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The ancient history of the Egyptians, Carthaginians, Assyrians ..., Volume 8 online

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aU the troops in that country. Syriaf being thereby entirely un-
garrisoned, Antiochus Asiaticus,son of Antiuchus Eusebestto whom
it of right appertained, as lawful heir of the house ot Seleucus, took
possession of some part of the country, and reigned there peaceably
during four years.
A. M. 3936. The army J of Tigranes and Mitliridates was

Ant. J. c. 68. at jast formed. . It consisted of *0,000 choeen men,
whom Mithridates had trained well in the Reman discipUne. It
was about Midsummer before it took the field. The two kings
took particular care, in aU the movements they made, to choo&e an
advantageous ground for their camp, and to foitily it well, to pre-
vent Lucullus'e attacking them in it; nor could all the stratagems
he used, engage them to come to a battle. Their design was to
reduce him gradually; to harass hi^ troops en iheir marches, in
order to weaken them; to intercept his convoys, and oblige him to
quit the country for want of provisions. LucuUus not h^w^ able,
by all the arts he could use, to bring them into the open field, em*
ployed a new plan, which succeeded. Tigranes had left at Artaxata,
the capital of Armenia before the foundation of Tigranocerta, his
wives and children ; and there he had depcEitcd ulini st all his trea-
sures. Lucullus marched that way with all his troops, rightly lore-
seeing that Tigranes would not remain quiet, when he saw tlie
danger to which his capital was expofccd. That prince accord-
ingly decamped immediately, followed Lucullus to difeccncert his
design; and, by four great marches, Imvinir got Lefoie hiuK posted
himself behind the river Arsamia,{. which L^uculivis was obliged to
pass in his way to Artaxata, and resolved to dispute the patsage
with him. The Romans passed the river without being prevented
by the presence or efforts of the enemy; a great battle ensued, in
which the Romans again obtained a complete vittory. There were
three kings in the Armenian arniy, of whom Mithridates behaved
the worst; i'(n,not being able to look the legions in the
face, as soon as they charged, he was one ol tie firtt who fied;

• A ppiao. In Syr. y. ! 1?. 1 19 ♦ Ju.<tln. lib. xl. c. 2. t Plul. in LiuuL f,

% Or AntsinU.


m HiBt^itT or

wlttdi threw the whole iinny ifito scieh a coostemation, that it en-
tirely lost all courage ; and this was the principal cause of the kw*
of the batUe.

LucuUus, after this victory,"' determined to continue his march
to Artaxata, which was the certain means to put an end to die
war. But as that city was still several days' Journey from thence,
towards the north, and winter was approaching with its train of
■BOWS and storms, the 6oIdiers,t already fatigued by a sufficiently
rough campaign, refused to follow him into that country, where
the cold was too severe for them. He was obliged to lead them
kilo a wanner climate, by returning the way he came.

He therefore repassed mount Taurus, and entered Mesopotamia,
where he took tlie city Nisibis, a place of considerable strength,
and be put his tiioops into winter-quarters.

It was there that the spirit of mutiny began to show itself openly
in the army of Lucullus. That general's severity, and the insolent
Uberty of the Roman soldiers, and still more tbe malignant prac-
tices of Clodius, had given occasion for this revolt. Cledius, so
well known by the invectives of Cicero, his enemy, is hardly bet-
ter treated by historians. They represent him as a man abandoned
to all kind of vices, and infamous for his debaucheries, which he
carried to such excess as to commit incest with his own sister, the
wife of Lucullus ; to these he added unbounded audacity, and un-
common cunning In the contrivance of seditions ; in a word, he
was one of those dangerous persons, born to disturb and ruiu
every thing by the unhappy union in himself of the most wicked
incUnations, with the talents necessary for putting them in execu-
tion. He gave a proof of this upon the occasion of which we are
now speaking. Discontented with Lucullus, he secretly spread re-
ports against him, welJ calculated to render him odious. He af-
fected to lament extremely the fatigues of the soldiers, and to eiiter
into their interests. He told them every day, that they were very
unfortunate, in bein^ obhged to serve so long under a severe and
avaricious general, m a remote climate, without lands or rewards,
whilst their fellow*Boldiers, whose conquests were very modcrdte Id
comparison with theirs, had enriched themselves under Pom|-ey.
Discourses of this kind, attended with obliging and afi'able behaviour,
which he knew how to assume occasionally without the appearance
of affectation, made such an impression upon the soldiers, that it
wae no longer in the power of Lucullus to govern them.

