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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES

FROM THE LIBRARY OF
JIM TULLY

GIFT OF
MRS. JIM TULLY



THE



ANCIENT HISTORY

OF THE

EGYPTIANS, CARTHAGINIANS,

ASSYRIANS, BABYLONIANS, MEDES AND PERSIANS,
MACEDONIANS AND GRECIANS.



Late Principal of the University of Paris, Professor of Eloquence tn ffce Royal

College, and Member of the Royal Academy of Inscriptions

and Belles Lettres.



TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH.



IN" FO UR VOL UMES.
VOLUME II.



FROM THE LATEST LONDON EDITION,
Carefully Revised and Corrected.



NEW YORK:

JOHN WTJRTELE LOVELL

24 BOND STREET.



'V 7






CONTENTS.

BOOK VI.

THK HISTORY OF THE PERSIANS AND GRECIANS.

PAGE.

CHAP. I. The History of Darius, connected with that of the Greeks, 13
Sect I. Daritis's Marriage, &c. - - , v ' ^. - - . - 13
II. Revolt and Reduction of Babylon, - 24



HI. D irius prepares for an Expedition against the Scythians. A

Digression upon the Manners and Customs of that Nation, 27

A Digression concerning the Scythians, 28

Sect. IV. D.wius's Expedition against the Scythians, ... 34

V. Darius's Conquest of India, .!.' 44

VI. The Revolt of the loniaus, 45

VII. The Expedition of Darius' s Army against Greece, - - 53

1. The State of Athens. The characters of Miltiades, Themistocles

and Aristides, - - - - - - 54

2. D.irius sends Heralds into Greece, in order to sound the People, and

to require them to submit, - - 60

3 The Persians Defeated at Marathon by Miltiades, 62

Sect. VIII. D.irius resolves to make War in person against Egypt

and against Greece, &c.- - - - - 71

Chap. II. The History of Xerxes, connected with that of the Greeks, 75

Sect. I. Xerxes reduces Egypt, &c. 75

II. Xerxes begins his March, and passes from Asia into Europe,

by crossing the Strait of the Hellespont upon a Bridge of

Boats, 12

Sect. III. The Number of Xerxes's Forces, &c., &c. - - - - 89

IV. The Lacediemouians and Athenians send to their Allies in

vain to require succors from them. The Command of the

Fleet given to the Laceda?monians, 93

Sect. V. The B ittle of Thermopylae. The Death of Leouidas, - 98

VI. Nnval Brittle near Arteniisinm, - 104

-VII. The Athenians abandon their City, which is taken and

burnt by Xerxes, .... ..KOT^-; ::T - - iOf>

Sect. VIII. The Battle of Salamin, &c. 110

!X. The Battle of Platseje, 119

X. The Battle near Mvcale. The defeat of the Persians, 132

XI. The Barbarous and Inhuman Revenge of Amestris, the Wife

of Xerxes, ... 134

Sect. XII. The Athenians rebuild the Walls of their City, notwith-
standing the opposition of the Lacedaemonians, - - 137
Sect. XIII. The black design of Themistocles rejected unanimously by

the People of Athens. 140

Sect. XIV. The Laced remonians lose the Chief Command through the

Pride and Arrogance of Pausanias. 143

Sect XV. The Secret Conspiracy of Pausanias with the Persians. His

Death, 145

Sect. XVI. Themistocles flies for Shelter to King Admetns, - - 147

XVII. Disinterested Administration of the Public Treasure by

Aristides. His Death and Eulogiiini. - - - 150
Sect. XVIII. Xerxes killed by Artabanus. His Character, - - 186

799929



8 CONTENTS.

BOOK VII.

THE HISTORY OF THE PERSIANS AND GRECIANS.

PAGE.

