's offspring proudly breast the wave
On every sea where Britain's colours fly.


A monumental stone in the parish churchyard is, by a popular
fiction, described as the tomb of St. Patrick, the apostle of Ireland.
It presents the sculptured effigies of a knight in armour, and be-
longs to the fourteenth century.

At the old ruin of Dunglass Castle, near Bowling, an obelisk,
reared by public subscription, commemorates Henry Bell, the first
constructor of steamboats. This ingenious person was born at
Torphichen, Linlithgowshire, on the 7th April, 1767. Originally


apprenticed to a mason, he subsequently became a millwright and
engineer. For some time he was employed in London, under the
celebrated Eennie. In 1800 he submitted to Lord Melville his
plans on steamboat propulsion, but the scheme was rejected by the
Admiralty. In 1811 he had his small steamer, the Comet, con-
structed at Port Glasgow. It was launched in 1812, and, though
only making some six miles an hour, it proved the pioneer of a
system which has revolutionized navigation. Mr. Bell was unre-
warded till a late period of his life, when he received an annuity of
100 from the Clyde Trustees. He died 14th November, 1830,
aged sixty-three. His remains were interred in the churchyard of
Row, and in the church of that parish a monumental statue has
been erected to his memory.


A granite obelisk in the Old Isle churchyard, reared by public
subscription, celebrates David Gray, author of " The Luggie, and
other Poems." This ingenious and short-lived poet was born on
the 29th January, 1838, at Duutiblae, on the banks of the Luggie.
His father, who was a hand-loom weaver, sent him to the
University of Glasgow, with a view to the ministry. He early
wrote verses, and contributed these and prose compositions to the
local journals. In the hope of bettering his circumstances he in
1860 proceeded to London. Through the favour of Mr. Monckton
Milnes he there procured literary employment, but his health broke
down. He died of consumption at his father's house, Merkland,
Kirkintilloch, on the 3rd December, 1861, aged twenty-four. His
poems were published posthumously.

In the parish churchyard a tombstone commemorates a member
of the old family of Gartshore, of that ilk. It is thus inscribed :

" Memoriae sacrum Joannis Gartshore de Gartshore. Obiit hrec
vitae die viginti Decembris, anno Domini MDCCCV.


Tombstones commemorate John Gray, of Condarot, who died in
1741 ; James Gray, of Auchingiech, who died in 1733 ; and John
Bankier, portioner, Kirkintilloch, who died in 1770.


In the parish churchyard are exhibited three ancient stone
coffins, which are unassociated with any history or tradition.

The old chapel at Eossdhu constitutes the family burial-place of
Sir James Colquhoun, Bart., of Luss.

The chapel contains a figure of Saint Kessog, the tutelary saint
of the district. According to tradition this saint was buried in the




In the parish churchyard an ancient aisle constitutes the burial-
place of the noble family of Elphinstone. Several of the Barons
Elphinstone were here interred.

The churchyard also contains the family vault of the Earls of
Dunmore. George, fifth Earl of Dunmore, who died llth November,
1836, was buried here. By his widow, Susan, daughter of Archi-
bald, ninth Duke of Hamilton, a monument was erected to his
memory. It bears these lines :

" Oft to this spot will memory fondly turn,
And love's pure 'flame still unextinguished burn
Within her breast who here doth mourn his loss,
But nails her sorrows to a Saviour's cross.
O precious hope ! by faith to mortals given,
That twining hearts, which have on earth been riven,
May through that same dear Saviour's pleading love
Again unite in realms of bliss above."


A monument commemorates Alexander Bruce, of Airth; it is
thus inscribed :

" M. S. Alexandra Brussio, ex Roberti Brussii Scotoruin regis filio
natu secundo, progenito, baroni Airthensi. Primum in Belgio per
annos XLII. Dein in Anglia pro tribuno regio. Viro cum strenvo
turn pientissimo ; aetatis, anno LVI. vitaque siinvl defvncto,
A.D. XVII. kal. Oct. CIODCXLII. G. Lauderus affinis, M.P.

Brussius hie sitvs est ; pietate an clarior armis,
Incertum est ; certum regibus ortus avis.


Heer lyes a branche of Brusse's noble stem,

Airth's baron, whose high worth did svte that name.

Holland his courage, honovred Spain did feare

The Sweeds in Fvnen bought the trial deare.

At last his prince's service called him home,

To die on Thames his bank, and leave this tombe,

To bear his name unto posteritie,

And make all braue men loue his memorie."

The family of Airth were descended from Sir Eobert Bruce, of
Clackmannan, who married Janet, daughter of Alexander, fifth
Lord Livingstone.

