FROM THE LIBRARY OF
MRS. JIM TULLY
ASSYRIANS, BABYLONIANS, MEDES AND PERSIANS,
MACEDONIANS AND GRECIANS.
Late Principal of the University of Paris, Professor of Eloquence in the Royal
College, and Member of the Royal Academy of Inscriptions
and Belles Lettres.
TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH.
FROM THE LATEST LONDON EDITION,
Carefully Revised and Corrected.
NEW YORK :
JOHN WURTELE LOYELL,
24 BOND STREET.
J> ;: A ff
THE HISTORY OF ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS CONTINUED.
INCLUDING THE REICN OF EPIPHANES.
SECT. I. Ptolemy Epiphanes succeeds-Philopator in Egypt. Troubles
which soon follow, - - - - - - - - 13
Sect. II. Expeditions of Sulpitius. Philip loses a Battle. The Achsoans
declare for the Romans, - - - - - 23
Sect. III. The yEtolians and Nabis declare for the Romans. Philip de-
feated, and a Peace concluded, '-. - - - 43
Sect. IV. The Romans send an Embassy to Antiochus. Conspiracy
against Ptolemy. Scopas put to death, - - - 61
Sect. V. Autiochus and the Romans prepare for War. The latter sends
troops against Nabis. He is killed, - 76
Sect. VI. Antiocluis possesses himself of Chalcis and nil Eubcea. The
'Romans proclaim War against him, 91
Sect. VII. Polyxenides defeated by Livius. L. Scipio carries on the
War against Antiochus, and defeats him near Magnesia. - - - 102
Reflections on the Conduct of the Romans respecting the Grecian
States, and the Kings of Europe and Asia, - 128
Sect. VIII. vEtolians and Asiatic Gauls subdued by Fulvius and Man-
lias. Death of Antiochus, and Daniel's prophecy, - 132
Sect. IX. SelencusPhilopator succeeds Autiochus. Complaints against
Sect. X. Philopcemen besiegeji Messene. He is taken Prisoner, and
put to death. Ptolemy Epiphanes dies, - .,..,..- - - 162
INCLUDING PART Of THE REIGNS OF PTOLEMY PHILOMETER, PHILIP,
AND SELEUCUS PHILOPATOR.
SECT. I. Perseus conspires against Demetrius. The latter is innocent-
ly put to death ; and Perseus succeeds to the Throne, - - - 174
Sect. II. Seleticus Philopator dies, and is succeeded by Autiochus
Epiphanes. Disturbances in Egypt and Palestine, - - - 200
Sect. III. Proceedings of Antiocluis against the Jews. His Armies
lose several Victories. He is struck by the hand of God, ;'ir'| : 219
Sect. IV. Prophecies of Diiniel relating to Antiochus Epiphanes, - 236
I. The Wars of Antiochus Epiphanes against Egypt foretold by Daniel
the prophet, - >'".-.- .- . * 236
First Expedition of Autiochus into Egypt, j.;,-i. ?-,.>). "].,- "; 236
Second Expedition of Antiochus into Egypt, - ' -. - - ,236
Third Expedition of Antiochus into Egypt, - -.' ;.; T-/ '238
Fourth Expedition of Antiochus into Egypt, .... 239
II. Cruel Persecution exercised by Antiochus against the Jews, and
foretold by the Prophet Daniel, 240
10 : CONTEXTS.
THE HISTORY OF ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS CONTINUED.
CONTAINING THE WHOLE REIGN OF PERSEUS.
SECT. I. Perseus prepares for war against the Romans. He endeav-
ors a reconciliation with the Achaeaus, ...... 245
Sect. II. Licinius and Perseus take the Field. The latter lias at first
considerably the advantage, - 201
Sect III. Marcius enters Macedonia. Perseus takes alarm ; but after-
wards resumes Courage, 274
Sect. IV. Celebrated Victory of ^Emilius, near the City of Pydna.