CHAP. I. The History of the Persians and Grecians from the Begin-
ning- oi' tlie Reign of Artaxerxes to the Peloponuesiau War, 159
Sect I. Artaxerxes Ruins the Faction of Artabaues, &c. - - 159

i[. Themistocles Flies to Artaxerxes, - .... jgj_

ill. Ciinon begins to make a Figure at Athens, - 165

IV. The Egyptians, supported by the Athenians, rise against

Persia, - - - . -.- . . - .'. 174
Sect. V. Inarus is Delivered up to the King's Mother. The Affliction

and Revolt of Megabyzus, 176

Sect. VI. Artaxerxes sends Esdras and afterwards Nehemiah to Jeru-
salem, - - - .*,!. MJJ.!! ...... 178

Sect VII. Character of Pericles, &c. 181

VIII. An Earthquake in Sparta, &c. ''.-'. ' : .... 157

IX. Cimon is Recalled, &c. His Death, 190

-X. Thucydides is Opposed to Pericles, &c. .... 193



XI. Pericles Changes his Conduct with Regard to the People, - 197

XII. Jealousy and Contests arise between the Athenians and

Lacedaemonians, 201

Sect XIII. New Subjects of Contention between the two Nations, - 204

XIV. Troubles excited against Pericles, &c. - - - - 211

Chap. II. Transactions of the Greeks in Sicily and Italy, - - - 217
Sect. I. The Carthaginians defeated in Sicily. Of Gelon and his two

Brothers, 217

Sect II. Famous Persons and Cities in Grsecia Major, &c. ' ; ' ; 229

Chap. III. The War of Peloponnesus, 238

Sect. I. The Siege of Platfese by the Thebans, &c., &c. The First

yenr of the War, - 238

Sect. II. The Plague makes dreadful havoc in Attica, &c. Second

and Third years of the War, - - - 246
Sect. III. The Lacedaemonians besiege Platseae. Fourth and Fifth

years of the Wur, - - - 255

Sect IV. The Athenians possess themselves of Pylus, &c. Sixth and

seventh years oi the War, - - - - - - - 270

BOOK VIII.

THE HISTORY OF THE PERSIANS AND GRECIANS,

Continued during the Reigns of

XERXES II. OF SOGDIANITS, AND OF DARIfS NOTHUS.

CHAP. I. Contains thirteen years of the Peloponnesian War, - - 277
Sect. I. The very short Reigns of Xerxes II. and Sogdianns, &c. - 277
II. The Athenians make themselves masters of the Island of

Cythera, &c. Eighth year of the War, .... 282
Sect. III. A twelvemonth's truce is agreed upon between the two

states, &c., &c. Ninth, Tenth, and Eleventh years of the

War, 285

Sect. IV. Character of Alcibiades. Banishment of Hyperbolus, &c.

Twelfth year of the War, .-.:..- 290
V. Alcibiades engages the Athenians in the War of Sicily.

Sixteenth and Seventeenth years of the War, - - 298

VI. Account of the several people who inhabited Sicily, - - 300

VII. The People of Egesta implore Aid of the Athenians, &c. 303



CONTENTS. 9

PAGE.

Sect VIII. The Athenians prepare to set Sail, &c., &c. ... 307

IX. Syracuse is alarmed. The Athenian fleet arrives in Sicily, 310

X. Alcibiades recalled, &c. &c. - . - -. 3^3

XL Description of Syracuse, 316

XII. Nicia*, alter some Engagements, besieges Syracuse, &c.

Eighteenth year of the War, 319

Sect XIII. The Syracusaus resolve to capitulate, but the arrival of
Gylippus changes the face of Affairs, &c. Nineteenth year

of the War, ' 327

Sect. XIV. The Athenians again hazard a Sea-fight, and are defeated.

Nicias and Demosthenes sentenced to Die, and Executed, 340
Chap. II. Contains the last Eight years of the Peloponnesian War, - 353
Sect. I. Consequences of the Defeat of the Athenians in Sicily, &c. 353

II. Alcibiades returns to Athens. Tissaphernes concludes a new

Treaty with the Lacedaemonians, 357

Sect. III. Alteration in the Government of Athens. Alcibiades re-
called, and afterwards appointed Generalissimo, - - 360
Sect. IV. The Lacedaemonians appoint Lysander Admiral. He beats
the Athenian fleet near Ephesus. Lysander is succeeded
in the command by Callicratidas, 370

Sect. V. Callicratidas is defeated by the Athenians. Sentence of
death passed on some Athenian Generals. Socrates alone
opposes this sentence, -.-.... 377
Sect. VI. Lysander commands the Lacedaemonian fleet His cele-
brated victory over the Athenians, - - - 334
Sect VII. Lysander besieges Athens. Form of Government changed.

Death of Darius Noth us, - 389

BOOK IX.

