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Charles Rufus Skinner.

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sented by a color-bearer with a flag. Range the delegates in semi-
circle on the stage. In smaller places, put all the pupils, or as many
as possible, upon the stage, accompanied by the flag in the hands
of a color-bearer. Alike in cities and smaller places, let the flags to be
transferred be those donated by G. A. R. Posts rather than those
purchased by the city or district authorities under mandate of the
State. Invite veterans, parents, friends. Arrange whatever patriotic



x ; v MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.

exercises seem best, and near the close, lei. the teacher, or an old
soldier, or some adult speaker, give a brief history or eulogy of the
flag, exhort each new color-bearer to guard it sacredly, to do nothing
that might bring dishonor to its unsullied colors. Then, at the word
of command, "Transfer flag!" let the color-bearer who has had the
care of the flag for the past year hand it over to another who is to
be its custodian for the year to come. It is an inspiring and memorable
sight!

For several months, in the scant leisure of a busy life, I have
wrought at the plan and making of this book. The task has been, to
me, very pleasurable; I hope it may be to others most profitable — to
teachers, by strengthening and clarifying their appreciation of the noble
history of our common country; to the Young America of the Empire
State, by the creation and exaltation of a pure-minded and intelligent
patriotism.

And so I drop my pen, with a silent salute and renewed pledge of

allegiance to The Flag!

W. K. W.




CONTENTS.



Page.

Preface. . , lu

Introduction

Suggestions

Group I. The Flag:

Brief History of the Flag; The Stars; The Red, White and Blue; The
Half-masted Flag; Saluting the Flag; Patriotic Pledges. Interspersed
Patriotic Songs

Group II. The Flag Protects

The Home; School; Capitol; Restored Union. Songs 37

Group III. The Flag Waves Over

The Camp; Hospital; Exposition Buildings; Consulate; Land and Sea.

Songs -9

Group IV. The Flag is Symbolized by

The Liberty Cap; Liberty Bell; Sword and Dove; Eagle; Shield. Songs. . 0,5

Group V. The Flag Illumines the Tableaux

Of the Minute Man; Departure and Return of States; March of Flags;

Army and Navy; Homage to Columbia I 4 I

" — Concluded— The Flag Glorifies the Patriotic Utterances

Of Longfellow, Whittier, Holmes, Lowell T 5 2

Group VI. The Flag Recalls

Columbus Day; Landing of the Pilgrims; Lexington and Concord; Fourth

of July; Yorktown. Songs x 55

The Flag Hallows Memorial Day:

Prologue: General Grant and the Civil War; Admiral Dewey and the Spanish-
American War; Quotations. Songs l8 5

In Memoriam May 30th. Selections and Songs 22 7

The Flag Consecrates the Birthday of George Washington :

Selections, Quotations and Songs 24 1

(xv)



xv i CONTENTS.

The Flag Blesses the Birthday of Abraham Lincoln : Page.

Selections, Quotations and Songs 267

Flag-Day Makes Sacred June 14TH:

Selections, Quotations and Songs 299

Selections — in Prose and Poetry — on

Patriotism 329

Declaration of Independence 351

Constitution of the United States 353

Liberty 355

Union 359

Citizenship 366

Our Country:

Quotations 373

The Nobility of Labor 3S3

Important Dates in American History 389



MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.

GROUP I.
THE FLAG.

i. Brief History of the Flag Song, America.

2. The Stars Song, The Star-Spangled Banner.

3. The Red, White and Blue Song, The Red, White and Blue.

4. The Half-Masted Flag.

f Saluting the Flag Song, A Song of the Flag.

5 ' J Patriotic Pledges Song, The Waving Flag.

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I



A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE FLAG.




HERE were many flags of many kinds in our country
in colonial times — long, long ago. The most
famous one, perhaps, was that which was raised,
for the first time, on January 2, 1776, over the camp
of the Continental forces at Cambridge. In mid-
May of the same year, a flag of like design floated
over the Capitol at Williamsburg. Thus, under
similar flags, the great colony of Massachusetts and
that of Virginia together marched towards the free-
dom they so much wished to see.