Perseus taken Prisoner with all his Children, .... 284
FROM THE DEFEAT OF PERSEUS, TO THE TAKING AND DESTRUCTION OF
CORINTH BY MUMMIUS.
SECT. I. Attains comes to Rome to congratulate the Romans on their
success in Macedonia, - - 322
Sect. II. Ariarathes dies, and is succeeded by his Son. Death of Eti-
menes- War between Attains and Prusias, 336
Sect. III. Ahdi'iscus, pretended Son of Perseus, causes himself to be
proclaimed King of Macedonia, 349
Sect. IV Troubles in Achaia. Metellus and Mummius settle those
troubles. The latter takes Corinth and destroys it, - - - 352
Sect. V. Reflections on the causes of the Grandeur, Declension, and
Ruin of Greece, .- 3(52
The first and second Ages of Greece, - - <*'" - - : ! '" k- : "> . 3(U?
The third Age of Greece, : *..:i :-;*:': ~;; - . :- 364
The fourth Age of Greece, 367
FROM THE TWENTIETH YEAR OF PTOLEMY PHILOMETER, TO TITE EXPUL-
SION OF PTOLEMY AULETES.
SECT. I. Chronological abridgment of the History of the Kings of
Egypt and Syria, 372
Sect. II. Autiochits Eupator succeeds to the Kingdom of Syria. Cel-
ebrated victories of Judas Maccabeus, - - - 375
Sect. III. Octavius, the Roman Ambassador in Syria, is killed. Death
of Judas Maccabeus, 383
Sect. IV. Physcon espouses Cleopatra and ascends the Throne of
Egypt, - - - 394
. Sect. V. Sidetes takes Jerusalem, and then he makes war against the
Parthians. Phy scon's Cruelty and Death, - .... 412
Sect. VI. Ptolemy Lathy rus succeeds Physcon. Continuation of the
war in Syria and Egypt, - 423
Sect. VII. Pompey dispossesses Antiochus Asiaticusof the kingdom of
Syria. Troubles in Judea and Egypt, 438
THE HISTORY OF ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS CONTINUED.
ABRIDGMENT OF THE HISTORY OK THE JEWS, FROM ARISTOBULUS TO
HEROD THE IDUM^EAN.
SECT. I. Reign of Aristobiilus I. which lasted two years, ... 451
II. Reign of Alexander Jannanis, which continued twenty-seven
years, - - 453
Sect. III. Reign of Alexandra, the wife of Alexander Jannrens, which
continued nine years, - 45<>
Sect. IV. Reign of Aristobulus II. which continued six years, - 400
V. Reign of Hyrcanus II. which continued twenty-four years, - 404
VI. Reign of Antigonus, which continued only two years, - 4(57
Abridgment of the History of the Parthians, - " -+' - - - 470
Abridgment of the History of the Kings of Cappadocia, - :-:.- 501
THE HISTORY OF SYRACUSE.
INCLUDING THE REIGN OF HIERO II.
SECT. I. Hiero II. chosen Captain-General by the Syracusaus, and
soon after appointed King, - 513
Sect. II. Hiero's pacific Reign. He dies at a very advanced age, much
regretted by the people, - - - - - - - - - 519
THE REIGN OF HIERONYMUS, THE TROUBLES ARISING FROM IT, AND TUB
SIEGE AND TAKING OF SYRACUSE.
SECT. I. Hieronynuis, Grandson of Hiero, succeeds him. He is killed
in a conspiracy, 500
Sect. II. Marcellus besieges Syracuse. The dreadful Machines of
Archimedes, who is killed, 542
ABRIDGMENT OF THE HISTORY OF SYRACUSE.
SECT. I. Tomb of Archimedes discovered by Cicero, - ... 555
II. Summary of the History of Syracuse, .... 557
III. Reflections upon the Government and Character of the
Syracusans, and upon Archimedes, 561
THE HISTORY OF PONTUS.