THE HISTORY OF THE PERSIANS AND GRECIANS,

Continued during the

FIRST FIFTEEN YEARS OF THE REIGN OF ARTAXERXES MNEMON.

CHAP. I Domestic troubles of the Court of Persia - 395

Sect. I. Coronation of Artaxerxes Mneinon. Cyrus attempts to as-
sassinate his brother. Revenge of Statira. Death and

character of Alcibiades, 395

Sect. II. The Thirty exercise horrid cruelties at Athens ; they put
Theramenes to Death. Thrasybulus attacks the Tyrants,
is master of Athens, and restores its Liberties, - 402

Sect III. Lysander abuses his Power in an extraordinary manner.

He is recalled to Sparta, : - 408

Chap. II. Young Cyrus, with the aid of the Grecian troops, endeav-
ors to dethrone his brother Artaxerxes. He is killed.
Famous retreat of Ten Thousand, ..... 411
Sect. I. Cyrus raises troops against his brother Artaxerxes, - - 412

: II. The Battle of Cunaxa. Cyrus is killed, - 418

HI. Eulogy of Cyrus, - 424

IV. The King is for Compelling the Greeks to Deliver up their

Arms, 427

Sect. V. Retreat of the Ten Thousand Greeks from the Province of

Babylon to Trebisond, - - 434

Sect VI. The Greeks arrive upon the Sea-coast, opposite to Byzan-
tium. Xenophon joins Thimbron, ... - 440
Sect. VII. Consequences of the Death of Cyrus. Cruelty of Pary-

satis. Statira Poisoned, ....... 446



10 CONTENTS.

PAGE.

CHAP. III. The famous Peace of Antalcides prescribed to the Greeks

by Artaxerxes Muemoii, - 449

Sect. I. Grecian Cities of Ionia implore aid of Lacedsemon. Agesilaus

elected king. His character, 450

Sect. II. Agesilaus goes to Asia. Lysander falls out with him, - - 458

HI. Expedition of Agesilaus to Asia, 464

IV. Agesilaus recalled by the Ephori to defend his Country, - 470

V. Agesilaus returns victorious to Sparta. Peace shameful to

the Greeks concluded, 479

Sect. VI. War of Artaxerxes against Evagoras, 486

Eulogy and Character of Evagoras, - .-. - 491

Trial of Tiribasus, 494

Sect. VII. The Expedition of Artaxerxes against the Cadusians. His-
tory of Detames the Carian, 495

CHAP. IV. History of Socrates abridged, 503

Sect. I. Birth and Education of Socrates, 504

II. Of the Daemon, or familiar Spirit of Socrates, - - - - 509

III. Socrates declared the Wisest of Mankind by the Oracle, - 511

IV. Socrates devotes himself entirely to the Instruction of the

Youth of Athens, - - 513
Sect. V. Socrates applies himself to discredit the Sophists in the opin-
ion of the young Athenians, 520

Sect. VI. Socrates is accused of holding bad Opinions in regard to

the gods. He is condemned to die, - - - - 522
Sect. VII. Socrates refuses to escape out of Prison. He drinks the

Poison, 534

Sect. VIII. Reflections upon Socrates, and the Sentence passed upon

him by the Athenians, - - - 545



BOOK X.

THE HISTORY OF THE PERSIANS AND GRECIAN3,

Containing the

MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF THE GREEKS.

CHAP. I. Of Political Government, - 551

ARTICLE I.

Of the Government of Sparta, - .... :* - * . . 552

Sect. I. Idea of the Spartan Government, ...... 553

II. Love of Poverty instituted at Sparta, ..... 555

III. Laws established by Minos in Crete, ..... 660

ARTICLE II.

Of the Government of Athens, 567

Set-t. I. Foundation of the Government of Athens, .... 568
II. Of the Inhabitants of Athens, 570

I. Of the Citizens, 571

II. Of the Strangers, .......... 572

HI. Of the Servants, 572

Sect. HI. Of the Council, or Senate of Five Hundred, - - - - 574

IV. Of the Areopagus, 575

V. Of the Magistrates, 577



CONTENTS. 11

PAGE.