There is good reason to believe, also, that the
famous naval hero, Paul Jones, was the first man in
the world to hoist a similar flag upon a regular man-of-war. Nor
was it long before a sixteen-gun brig, " The Reprisal," commanded by
Capt. Lambert Wickes, sailing from home soon after the adoption of
the Declaration of Independence, carried the flag across the seas and
unfurled it in the harbors of the Old World.

So, both on land and sea, at home and abroad, waved that Con-
tinental Banner which seemed to stretch its folds, like hands of wel-
come, to greet a new nation.

The first real American flag had its origin in the following resolu-
tion adopted by the American Congress, June 14, 1777: "Resolved,
That the flag of the thirteen United States be thirteen stripes alternate
red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field,
representing a new constellation."

But the flag thus resolved upon could not make itself. So, a
committee of Congress, accompanied by Washington, sought out the
home and services of Mrs. Elizabeth Ross of Philadelphia — better
known as " Betsy Ross " — to aid them in the flag-making. Her skill-
ful hands and willing heart soon worked out a plan, and gave to this

(5)



6 MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.

country that red, white and blue banner which is the admiration of
all nations and the unfailing joy of every true American.

What a pleasant sight it must have been to see Mistress Betsy
Ross, that good dame of Revolutionary days, at work upon that new
flag which nowadays we call " the dear old flag." Well may we
believe that she had a thoughtful yet serene face; that she loved her
country with a deep and tender love. For, indeed, it was her country,
though not then free from the grasp of King George. Who can tell
what a help the sight of the new flag was in gaining that independence
which has made our land so great and happy? No wonder that an
association has been formed to buy and keep, for patriotic purposes,
the home in which was made, by the hands of Betsy Ross, the first real
American flag.

How old, then, is the flag? Less than a century and a quarter,
you see. Yet, curiously enough, it is older than the present banner
of Great Britain, adopted in 1801; or Spain's, 1785; or the French
tricolor, 1794; or the flag of the Empire of Germany, 1870. Thus the
flag seems as old as though it had lived for centuries.

What a history the flag has had since those early days when
Washington looked upon it as he stood under the old Elm at Cam-
bridge! The thirteen stars and thirteen stripes were unfurled at the
battle of Brandy wine, in 1777; they were at Germantown in October
of the same year; in the same red-leaved month they sang their song
of triumph over defeated Burgoyne at Saratoga; they helped to cheer
the hungry and half-clad patriot soldiers at Valley Forge; they saw
the surrender of the enemy at Yorktown; they fluttered their " Good-
bye " to the British evacuating New York; they made glorious with
their sky-born colors the dreary years of the Revolution.

In the War of 181 2, the sea breezes blew over no American ship
that did not have the flag of the stars and stripes at its fore; its folds
seemed to be filled with voices that called aloud the names of gallant
seamen — Lawrence, Perry, Hull, Decatur, and many others whose
names will never perish.

In the Mexican War, fought in the forties, our flag was carried
into foreign territory, and waved over many places of great historic
fame. It is true that not all of our citizens approved of that war, but



THE FLAG. 7

the flag itself was not allowed to suffer harm; on the contrary, it waved
triumphant in the very " halls of the Montezumas."

As for the Civil War, what veteran soldier cannot tell of the trials
and triumphs of the four memorable years from 1861 to 1865? Then
it seemed, again and again, as though the flag would be rent in twain,
and the States be severed, never to reunite. Yet to-day we know a
grander Union than ever before.

It remained for the Spanish-American War, however, to make
this reunion clear and strong — beyond a doubt or shadow. Men of
the North and men of the South clasped hands and marched and sailed
away, under the same dear flag, to fight on foreign soil for freedom
to the down-trodden of earth.