SECT. I. Mithridates ascends the Throne of Pontus. Library of Athena
carried to Rome, ........... 5^5
Sect. II. Second and Third Wars with Mithridates. Tragical end of
his Sisters and Wives, .,/.?:;,_>:< ?. - - - 53^
Sect. .II [. Lucullus declares war against Tigranes. The latter loses
twobattl.es, - ^,/y.j/ ,r/. ; J.-)i - - - - - .-'-, .'.! - - 601
Letter of Mithridates to Arsaces, king of the Parthians, - - - CIO
Sect. IV. Mithridates recovers all his Dominions. Pompey overthrows
him in several battles,. j,,fK' . r ?. V*.;i -%;;,:'.' r * 616
THE HISTORY OF EGYPT.
SECT. I. Ptolemy Auletes had been placed upon the Throne of Egypt,
in the room of Alexander, - . - ..-". ^35
Sect. II. Cleopatra expelled the Throne ; but i-; afterwards, with her
younger Brother, re-established. Pompey assassinated, - - 645
Sect. III. Cleopatra reigns alone. Death of Julius Caesar. Tragical
end of Antony and Cleopatra, - - - /.li-i-iili ' I ' - - 656
Conclusion of the Ancient History, - .-..- ggi
INTRODUCTION TO THE CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.
GEXERAL INDEX, 717
'~ ' '^ '
Milt !!<<[ ; pU-S'o"'!
This chapter includes twenty-four years, during which Ptolemy Epiphanes
reigned in Egypt. In this interval the Romans engage in war ; first against
Philip king of Macedon, over whom they gain a famous victory ; and then against
Aiitiochus, king of Syria, who also is defeated, and forced to sue for peace. At
the same time, feuds and divisions break out between the Lacedaemonians and
Aehaeans, and the famous Philopcemen dies.
rf- : i ? 1 >H
INCLUDING THE EEIGN OF PTOLEMY EPIPHANES.
SECTION I. PTOLEMY EPIPHANES SUCCEEDS PHILOPATOB
IN EGYPT. TROUBLES WHICH SOON FOLLOW.
I BELATED in the preceding book, how Ptolemy Philopator,
worn out with riots and excesses, had to come to his end,
after having reigned seventeen years. As the only persons
present when that monarch expired, were Agathocles, his
sister, and their creatures, they concealed his death as long
as possible from the public, in order that they might have
time to carry off all the money, jewels, and other valuable
effects in the palace. They also formed a plan to maintain
the authority they had enjoyed under the late king, by
usurping the regency during the minority of his son, named
Ptolemy Epiphanes, who was then but five years old. They
imagined that this might easily be done, if they could but
take off Tlepolemus, who had succeeded Sosibes in the
ministry^ and accordingly, they concerted measures to de-
At last they informed the public of the king's death.
* A. M. 3800. Ant. J. C. 204. Justin. 1. xxx. c. 2. Polyb. 1. xv. pp. T12-720.
14 ANCIEXT HISTORY.
Immediately a great council of the Macedonians * was as-
sembled, in which Agathocles and Agathoclea were present.
Agathocles, after shedding abundance of tears, began by
imploring their protection for the young king, whom he held
in his arms. He told them that his royal father, in his ex-
piring moments, had committed him to the care of Aga-
thoclea, whom he pointed out to them ; and had recom-
mended him to the fidelity of the Macedonians. That for this
reason he had come to implore their assistance against
Tlepolemus, who, as he was well informed, designed to
usurp the crown. He added, that he had brought witnesses
expressly to prove his treason, and at the same time offered
to produce them. He imagined that by this weak artifice,
Tlepolemus would be immediately despatched, and that,
consequently, he might easily obtain the regency ; but the
artifice was too gross, and the people immediately swore the
destruction of Agathocles, his sister, and all their creatures.
This last attempt recalling to their remembrance their other
crimes, all the inhabitants of Alexandria rose against them.