Mithridates, in the mean time, had re-entered Pontus with 4000
of his own troops, and 4000 given him by Tigranes. Several in-
habitants of the country joined hun again, J as well out of hatred

* Dion. Cas. L xxxvii. p. 3—7.

t Noster cxereitus, etsi iirbem ex Tigranis regno ceperai, et prirliist usns eratiNruii-
ofe, tainen nimi& longinquitate locoruiu, ac desiderio euoriuii cunirnovebatur. C/c, »r»
Ug. Man. n. 23. f

1 MithridateB et suam manum jam confinnsirat, et eorum qui se ex ejiu rcgno col
l^enntt ei inafids sdv«ititiii mi|lt4»riuD regum et omioDuin co|^ Juvabacur Boo


to the Romans, who had treated them with great rigour, as through
the remains of affection^for their king, reduced to the mournful con-
<lition in which they saw him, from t^e most splendid fortune and
exalted greatness. For the misfortunes of princes naturally excite
compassion, and there is generally a profound respect engraven in
the hearts of the people for the name and person of kings. Mithri-
dates, encouraged and strengthened by these new aids, and the
troops which several neighbouring states ^nd princes sent him, re-
sumed courage, and saw himself, more than ever, in a condition to
make bead against the Romans. So that not contented with being
re-established in his dominions,* which a moment before he did not
so much as hope ever to see again, he had the boldness to attack
the Roman troops^ so often victorious; beat a body of them, cool-
manded by Fabius ; and, after having put them to the rout, pressed
Triarius and Sornatius, two other of LucuJlus's lieutenants in that
country, with great vigour.
A. M. 39:17. Lucullus at length engeiged his soldiers to quit

Ant. J. c. 67. tiieir winter-quarters, and to go to their aid. But

they arrived too late. Triarius had imprudently ventured a battle,
in which Mithridates had defeated him, and killed 7000 of his men;
amongst whom were reckoned 150 centurions, and twenty-lour tri-
bunes,! which made this one of the greatest losses the Romans
had sustained for a great while. The army would have been en-
tirely defeated, but lor a wound Mithridates had received, which
exceedingly alarmed his troops, and gave the enemy time to escape.
liUcuUus, upon his arrival, found the dead bodies upon the ^eld of
battle, and did not give orders for their interment ; whicli still more
exasperated- his soldiers against him. The spirit of revolt rose so
high, that, without any regard for hi 3 character as general, they
treated hiav no longer but with insolence and contempt ; and though
he went from tent to tent, and almost from man to man, to conjure
them to march against Mithridates and Tigranes, he could never
prevail upon them to quit the place where they were. They an-
swered him brutally, that as he had no thoughts but of enriclii.ig
himself alone out of the spoils of the enemy, he might march alone,
and fight them, if he tjiought fit.

jain ferd sic fieri solcrc accepimus ; ut regum afflicts; fortune facilu intiltoruin u(n>fl
aitictant ad iiiisericordiam, maxtineque eoruiii qui aut rcges sunt, aut viviiiit in re^uu:
qudd regale lis nonieii niaguum et sanctum esse videaiur. Cic. pro leg. Manil. ii. 24.