But we must not think that it is only in time of war that the flag
has a history. It has a far more cheering and pleasant history in
times of peace. There is always something sad about war, even when
the flags are raised to celebrate a victory. For the victory has cost
a great many brave men their lives, and that always saddens the
Nation's heart. But in a time of peace, how proudly the flag floats
over our homes and schools; " on land and sea, and in every wind
under the whole heavens." Then the people are happy, because there
is no loss of life among them by means of war; fathers stay at home
and enjoy peace and quiet; their sons are at school or college, in
business or working at a trade. On holidays the streets are thronged
with happy people, children are at their games or play, or perhaps are
in school celebrating the lives and deeds of men and women who have
helped to make our country so strong and great among the nations of
the world. And this is the peaceful and happy way in which our
nation has spent most of its time since the close of the Revolutionary
War. During more than a hundred years, the whole time occupied
by war has been less than ten years. Those ten years show that we
can fight when it is necessary to defend our country, keep our free-
dom unharmed, our flag unstained; but they also show that we do
not fight unless we must for the honor of the flag. They show, also,
that we do not go to war merely for the sake of gaining territory from
nations that are weak, nor simply to humble the pride of nations that
are saucy and strong.



8 MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.

How different is the story of the nations of the Old World, and
of the many little countries or republics of South America in the New
World! Their citizens seem so fond of killing each other that some of
them keep at it most of the time, until their war-offices are filled with
blood-stained battle-flags that they have carried with them into war,
or have taken from their enemies, — very much as wild Indians might
hang up in their wigwams, or fasten at their belts, the scalps they have
taken from their victims.

Oh, let us not do anything like that in our dear country. Let us
rather set the flag flying, and watch it as it waves over a land of peace
and plenty, — a land where the farmer may till the ground, the mechanic
work in busy shops, the merchant buy and sell in his store, and thou-
sands of merry boys and girls troop to school — everybody at work,
and all in quiet and security because the Red, White and Blue waves
triumphant over a happy, peaceful land.

Surely it is well for Young America to honor a flag which has
such resistless Power and gives such adequate Protection in time of
peace. The flag stands for so much that is worth having and saving;
it means so much to every citizen, young or old, that no honor paid to
it can be too great. To be good citizens — keeping the laws, obedient
to all rightful authority, merciful in the treatment of animals, kind-
hearted and sympathetic towards the unfortunate, mindful ever of the
good name and fame of our country, — all these things are quiet yet
potent ways of doing honor to the flag. Many a veteran, reposing
in well-earned quiet after marching and battling, is content to gaze
till his eyes brim with tears at the flag that speaks to him so eloquently
of days that are gone, of conflicts that are over, of the dearly-bought
victories of Peace.

But the eyes of children dance with joy when they see the flag,
and they must needs speak and sing and act that joy. And so, it is
wise to provide some way by which they may use their young voices
and their ever-moving feet and hands.



THE FLAG.

OUR FLAG.

Fling it from mast and steeple,

Symbol o'er land and sea
Of the life of a happy people,

Gallant and strong and free.
Proudly we view its colors,

Flag of the brave and true,
With the clustered stars and the steadfast bars,

The red, the white, and the blue.

Flag of the fearless hearted,

Flag of the broken chain,
Flag in a day-dawn started,

Never to pale or wane.
Dearly we prize its colors,

With the heaven-light breaking through,
The clustered stars and the steadfast bars,

The red, the white, and the blue.

Flag of the sturdy fathers,

Flag of the loyal sons,
Beneath its folds it gathers

Earth's best and noblest ones.
Boldly we wave its colors,

Our veins are thrilled anew;
By the steadfast bars, the clustered stars,

The red, the white, and the blue.

— Margaret E. Sangsicr.



I0 MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.

THE FLAG THAT HAS NEVER KNOWN DEFEAT.

On history's crimson pages, high up on the roll of fame,

The story of Old Glory burns, in deathless words of flame.

'Twas cradled in war's blinding smoke, amid the roar of guns,

Its lullabies were battje-cries, the shouts of Freedom's sons;

It is the old red, white, and blue, proud emblem of the free,

It is the flag that floats above our land of liberty.

Then greet it, when you meet it, boys, the flag that waves on high;

And hats off, all along the line, when Freedom's flag goes by.



All honor to the Stars and Stripes, our glory and our pride,
All honor to the flag for which our fathers fought and died;
On many a blood-stained battle-field, on many a gory sea,
The flag has triumphed; evermore triumphant may it be.
And since again, 'mid shot and shell, its folds must be unfurled,
God grant that we may keep it still unstained before the world.
All hail the flag we love, may it victorious ever fly,
And hats off, all along the line, when Freedom's flag goes by.