The young king was taken out of their hands, and seated
on the throne in the Hippodrome. After which, Agathocles,
his sister, and CEinanthe his mother, were brought before the
king, and all three put to death as by his order. The
populace exposed their dead bodies to all the indignities
possible ; dragging them through the streets, and tearing
them to pieces. All their relations and creatures met with
the same treatment, and not one of them was spared ; the
usual and just end of those unworthy favorites, who abuse
the confidence of their sovereign to oppress the people, and
who never punish those who resemble themselves.
Philammon, the assassin who had been hired to murder
Arsinoe, having returned from Gyrene to Alexandria two
or three days before this tumult broke out, the ladies of
honor of that unfortunate queen had immediate notice of
it, and, taking this opportunity which the distractions of
the city gave them, they resolved GO revenge the death of
their mistress. Accordingly they broke open the door of
the house where he was, and killed him with clubs and
The care of the king's person, till otherwise provided
for, was given to Sosibes, son to him who had governed
during the last three reigns. History does not inform us
* Polybius gives this name to the Alexandrians, who descended from the
Macedonians, and the posterity of the founders of Alexandria, or to those to
same privileges had been grained.
ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS 15
whether he was still alive ; but it is certain that he lived to
a great age, as he passed more than sixty years in the ad-
ministration. No minister was ever more cunning or more
corrupt than this Sosibes. Pie made no scruple of com-
mitting the blackest crimes, provided they conduced to
his ends. Polybius imputes to him the murder of Lysim-
achus, son of Ptolemy, and of Arsinoe, daughter of that
Lysimachus ; of Magas, son of Ptolemy, and of Berenice,
daughter of Magas ; of Berenice, mother to Ptolemy Philopa-
tor ; of Cleomenes, king of Sparta ; and lastly, of Arsinoe,
daughter of Berenice.* It is surprising that, notwithstand-
ing a conduct of so much inhumanity and cruelty in his
administration, he should support himself so long, and at
last come to a peaceable end.
Antiochus king of Syria, and Philip king of Macedon,
during the whole reign of Ptolemy Philopator, had dis-
covered the strongest zeal for the interest of that monarch,
and were ready to assist him on all occasions. Yet no
sooner was he dead, leaving behind him an infant, whom the
laws of humanity and justice enjoined them not to dis-
turb in the possession of his father's kingdom, than they
immediately joined in a criminal alliance, and excited each
other to take off the lawful heir, and divide his dominions
between them. Philip was to have Caria, Libya, Cyrenaica,
and Egypt ; and Antiochus all the rest. With this view,
the latter entered Coelosyria and Palestine ; and, in less
than two campaigns, made an entire conquest of those two
provinces, Math all their cities and dependencies. Their
guilt, says Polybius, would not have been quite so glaring,
had they, like tyrants, endeavored to gloss over their crimes
with some specious pretence ; but so far from doing this,
their injustice and cruelty were so barefaced, that to them
was applied what has been observed of fishes, that the large
ones, though of the same species, prey on the lesser. One
would be tempted, continues, the same author, at seeing the
most sacred laws of society so openly violated, to accuse
Providence of being indifferent and insensible to the most
horrid crimes. But it fully justified, its conduct, by punish-
ing those two kings according to their deserts ; and made
such an example of them, .as ought in all succeeding ages to
deter others from following their example. For while they
were meditating to dispossess a weak and helpless infant
of his kingdom, by piecemeal, Providence raised up the
* Polyb. in Excerpt. Vales, p. 64.