* Itaque taittum vidua eiiicere potuit, quanuun incoluinia nunquaiu est ausus opiare.
Nauti cam se in regnum recepisset suuiii, non fuit e<> contentus, quod ei propter speui
aceideral, ut eam^ postea quam pulsus erat, terram unquam attliig«ret : scd in excrci-
Uim vestrum cJaruin atque viciorem impetum fecit. Gte. jtto leg. Manil. n. 25.

t Glute calamHas tanta fuit, ut earn ad aures L. LucuLi, non ex prulio nuntius, sed
^ ) ruiuor affierrct. Cie. pro leg. ManiL n. 25.

I 2


wiToinr OF


ifithrldatCB, taking advantage of the discord which had arisen in the Roman anny.
recovers all his dominlona. Pompey ie choeen to succeed Lucufltis. He overthrawt
Mitbridatea in aeveral baolea. The .latter flies in vaiu tuTigranus, bia eoo-in-law,
for refuge, who is engaged in a war with his own sou. P<impey marclies into Ar
menia against Tigranes, who comes to him and surrenders liimsHf Weary of pur-
tviiig Mithridates to no purpose, be returns into Byria, makes hunself master of tJuil
kingdom, and puts an end to tlio empire of tiie Selucidn. He marches bock to PcmttA
Phaniaces makes the army revolt against his father Mithridates, who kiils himselt
That prince's character. Poinpey*s expeditions into Arabia and Judea, where lie

% takes Jerufial«in. After Inving reduced all tlie cities of Pcnlus, he returcs to E«i le.
and receives the iiouour of a triumph.

Manius Acilius Glabrio and C. Piso had been elected consuls at
Rome. The first had Bithynia and Pontus for his province, where
LucuUus commanded. The senate, at tlie same time, disbanded
Fimbria's legions, which were a part of his army. All this news
augmented the disobedience and insolence of the troops towards

It is true,* his rough, austere, and frequently haughty disposition,
gave some room for such usage. He cannot be denied the glory
of having been one of the greatest captains of his ago; and of having
iiad almost all the qualities that form a complete general. But one
was wanting which diminished the merit of all the rest; I mean the
art of gaining the affections, and making himself beloved by the
soldiers. He was difficult of access; rough in commanding; carried
exactitude, in point of duty, to an excess that made it odious; was
inexorable in pnnishing offences ; and did not know how to conciliate
good will by praises and rewards opportunely bestowed, or by an
air of kindness and affability, and insinuating manners, still moie
efficacious than either gifts or praises. And what proves that the
sedition of the troops was in a great measure his own fault, was «
their being very docile and obedient under Pompey.

In consequence of the letters which LucuUus had written to the
senate, in which he acquainted them, that Mithridates was entirely
defeated, and utterly incapable of retrieving himself, commissioners
had been nominated to regulate the affairs oftPontus, as of a king
dom totally reduced. They were much surprised to find, upon their .
arrival, that, far from being master of Pontus, he was not so much
us master of his army, and that his own soldiers treated him with
the utmost contempt.

The arrival of the consul Acilius Glabrio still added to their li-
ccntiousness. He informed them,t thatliUcuUus had been accuser!
at Rome of protracting the war for the saka of continuhig his com-

♦blon. Cafls 1. XXXV. p. 7.

* In ^Mo illo mato gravissimftque belii o6en«one, L. Luculius qui tamen aliquft ei
parte its incommodis mederi fortasse potuiasct, vestro jussu coactus, qu5d imperii diu
turaitatl modum stataendum, yeteri exempk), putavistis, partem militam, qui jam aii
psBdils confectto eram, dimisit, partem QJabiiqni uadidit. Or. pro leg. Manil. n. 96.


vW)5fTUSr M

Aland; thftt the eeoate had dinbanded part of his troofie, and fijHmdi^
them payinj^ bim any farther obedience. So that he soon fbondf
himself almost entirely abandoned by the soldiers. Mithridates.
taking advantage of this disorder, had time to recover his whole
kingdom, and to make great ravages in Cappadocia.