Sect VI. Of the Assemblies of the People, 577

VII. Of Trials, 580

VIII. Of the Amphictyons, 582

IX. Of the Revenues of Athens, 584

-X. Of the Education of the Youth, - -" - - - - 585



I. Dancing, Music, 586

II. Of the other Exercises of the Body, 588

III. Of the Exercises of the Mind, 589

CHAP. II. Of War, - 591

Sect. I. People of Greece in all times very warlike, - - - 591
-~-< -II. Origin and Cause of the Valor and Military Virtue of the

Lacedaemonians and Athenians, 592

Sect III. Of the different kinds of Troops which composed the Armies

of the Lacedaemonians and Athenians, ... 595

Sect. IV. Of Maritime Affairs, Fleets, and Naval Forces, - - - 598

V. Peculiar Character of the Athenians, 603

VI. Common Character of the Lacedaemonians and Athenians, 608

BOOK XI.

'THE HISTOBIES OF DIONYSIUS AND HIS SON, TYRANTS OF SYRACUSE.

CHAP. I. The History of Dion ysius the Elder, 611

Sect I. Means made use of by Diouysius the Elder to possess himself

of the Tyranny, 613

Sect. II. Commotions in Sicily and at Syracuse against Dionysius.

He finds Means to dispel them, - - - - 620
Sect. HI. Dionysius declares War against the Carthaginians. Various

success of it, ... 630

Sect. IV. Violent Passion of Dioii3 T sius for Poetry. His Death and

bad qualities, - - - - - -610

CHAP. II. The History of Dionysius the Younger, .... (352

Sect. I. Dionysius the Younger succeeds his Father. He invites Plato

to his Court, 652

Sect. II. Banishment of Dion, 661

HI. Dion sets out to deliver Syracuse. His Death, ... 666

IV. Character of Dion, 687

V. Dionysius the Younger re-ascends the Throne, ... 689

VI. Timoleon restores Liberty to Syracuse, and institutes wise

Laws. His Death. -* 697

BOOK XII.

THE HISTORY OF THE PERSIANS AND GRECIANS.

CHAP. I. The History of Epaminondas and Pelopidas, two illustrious

Theban Generals, 705

Sect. I. State of Greece from the Treaty of Antalcides, - - - 705
II. Sparta's prosperity. Character of two illustrious Thebans,

Epaminondas and Pelopidas, ...... 709

Sect. III. Sphodrias forms a design against the Piraeus, - 718
IV. New Troubles in Greece. The Lacedaemonians declare

War against Thebes, 723

Sect. V. The two Theban Generals, at their return, are accused and

absolved. Sparta implores aid of Athens, - - - 735
Sect. VI. Pelopidas marches against Alexander, Tyrant of Pherae; is

killed in Battle. Tragical end of Alexander, - - - 740



12 CONTENTS.

PAGE.

Sect. VII Epaminondas chosen General of the Thebans. His Death

and Character; 750

Sect. VIII. Death of Evagoras King of Salamin. Admirable Charac-
ter of that Prince, 761

Sect. IX. Artax.erxes Muemou undertakes the reduction of Egypt. - 763

Sect. X. The Lacedaemonians send Agesilaus to the aid of^Tachos.

His death, - - - .g ;: *. 766

Sect. XL Trouble of the Court of Artaxerxes concerning his successor.

Death of that Prince, 771

Sect . XII. Causes of the frequent Insurrections and Revolts in the

Persian Empire, ......... 773



BOOK SIXTH.



THE

HISTORY

OF THE

PERSIANS AND GRECIANS.



PLAN.

This Book contains the History of the Persians and Grecians, in the reigns of
Darius I. and Xerxes 1 . during the space of forty-eight years, from the year of
the world 3483, to the year 3531.



CHAPTER I-

HISTORY OF DARIUS, CONNECTED WITH THAT OF THE
GREEKS.

BEFORE Darius came to the throne he was called Ochus.
At his accession he took the name of Darius, which, ac-
cording to Herodotus, in the Persian language, signifies an
avenger, or a man that defeats the schemes of another;
probably because he had punished and put an end to the in-
solence of the Magian impostor. He reigned thirty years.*

SECTION i. DARIUS'S MARRIAGES. THE IMPOSITION OF TRIB-
UTES. THE INSOLENCE AND PUNISHMENT OF INTAPHER-
NES. THE DEATH OF ORETES. THE STORY OF DEMOCEDES,
A PHYSICIAN. THE JEWS PERMITTED TO CARRY OX THE
BUILDING OF THEIR TEMPLE. THE GENEROSITY OF
SYLOSON REWARDED.