16 ANCIENT HISTORY.
Romans against them, who entirely subverted the kingdoms
of Philip and Antiochus, and reduced their successors to
ahnost as great calamities, as those with which they intended
to crush the infant king.*
During that time, Philip was engaged in a war against
the Rhodians, over whom he gained an inconsiderable ad-
vantage, in a naval engagement near the island of Lade, op-
posite the city of Miletus.f
The next year he invaded Attains, and advanced as far
as Pergamus, the capital of his kingdom. But all his efforts
in assaulting the city being to no purpose, he turned his rage
and fury against the gods ; and not satisfied with burning
their temples, he demolished statues, broke to pieces their
altars, and even pulled up the stones from their foundations,
that not the least vestiges of them might remain. J
He was not more successful against the Rhodians. Hav-
ing already fought them with but indifferent success, he ven-
tured a second battle off the island of Ohio. Attains had
united his fleet to that of the Rhodians, and Philip was de-
feated with considerable loss. There were killed, in his
army, three thousand Macedonians, and six thousand allies ;
and two thousand Macedonians and confederates, with seven
hundred Egyptians, were taken prisoners. The Rhodians
lost but sixty men, and Attains seventy.
Philip ascribed all the glory of this engagement to him-
self, and that, for two reasons : the first was, that having re-
pulsed Attains to the shore, he had taken that prince's ship ;
and the second, that having cast anchor near the promon-
tory of Argennum, he had stopped even among the wrecks
of his enemies. But though he assumed the best air he
could, he was sensible of his great loss, and could neither
conceal it from others nor himself. This prince had never
lost so great a number of men, either by sea or land, in one
day. He was highly afflicted on account of it, and it visibly
damped his natural vivacity. .
The ill success of this battle did not abate Philip's cour-
age. The character of that prince was, to be unshaken in
his resolutions ; and not.to be dejected by disappointments,
but to overcome difficulties by inflexible constancy and per-
severance; and, accordingly, he continued the war with
fresh bravery. I am not certain that we may not date at
this period the cruelties which Philip exercised over the Cia-
* A. M. 3801. Ant. J. C. 203. Polyb. 1. iii. p. 159. Id. 1. xv. p. 707 et 708.
t Polyb. in Excerpt, p. 70 et 73.
t A. M. 3802. Ant. J. C. 202. Polyb. Id. p. 66. Diod. Id. p. 291.
ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. 17
nians ; a barbarity he is often reproached with, the partic-
ulars of which have unhappily been lost. Cios, whose in-
habitants were called Cianians, was a small city of Bithynia.
The man who was governor of it had been raised to that
post by the ^Etolians, who at that time were in alliance with
Philip. We find that he besieged it at the request of his
son-in-law, Prusias, king of Bithynia, who pretended to have
received some insult from it. The city in all probability
was taken by storm. A great number of the inhabitants
suffered the most cruel torments; the rest were reduced to a
state of captivity, which to them was worse than death ; and
the city was razed to the very foundations. This barbarity
alienated the yEtolians from him, and particularly the Rho-
dians, Avho were allies and friends to the inhabitants of Cios.
Polybius seems to ascribe its destruction to the imprudence
of the Cianians themselves, who used to bestow all posts and
preferments on their most worthless citizens ; and to follow
so blindly their pernicious opinions in every thing, as even
to persecute those who ventured to oppose them. Pie adds,
that a people who act in this manner plunge voluntarily into
the greatest calamities ; and that it is surprising they do not
correct themselves iij this respect by the experience of all
ages ; which shows, that the ruin of the most powerful states
is solely owing to the ill choice of those to whom they confide
either the command of their armies, or the administration of
their political affairs.*
Philip marched afterwards to Thrace and Chersonesus,
where several cities surrendered voluntarily. Abydos, how-
ever, shut her gates against him, and even refused to hear
the deputies he had sent, so that he was forced to besiege it.
This city is in Asia, and stands on the narrowest part of the
Hellespont, now called the Dardanelles, and opposite to the
city of Sestos in Europe. The distance between these two
cities was about two miles. The reader will suppose, that
Abydos must have been a city of great importance, as it
commanded the straits, and made those who were possessed
of it, masters of the communication between the Euxine sea
and the Archipelago.
Nothing of what is generally practised, in the assault-
ing and defending of cities, Avas omitted in this siege.