A. M. 3938. Whilst the affairs of the army were in this con-

Am. J. c. 66. dition, great noise was made at Rome against Lucul-
his. Pompey had just put an end to the war with the pirates, for
which an extraordinary power bad been granted to him.* Upon -
this occasion one of the tribunes ol* the people, named Manilius, pro-
posed a decree to this e^ct: " That Pompey, taking upon him the'
command of all the troops and provinces which were under Lucui«
lus, and adding to them Bithynia, wliere Acilius commaiided, should
be charged with the conduct of the war against the kinofs Mithri*
dates and Tigranes, retaining under him all the naval forces, 'iind
continuing to command at sea with the same conditions and prero-
gatives as bad been granted him in the war against the pirates; that
is to say, that he should have absolute power on all the coasts of
the Mediterranean, to thirty leagues' distance from the sea." This
was, in effect, subjecting the whole Roman empire to one man. For
all the provinces which iiad not been granted him by the first decree,
Pfarygia, Lycaonia, Galatia, Cappadocia, Ciiicia, the higher Col-
chis, and Armenia, were conferred upon him by this second, which
included also all the armies and forces, with which Lucullus had
defeated the two kings Mithridatcs and Tigranes.

Consideration for Lucullus, who was deprived of the glory of his
great exploits, and in the place of whom a general was appointed
to succeed ,more to tlie honours of his triumph than the command
of his armies, was not, however, what gave the nobility and senate
most concern: they were well convinced that great wrong was done
him, and that his services were not treated with the gratitude they
deserved: but what gave them most pain, and what they could not
support, was that high degree of power to which Pompey was raised,
which they considered as a tyranny already formed. For this rea-
son they exhorted each other in private, and mutually encouraged
one another to oppose t^la decree, and not abandon their expiring

Caesar and Cicero, who v/ere very powerful at Rome, supported
ManiUus, or ratlier Pompey, with all their credit. ' It was upon this,
occasion that the latter pronounced that fine oration berorc the
people, entitled, « For the law of Manilius." After having demon-
strated, in the first two parts of his discourse, the necessity anci
importance of the war in question, he proves, in the third, that
Pompey is the only person capable of terminating it successful.y.
For this purpose, he enumerates at length the Qualities necessaxy
io form a general of an army, and shows that Pompey possesses

«PltttinPGiiip.ii.ttM. Applan- p ^as. Dion. Cm. t. juuev. ^ 9|.



tilem all in a 0a|8«Bi6 degree. He infeistB principally upoa hiB pro*
bity^ kumaJDity, innocence of mannei's, integrity, disinterestec'Rei^
love of the public good: « Virtues, by so much the more necessary,**
says he, *' as the Roman name* is become infamous and iiateful
amongst forei^ naticms, and our allies, in consequence of tl.e ile-
teucli^, avarice, and unheard-of oppressions of the generals and
magistrates we send amongst them. Instead of wliich,! the
dent, moderate, and irreproachable conduct of Pompey will make
him be regarded, not as sent from Rom^, hut descended from hea-
ven, for the happiness of the nations. People begin to believe, that
1^ which is related of the noble disinterestedness of those ancient
Romans is real and true ; and that it was not witl^put reason, that,
under such magistrates, nations chose rather to obey the Roman
people than to command others."

Pompey was at that time the idol of the people; wherefore the
fear of dttpleasing the multitude kept those grave senators silent,
who had at first appeared so well inclined, and so full of courage.
The decree was authorized by the suffrages of all tlie tribes; and
Fdmpey, though absent, declared absolute master of almost all SyD*
had usurped by arms, and by making a cruel war upon his country.