Before Darius was elected king, he had marre^ the
daughter of Gobryas, whose name is not known. Artabar-
zanes, his eldest son by her, afterwards disputed the empire
with Xerxes.

When Darius was seated on the throne, the better to
secure himself therein, he married two of Cyrus's daughters,
* Herod; 1. vi. c. 38. Val. Max. 1. ix. c. 2.



14 AXCIEXT HISTORY.

Atossa and Aristona. The former had been wife to Cara-
byses, her own brother, and afterwards to Smerdis the Ma-
gian, during the time he possessed the throne. Aristona
was still a virgin, when Darius married her ; and, of all his
wives, was the person he most loved. He likewise married
Parmys, daughter of the true Smerdis, the brother of Cam-
byses ; as also Phedyma, daughter of Otanes, by whose
management the imposture of the Magian was discovered.
By these wives he had a great number of children of both
sexes.*

We have already seen that the seven conspirators, who
put the Magian to death, had agreed among themselves, that
he whose horse, on a day appointed, first neighed at the
rising of the sun, should be declared king ; and that Darius's
horse, by an artifice of his groom, procured his master that
honor. The king, desiring to transmit to future ages his
gratitude for this signal and extraordinary service, caused
an equestrian statue to be set up with this inscription, " Da-
rius, the soii of Hystaspes, acquired the kingdom of Persia
by means 01 his horse (whose name was inserted), and of
his groom, CEbares." | There is in this inscription, in which
we see the king is not ashamed to own himself indebted to
his horse and his groom for so transcendant a benefaction
as the regal diadem, when it was his interest, one would
think, to have it considered as the fruits of a superior merit,
a simplicity and sincerity peculiar to the genius of those
ancient times, and extremely remote from the pride and
vanity of ours.

One of the first cares of Darius, when he was settled on
the throne, was to regulate the state of the provinces, and
to put his finances in good order. Before his time, Cyrus and
Cambyses had contented themselves with receiving from the
conquered nations such free gifts only as they voluntarily
offered, find with requiring a certain number of troops, when
they had occasion for them. But Darius conceived, that it
was impossible for him to preserve all the nations subject to
him, in peace and security, without keeping up regular
forces, and without assigning them a certain pay ; or to be
able punctually to give them that pay, without laying taxes
and impositions upon the people. $

In order, therefore, to regulate the administration of his
finances, he divided the whole empire into twenty districts,
or governments, each of which was annually to pay a certain
* A. M. M83. Ant. J. C. 521. Herod. 1. iii. c. 88. t Ibid. t Herod, c. 89-97.



THE PERSIANS AND GRECIANS. 15

sura to the satrap, or governor appointed for that purpose.
The natural subjects, that is, the Persians, were exempt
from all imposts. Herodotus has an exact enumeration of
these provinces, which may very much contribute to give
us a just idea of the extent of the Persian empire.

In Asia it comprehended all that now belongs to the
Persians and Turks ; in Africa, it included Egypt and part
of Nubia, as also the coasts of the Mediterranean, as far as
the kingdom of Barca; in Europe, part of Thrace and
Macedonia. But it must be observed, that in this vast ex-
tent of country, there were several nations, which were
only tributary, and not properly subjects to Persia ; as is
the case at this day, with respect to the Turkish empire.

History observes, that Darius, in imposing these tributes,
showed great wisdom and moderation. He sent for the
principal inhabitants of eA'ery province ; such as were best
acquainted with the condition and ability of their country,
and were obliged by interest to give him a true and impar-
tial account. He then asked them, if such and such sums,
which he proposed to each of them for their respective
provinces, were not too great, or did not exceed what they
were able to pay ? his intention being, as he told them, not
to oppress his subjects, but only to require such aids from
them as were proportioned to their incomes, and absolutely
necessary for the defence of the state. They all answered
that the sums he proposed were very reasonable, and such
as would not be burdensome to the people. The king, how-
ever, was pleased to abate one-half, choosing rather to keep
a great deal within bounds, then to risk a possibility of ex-
ceeding them.*

But notwithstanding this extraordinary moderation on
the king's part, as there is something odious in all imports,
the Persians, who gave the surname of mother to Cyrus, and
of master to Cambyses, thought fit to characterize Darius
with that of merchant.!