No place was ever defended with greater obstinacy, which
might be said at length, on the side of the besieged, to have
* A. M. 3803. Ant. J. C. 201. Polyb. 1. xvi. pp. 733-739. Liv. 1. xxxi. n. 16,
18. Polyb. 1. xvii. p. 473. Liv. 1. xxxi. 11. 31. Strab. L xii. p. 563. Polyb. 1. XT.
VOL. IV. 2
18 ANCIENT HISTORY.
risen to fury and brutality. Confiding in their own strength,
they repulsed, with the greatest vigor, the first approaches
of the Macedonians. On the side next the sen, the machines
of war no sooner came forward, than they were immediately
either dismounted by the balistas, or consumed by lire.
Even the ships on which they were mounted, were in dan-
ger; and it was with the utmost difficulty that the besiegers
saved them. On the Land side, the Abydonians also de-
fended themselves for some time with great courage, and did
not despair even of defeating the enemy. But, finding that
the outward wall was sapped, and that the Macedonians car-
ried their mines under the inner one, which had been raised
to supply the place of the other, they sent deputies to Philip,
offering to surrender their city upon the following condi-
tions : that such forces as had been sent them by the Rho-
dians and king Attains, should return to their respective
sovereigns under his safe conduct; and that all free citizens
should retire whenever they pleased, with the clothes they
then had on. Philip answering, that the Abydonians had
only to choose, whether they would surrender at discretion,
or continue to defend themselves valiantly, the deputies
This advice being brought, the besieged, in transports of
despair, assembled together, to consider what was to be
done. They came to this resolution : first, that the slaves
should be set at liberty, to animate them to defend the
city with the utmost vigor : secondly, that all the women
should be shut up in the temple of Diana; and all the chil-
dren, with their nurses, in the Gymnasium : that this being
done, they then should bring into the great square all the
gold and silver in the city, and carry all the rest of the
valuable effects into the quadrireme of the Rhodians, and
the trireme of the Cizycenians.* This resolution having
passed unanimously, another assembly was called, in which
they made choice of fifty of the wisest and most ancient of
the citizens, but who at the same time had vigor enough left
to execute what should have been determined ; and they
were made to take an oath, in presence of all the inhabitants,
that the instant they saw the enemy master of the inner
wall, they should kill the women and children, set fire.to the
two galleys, laden with their effects, and throw into the sea
all the gold and silver which they had heaped together :
* Quadrirem.B were galleys with four benches of oars, and Triremes those
ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. 19
then, sending for their priests, they took an oath either to
conquer or die, sword in hand ; and, after having sacrificed
the victims, they obliged the priest and priestesses to pro-
nounce, before the altar, the greatest curses on those who
should break their oath.
This being done, they left off countermining, and re-
solved, the instant the wall should fall, to fly to the breach,
and fight to the last. Accordingly, the inner wall tum-
bling, the besieged, true to the oath they had taken, fought
in the breach with such unparalleled bravery, that though
Philip had perpetually sustained, with fresh soldiers, those
who had mounted to the assault, yet, when night separated
the combatants, he was still doubtful with regard to the suc-
cess of the siege. Such Abydonians as marched first to the
breach, over the heaps of the slain, fought with fury ; and
not only made use of their swords and javelins, but, after
their arms were broken to pieces, or forced out of their
hands, they rushed furiously upon the Macedonians, knocked
down some, broke the sarissas or long spears of others, and
with the pieces, struck their faces, and such parts of their
bodies as were uncovered, till they made them entirely de-
spair of the event.
When night had put an end to the slaughter, the breach
was quite covered with the dead bodies of the Abydonians ;
and those who had escaped, were so greatly fatigued, and
had received so many wounds, that they scarcely could sup-
port themselves. Things being brought to this dreadful
extremity, two of the principal citizens, unable to execute
the dreadful resolution that had been taken, and which at
that time displayed itself to their imaginations in all its
horror, agreed, that to save their wives and children, they
should send to Philip, by daybreak, all their priests and
priestesses, clothed in pontifical habits, to implore his mercy