We must not imagine, says a very judicious historian, J that eitiier
Ctesar or Cicero, who took so much pains to have this law passed,
acted from views of the public good. Cesar, full of ambition acd
great projects, endeavoured to make iiis court to the people, whose
authority he knew was at that tim^ much greater than the senate's:
he thereby opened himself a way to the same power, and familiar-
ized ihe Romans to extraordinary and uillimited commissions: \\
heaping upon the head of Pompey so many favours and glaring dis-
tinctions, Jie flattered himself that he should at length render hira
odious to the people^ who would soon take offence at him. {?o th&t
in lifting him up, he had no other design than to prepare a precipice
for him. Cicero ako had in view only his own greatness. His weak
side was a desire of bearing sway in the commonwealth ; not indeetl
by guilt and violence, but by the method of persuasion. Besides hia
wish to support .himself by the influence of Pompey, he was very
well pleased with showing the nobility and people, who formed t^^o
parties, and, in a manner, two republics in the state, that he wfts
capable of making the balance incline to tlie side he espoused. It
was always his policy to conciliate equally both parties, in declaring
sometunes for the one, and sometimes for the other.

* Difficile est dictu, auirites, quanlo in odio sifiius apt<d cieterAs nationes, prer»«
<j>rum, quoB ad eas hoc anno cum impei io misimus, injurias ac libidines, Cic, pro Ug,

t Itaque manes quidem nunc in bis loclfs Cn. Pompciuni, siciii aiiquem non ex hSc
nrbe misstim, sed de cobIo delaipsara intueuLur. Nunc denique incipiuni crGdere, dtu-ne
nomtnes RomanoB Mc quondam abstinentia, quod jam natioiiibus oeteris Incredibit sc
SIS wfS?/** Pro**>'«»n> videbatur. Nunc impeiii nostri splendor iHis geiitibua lucar
Kh^hSJSlT2!i"°" ""f ^J?"*^ DiiUores BUOB rum, cum hdc temperanlift magisuatu*

lokS-^jSTSSEu »°ar' **" hnperare altls malnlweViftid. n. 41

,y Google


A. At. 3Ba& Pomyey,* who had Ifttelv teruiiiiAted the wta wtji

Ant. J- c. da the pirates, was still in Cilicia, when he reoeivei
•etters to inform him of all the people had decreed in his favour.
When his friends, who were present, congratulated him, and ex-
pressed their joy, it ia said, that he knit his brows, struck his thigh,
and cried out, as if oppressed by, and sorry ibr, that new command:
^^ Gods! what endless labours am I devoted to? Should I not have
been more happy as a man unknown and inglorious? Shall I never
cease to make war, nor ever |iave my arms off my back? Shall i
never escape the envy that persecutes me, nor live at peace in the
country with my wafe-and children?"

This is usually enough the language of the ambitious, even t^
those who are most inordinately actuated by that passion. But,
however succcs^ul they may be in imposing u^n themselves, it
seldom happens that they deceive others ; and the piiblic is far irom
mistaking thfem. The friends of Pompey, and even those who
were most intimate with him, could not endure his diesimulatioii
at this time. For there was not one of them who did ni&t know,
that ills natural ambition and passion for command, still more
iiiflamed by his quarrel with Lucullus,made him feel a more refined
and sensible satisfaction in the new charge conferred upon him ;
and hi^s actions soon took off the mask, and discovered his red

The first step wliich he took upon arriving in the provinces of,
bis government, was, to forbid any obedience whatsoever to the
ordoi« of Lucullus. In his march he altered every thmg which
iiis predecessor had decreed. He exonerated some ffcm the penal
ties Lucullus had laid upon them ; deprived others of the rewards
lie had given tliem: in short, his sole view in every thing was to
let the partisans of Lucullus see that they adhered to a man who
had neither authority nor power. Strabo's uncle ,t by the mother's
side, highly discontented with Mithridates for having put to death
several of his relations, to avenge himself for that cruehy, had ^one
over to Lucullus, and had given up fifteen places in Cappadocia to
him, Lucullus loaded bun with honours, and promised to reward him
as such considerable services deserved. Pompey,far from having any
regard for sucii just and reasonable engagements, which his prede-
cessor had entered into solely from a view to the public good, af-
fected a universal opposition to them, and looked upon all those as
his enemies who had contracted any friendship with Lucullus.