The Rev. John McG-achan, who died minister of the parish in
May, 1843, has celebrated his spouse (a daughter of John Ross, of
Balgersho) in these lines :

" One by one love's links are broken,
One by one our friends depart,
Voices that have kindly spoken,

Heart that throbbed to kindred heart.

" Shed not for her the bitter tear,

Nor give the heart to vain regret ;
'Tis but the casket that lies here,
The gem that filled it sparkles yet."

A tailor is thus commemorated :

" Happie is he who * dies

With a good nane *
Thowgh volwnes be * not
Written of his ' fane."


In a vault of the parish church a tombstone is inscribed as
follows :

" Parenti optimo, Carolo Areskine, Car. Areskine de Alva,
equitis, filio, qui, juventute, doctrina plurimum exculta ; setate


provectior, in jure respondendo dicundoque feliciter versatus ;
senectute serena placidus, suininis in republica muneribus, ad
LXXXIII, usque annum, gnaviter expletis. Vita honorifica satur,
in sede tandem avita, ossa juxta paterna, heic lubeus quiescit.
Carolo quoque, fratri multum desiderate, familisc suae, patrioque, si
fata tulissent, decori eximio ; Londini, in sedicula ccenobii Lincoln-
ensis, sepulto, H.M.P.C. Jacobus Erskine. 1763."

Charles Erskine was third son of Sir Charles Erskine, Bart., of
Alva, and his wife, Christian, daughter of Sir James Dundas, of
Arniston. Born in 1680, he was in his thirtieth year appointed
one of the four regents of the University of Edinburgh. He passed
Advocate in 1711, and was elected M.P. for Dumfriesshire in 1722.
He was Solicitor-General in 1725, and Lord Advocate in 1737.
He was raised to the Bench, with the judicial title of Lord Tin-
wald, in 1744, and appointed Lord Justice-Clerk in 1748. He
died at Edinburgh on the 5th April, 1763. Other members of the
Erskine family are buried in the vault.

In Alva Churchyard an elegant mausoleum constitutes the
family burial-place of Johnstone of Alva.


In 1810 a monument was reared in honour of John Bell, of
Antermony, author of " Travels in Russia."

In the churchyard tombstones commemorate " James Kinkaid,
of that ilk," who died in 1604 ; and "James Kinkaid, of that ilk,"
who died in 1606. The family of Kincaid is represented by the
Hon. C. S. B. H. Kincaid Lennox, of Woodhead and Kincaid.

A martyr for the Covenant is celebrated thus :

"William Buick, who suffered at Glasgow, June 14, 1633, for
his adherence to the word of God and Scotland's covenanted work
of reformation.

Underneath this stone doth lie

Dust sacrificed to tyranny ;


Yea, precious in Immanuel's sight,
Since martyred for His kingly right."

On the tombstone of a miller are these lines :

" Eternity is

A wheel that turns,
A wheel that turned ever,

A wheel that turns,
And will leave turning never."


In the parish churchyard a tombstone celebrates the worth and
ministerial fidelity of the Rev. Duncan Macfarlan, minister of the
parish, who died 30th June, 1791, in the eighty-fourth year of his
age, and forty-ninth of his ministry. His son, Duncan, who suc-
ceeded him in the cure, became Principal of Glasgow College (Vol.
I., 479).

From a tombstone in the churchyard we have the following :

" Here lie two sisters and a Brother,
Who pleasantly liv'd with each other ;
For God anew did them create,
And in their death not separate.
Their dusty part does here remain
Till Christ, their Head, do come again
To call them hence to reunite
Their souls and bodies full complete,
That they His praises ay may sing
To Him as their immortal King,
Who hath redeem'd them by His blood,
And made them kings and priests to God.
O Lord, the sin of their fond Mother
Forgive through Christ, our elder Brother,
Who fondly wished they might not go,
But dwell with her still here below,
Until she pass through Jordan's deep,
There in Christ's arms to fall asleep ;
Her soul to sing forth His praise
Through eternal ages, endless days."



A monumental statue of Arthur, Duke of Wellington, reared by
public subscription, occupies a prominent position in the burgh.

The parish churchyard contains several interesting memorial
stones. A monument, consisting of three flat stones placed hori-
zontally, and kept slightly apart by intervening supports, celebrates
Sir John de Graham, second son of the knight of Dundaff, and the
chief friend of the patriot Wallace, who fell at the battle of Fal-
kirk, 22nd July, 1298. The original monument, a plain slab, was
placed by Wallace himself ; a second slab, with a renewed inscrip-
tion, was afterwards added, while the uppermost stone, raising the
monument to the height of three feet from the surface, was erected
in 1772 by William Graham, of Airth. The uppermost stone con-

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