The several sums levied by the imposition of these trib-
utes, or taxes, as far as we can infer froia the calculation
of Herodotus, which is attended with great difficulties,
amounted in the whole to about forty-four millions per
annum French, or something less than two millions English
money. \

* Plut. in Apophthegm, p. 172.

t Kan-rjAos signifies something more mean and contemptible ; bat I do not
know how to express it in our language. It may signify a broker, or a retailer,
any one that buys to sell again. t Nearly nine millions of dollars.



16 ANCIENT HISTORY.

After the death of the Magian impostor, it was agreed
that the Persian noblemen who had conspired against him,
should, besides several other marks of distinction, have the
liberty of free access to the king's presence at all times,
except when he was alone with the queen. Intaphernes,
one of these noblemen, being refused admittance into
the king's apartment, at a time when the king and queen
were in private together, in a violent rage attacked the
officers of the palace, abused them outrageously, cutting
their faces with his scimitar. Darius highly resented so
henious an insult ; and at first apprehended it might be a
conspiracy among the noblemen. But when he was well
assured of the contrary, he caused Intaphernes, with his
children, and all that were of his family, to be taken up,
and had them all condemned to be put to death, confounding,
through a blind excess of severity, the innocent with the
guilty. In these unhappy circumstances, the criminal's lady
went every day to the gates of the palace, crying and w r eep-
ing in the most lamentable manner, and never ceasing to
implore the king's clemency with all the pathetic eloquence
of sorrow and distress. The king could not resist so mov-
ing a spectacle, and besides her own, granted her the pardon
of any one of her family whom she should choose. This
gave the unhappy lady great perplexity, who desired, no
doubt, to save them all. At last, after a long deliberation,
she determined in favor of her brother.

The choice, wherein she seemed not to have followed the
sentiments which nature should dictate to a mother and a
wife, surprised the king, who desired her to be asked the
reason of it, to which she made answer, that by a second
marriage, the loss of a husband and children might be re-
trieved ; but that, her father and mother being dead, there
was no possibility of recovering a brother. Darius, besides
the life of her brother, granted her the same favor for the
eldest of her children. *

I have already related in Vol. I. by what an instance of
perfidy Oretes, one of the king's governors in Asia Minor,
brought about the death of Polycrates, tyraat of Samos.
So black and detestable a crime did not go unpunished.
Darius found out that Oretes strangely abused his power,
making no account of the blood of those persons who had
the misfortune to displease him. This satrap carried his
insolence so far as to put to death a messenger sent him by

* Herod. 1. iii. c. 118, 119.



THE PERSIANS AND GRECIANS. 17

the king, because the orders he had brought him were disa-
greeable. Darius, AV!IO did n^t yet think himself well settled
on the throne, would not venture to attack him openly; for
the satrap had no less than a thousand soldiers for his guard,
not to mention the forces he was able to raise from his gov-
ernment which included Phrygia, Lydia, and Ionia. The
king therefore thought fit to proceed in a secret manner to
rid himself of so dangerous a servant. With this commis-
sion he intrusted one of his officers, of approved fidelity
and attachment to his person. The officer, under pretence
of other business, went to Sardis, where, with great dexter-
ity, he sounded the dispositions of the people. To open the
way to his design, he first gave the principal officers of the
governor's guard letters from the king, which contained
nothing but general orders. A little while after he delivered
them other letters, in which their orders Avere more express
and particular. And as soon as he found himself perfectly
sure of the disposition of the troops, he then read them a
third letter, wherein the king, in plain terms, commanded
them to kill the governor ; Avhich order Avas executed with-
out delay. All his effects were confiscated to the king, and
all the persons belonging to his family and household were
removed to Susa. Among the rest, there Avas a celebrated
physician of Crotona, Avhose name was Democedes. This
physician's story is very singular, and happened to be the
occasion of some considerable CA'ents.*

Not long after the above mentioned transactions, Darius
chanced to have a fall from his horse in hunting, by which
ha sprained one of his feet in a A'iolent manner, and put his
huel out of joint. The Egyptians Avere then considered the
most skilful in physic ; for which reason Darius had several



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