— Charles L. Benjamin and George D. Sutton.



OLD FLAG FOREVER.

She's up there, — Old Glory, — where lightnings are sped;
She dazzles the nations with ripples of red;
And she'll wave for us living, or droop o'er us dead, —
The flag of our country forever!

She's up there,— Old Glory, — how bright the stars stream!
And the stripes like red signals of liberty gleam!
And we dare for her, living, or dream the last dream,
'Neath the flag of our country forever!

She's up there, — Old Glory, — no tyrant-dealt scars,
No blur on her brightness, no stain on her stars!
The brave blood of heroes hath crimsoned her bars.
She's the flag of our country forever!

— Frank L. Stanton.



THE STARS.




HIRTEEN, and only thirteen stripes,—" alternate
red and white," are on every American flag, no
matter when made. These stripes tell us of the
thirteen colonies that together fought the battles
of the Revolution, and afterward entered into an
enduring Union under the Constitution. Let us
take here the roll-call of that noble band of sister
colonies:



Delaware

Pennsylvania

New Jersey

Georgia

Connecticut

Massachusetts



Maryland
South Carolina
New Hampshire
Virginia
New York
North Carolina



Rhode Island.



Yes, the stripes that run their bright bands of color along the
length of the flag never number more nor less than thirteen. Not so
with the stars, — for each new State, a new star. As the evening of
a clear night draws on, have you not watched the stars one by one
" peep through the blanket of the dark? " So in our country's sky,
State after State, like star after star in the heavens, has flashed upon
our sight until, in the closing year of the century, the " blue field " is
filled with the radiant splendor of a " constellation " of forty-five
States.

This is the order in which they entered the Union: Vermont
(1791), Kentucky (1792), Tennessee (1796), Ohio (1802), Louisiana
(1812), Indiana (1816), Mississippi (1817), Illinois (1818), Alabama
(1819), Maine (1820), Missouri (1821), Arkansas (1836), Michi-
gan (1837), Florida (1845), Texas (iS45)» Iowa (1846), Wisconsin

(11)



j 2 MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.

(1848), California (1850), Minnesota (1858), Oregon (1859), Kansas
(1861), West Virginia (1863), Nevada (1864), Nebraska (1867), Colo-
rado (1876), North Dakota (1889), South Dakota (1889), Montana
(1889), Washington (1889), Idaho (1890), Wyoming (1890), Utah
(1896).

And here is the list of territories which may yet shine as States:
New Mexico, Arizona, Alaska, Indian Territory, Oklahoma, — though
perhaps not as States of the first magnitude.



THE STAR-SPANGLED BANNER.



Solo or Quartet



Francis Scott Key. 1814.

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)h,' say, can you see, by thedawn'sear - ly light, What so proud -ly we hail'd at the

On the shore dim- ly seen thro' the mists of the deep,Where the foe's haughty host in dread

And where is that band who so vaunt-ing - ly swore, That the hav - oc of war and the

Oh, thus be it ev - er when free-men shall stand Be - tween their loved home and wild




-p- -p-

twi-light's last gleaming, Whose broad stripes and bright stars, thro' the per - il - ous fight, O'er the

si - lence re - po - ses, What is that which the breeze, o'er the tow - er - ing steep, As it

bat -tie's con-fu - sion, A . . . home and a coun - try should leave us no more? Their

war's des - o - la - tion ; Blest with vie - try and peace, may the heav'n-res - cued land Praise the




ram-parts we watch'd, were so gal - lant - lv stream-ing? And the rock - ets' red glare, the bombs
fit - ful - ly blows, half con-ceals, half dis-clos-es? Now it catch - es the gleam of the
blood has wash'd out their foul foot - steps'pol - hi - tion. No ref - uge could save the

pow'r that hath made and pre-serv'd us a na - tion ! Then con - quer we must, when our




burst-ing in air, Gave proof thro'the night that our flag was still there. Oh, say,does that

morn-ing's first beam, In full glo - ry re - fleet -ed,now shines on the stream: 'Tis the star-spangled

hire-ling and slave From the ter - ror of flight or the gloom of the grave : And the star-spangled

cause it is just, And this be our mot - to : "In God is our trust !"And the star-spangled

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THE FLAG.