It is not uncommon for a successor to endeavour to lessen the
value of his predecessor's actions, in order to arrogate all the honour
lo himself; Out certainly none ever carried that conduct to such
monstrous excess as Pompey did at tliis time. His great quali-
ties and innumerable conquests are exceedingly extolled ; but so
bafle and odious a jealousy ought to sully, or rather totally ecli|)8»

• Plut. In Pomp. £}4-HS3fi. Dion. Cass. I. xxxrl p. 38-85. App. p. 838
*«irali.LxU. p. 587,58a


t* HttToar OF *

the glory (^ tkem. Such wajs the manner iu^which Pumpey th^^igfal
fit to begin.

Lucirlius mtide bitter complaints of t^iis oondtiet. Tiieir com-
mon fViends, in order to a reconciliatioir, concerted an interview be-
tween them. It passed at first with all possible f>oliteness, aiid witb
leciprocal marks of esteem and amity. But these were only com-
pliments, and a language that extended ao farther than the lips,
which costs the great nothing. The heart ^ soon explained itscE
The conversation growing warm by degrees, they pf eeeeded to
invectives ; Pompey reproaching LucuUtis with his avarice, and Ln-
cullos Pompey with his ambition, in which they spoke the truth of
each other. They parted more incensed, and greater enemies than

Lucullus set out for Rome, whither he carried a great quan-
tity of books, which he had collected in his conquests. Of these
he formed a library, which was open to all the learned and curious,
whom it drew about him in great numbofs. They were received
at his house with all possible politeness and ge^ierosity. The bonoiff
of a triumph was granted to Lucullus, but not without being long

It was he who first brought cherries to Rome,* which, till then,
had been unknawn in Europe. They were thus called from Ce-
rasus, a city in Oappadocia.

Pompey began by engaging Pliraates, king of the Parthians, in
the Roman interest. He has been spoken of already, and is the
same who was surnamed the god. He concluded an offensive and
defensive alliance with hiin. He offered peace also to Mithri-
dates; but that prince, believing himself sure of the amity and aid
of Phraates, would not so much as hear it mentioned. When he
was informed that Pompey had anticipated him, he sent to treat
with him. But Pompey having demanded, by way of proliminary,
that he should lay down his arms, aud ^ive up all deserters, those
proposals were very near occasioning^^ u mutiny in Mithriiates's
army. As there were abundance of deserters in it, they coiild not
suffer any thing to be said upon delivering them up to Pompey ; nor
would the rest of the array consent to see themselves weakened
by the loss of their comrades. To appease them, Mithridates was
obliged to tell them that he bad sent his ambassadors only to in-
spect the condition. of the Roman array; and to swear that be
would not make peace with the Romans, either en those or on any
other conditions.

Pompey, having distributed his fleet in different stations, to guard
the whole sea between Phoenicia and the Bosphorus, marched by
land against Mithridates, who had still 30,000 foot, and 2000 or
3000 horse ; but did not. dare, however, to come to a battle. That
ptiace wasencaiuped upon a mountain^ in a very stroi^poflitioa» when

• Win. I vv. c aa

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he co^d not be forced ; bat he abandoned it on Pompey's approach,
for want of water. Poinpey Immediately took possession- of it ;
and coiijectunngr, from tlie nature of the plants and other signs,
that there mast be an abundance of springs within it, he ordered
wells to be dug, and in an instant the camp had water in abundance.
Fompey could not sufficiently wonder how Mithridates, for want of
attention and curiosity, had been so long ignorant of so important
and necessary a resource.

Soon after he fdlowed him, encamped near him, and shut him up
within strong ramparts, which he carried quite round his camp.
They were almost eight leagues in circumference,* and were forti-

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