SELECTIONS.

It is the flag of history. Those thirteen stripes tell the story of
our colonial struggle, of the days of >6. They speak of the savage
wilderness, of old Independence Hall, of Valley Forge and Yorktown.
Those stars tell the story of our nation's growth, how it has come from
weakness to strength, until its gleam, in the sunrise over the forests of
Maine, crimsons the sunset's dying beams on the golden sands of
California. — 5. L. Waterbury.

It is a little thing, perchance, to put the stars and stripes a few
miles nearer to the pole than has been put the flag of any other nation;
but yet, somehow or other, that fact appeals to us as Americans.—
Adolphus W. Greeley.

Two years ago, I saw a sight that has ever been present in my
memory. As we were going out of the harbor of Newport, about mid-
night, on a dark night, some of the officers of the torpedo station had
prepared for us a beautiful surprise. The flag at the depot station
was unseen in the darkness of the night, when suddenly, electric search-
lights were turned on it, bathing it in a flood of light. All below the
flag was hidden, and it seemed to have no touch with earth, but to
hang from the battlements of heaven. It was as if heaven was approv-
ing the human liberty and human equality, typified by that flag.—
Benjamin Harrison,

THE BANNER OF THE STARS.
Hurrah! boys, hurrah! Fling our banner to the breeze!

Let the enemies of freedom see its folds again unfurled,
And down with the pirates that scorn upon the seas

Our victorious Yankee banner, sign of freedom to the world!

Chorus- We'll never have a new flag, for ours is the true flag,
The true flag, the true flag, the red, white, and blue flag.
Hurrah! boys, hurrah! we will carry to the wars,
The old flag, the free flag, the banner of the stars.

And what though its white shall be crimsoned with our blood?

And what though its stripes shall be shredded in the storms?
To the torn flag, the worn flag, we'll keep our promise good,

And we'll bear the starry blue field, with gallant hearts and arms.

— R. IV. Raymond.



j 5 MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.

A VISION OF THE STARS.

His lonely watch a sentinel was keeping,

While stars were shining clear;
Within their tents the wearied hosts were sleeping,

And home in dreams seemed near.

Near by, in peace, the broad Potomac river

Ran fleetly on and free,
And waves, like shafts from full and silver quiver,

Shot onward to the sea.

Such was the scene of rare and tranquil beauty,

That met the soldier's gaze,
And blended with his thoughts of present duty,

The light of other days.

'Neath roof-tree quiet, far remote, were sleeping

Those whom he loved so well —
Dreaming perchance of him, or fondly weeping

At thought of War's dread spell.

Then as he paced, his watchful eyes upturning,

He saw the arching sky.
Where countless stars in silence clear were burning.

Bespeaking peace on high.

And gazing thus, he straightway fell to musing

Upon that wondrous dome, —
And in his wrapt imaginings was losing,

For once, the thought of home.

To him, that mighty dome the Union seeming,

The stars were soldiers true
That stood in ranks with watchful eyes a-gleaming,

And great souls flashing through.

" No hand," he cried, as raptured he stood gazing,

" Can hurl the Union down,
Or pluck from out that dome of might amazing,

The stars within its crown."



THE FLAG.

But as he spake a cloud came blackly drifting

Across the welkin blue,
And spreading ever, threatening, dense and shifting,

Hid every star from view.

"Alas," cried he, "is this the war's dread token?

The stars all swept away.
The dome of Union, lost to man, and broken,

Forever and for aye? "

Slow grew his step as on he paced, — and musing,

Sad grew his heart, —
The portent seemed so direful, so confusing,

The tears began to start!

But lo! once more, through tears, his eyes up-glancing,

The clouds are passing by!
He sees the dome, and stars with light entrancing,

Still watching in the sky!

Gone are his fears. Exultant hear him crying,

" The clouds of War will flee.
And stars of Peace yet chant in chorus vying,

' Union and Liberty.' "



Ah, lonely sentinel, let not thy vision,

Though now fulfilled, e'er cease;
Still point the Nation to the fields Elysian, —

Thy chosen watchword — Peace.



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