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Charles Rufus Skinner.

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everlasting monument of the freedom, virtue, intelligence, and indom-
itable independence, of Northern laborers. Go, sir, go preach insurrec-
tion to men like these! — Naylor.

LABOR IS WORSHIP.

"Labor is worship!" — the robin is singing;
"Labor is worship!" — the wild bee is ringing:
Listen! that eloquent whisper up-springing

Speaks to thy soul from out Nature's great heart.
From the dark cloud flows the life-giving shower;
From the rough sod blows the soft-breathing flower;
From the small insect, the rich coral bower;
Only man, in the plan, shrinks from his part.

Labor is life! ' Tis the still water faileth;

Idleness ever despaireth, bewaileth;

Keep the watch wound, for the dark rust assaileth;

Flowers droop and die in the stillness of noon.
Labor is glory! — the flying cloud lightens;
Only the waving wing changes and brightens;
Idle hearts only the dark future frightens;

Play the sweet keys, would'st thou keep them in tune!

Labor is health! Lo! the husbandman reaping,
How through his veins goes the life-current leaping!
How his strong arm, in its stalwart pride sweeping,

True as a sunbeam, the swift sickle guides!
Work for some good, be it ever so slowly;
Cherish some flower, be it ever so lowly
Labor! all labor is noble and holy;

Let thy great deeds be thy prayer to thy God!

— By Frances S. Osgood.



THE NOBILITY OF LABOR. 387

THE WORK-SHOP AND THE CAMP.

The Camp has had its day of song:

The sword, the bayonet, the plume,
Have crowded out of rhyme too long

The plough, the anvil, and the loom!
O, not upon our tented fields

Are Freedom's heroes bred alone;
The training of the Work-shop yields

More heroes true than war has known!

Who drives the bolt, who shapes the steel,

May, with a heart as valiant, smite,
As he who sees a foeman reel

In blood before his blow of might!
Let Labor, then, look up and see

His craft no pith of honor lacks; .
The soldier's rifle yet shall be

Less honored than the woodman's axe!



When the great obelisk, brought from Egypt in 1586, was erected
in the square of St. Peter's in Rome, the tackle was all arranged for the
delicate and perilous work. To make all safe and prevent the possi-
bility of accident from any sudden cry or alarm, a papal edict had
proclaimed death to any man who should utter a loud word, till the
engineer had given the order that all risk was passed.

As the majestic monolith moved up, the populace closed in. The
square was crowded with admiring eyes and beating hearts. Slowly
that crystalization of Egyptian sweat rises on its base — five degrees,
ten degrees, fifteen, twenty— there are signs of faltering. No matter
— no voice — silence. It moves again — twenty-five, thirty, forty,
forty-three — it stops! See! Those hempen cables which like faithful
servants have obeyed the mathematician have suddenly received an
order from God not to hold that base steady another instant on those
terms. The obedient masons look at each other, — silent, — and then
watch the threatening masses of stone. Among the crowd, silence, —
silence everywhere, obedience to law, — and the sun shone on the
stillness and despair.



3§8



MANUAL OF FAT RIOT ISM.



Suddenly from out of the breathless throng rang a cry, clear as
the archangel's trumpet, — " Wet the ropes!" The crowd turned to
look. Tiptoe on a post, in a jacket of homespun, his eyes full of
prophetic fire, stood a zvorkman of the people. His words flashed like
lightning and struck. From the engineer to his lowest assistant the
cry had instant obedience. Water was dashed on the cables; they bit
fiercely into the granite; the windlasses were manned once more, and
the obelisk rose to its place and took its stand for centuries. — Adapted.



What tho' on hamely fare we dine,

Wear hoddin gray, and a' that;
Gie fools their silks, and knaves their wine,

A man's a man for a' that!

For a' that, and a' that,

Their tinsel show, and a' that;
The honest man, though e'er sae poor,

Is king o' men for a' that.

Then let us pray that come it may —

As come it will for a' that —
That sense and worth, o'er a' the earth,

May bear the gree, and a' that;

For a' that, and a' that,

It's comin' yet, for a' that,
That man to man, the warld o'er,

Shall brothers be for a' that!

— Robert Burns.

Ashamed to toil, art thou? Ashamed of thy dingy work-shop and
dusty labor-field; of thy hard hand, scarred with service more honor-
able than that of war; of thy soiled and weather-stained garments, on
which mother Nature has embroidered, midst sun and rain, midst fire
and steam, her own heraldic honors? Ashamed of these tokens and
titles, and envious of the flaunting robes of imbecile idleness and vanity?
It is treason to Nature,— it is impiety to Heaven, — it is breaking
Heaven's great ordinance. Toil, I repeat — toil,— either of the brain,
of the heart, or of the hand, is the only true manhood, the only true
nobility ! — Orville Dewey.



IMPORTANT DATES IN AMERICAN HISTORY.

It is believed that pupils may become interested in the study of
American history by presenting for their study and investigation its
important events on the anniversaries of their occurrence. Experi-
enced teachers recognize the value of having at hand a few dates
around which may be grouped a number of facts with sufficient
accuracy to preserve that sequence of events so necessary to the study
of history. What dates should be remembered is not particularly es-
sential, and each pupil may largely be allowed to choose those which
interest him personally or are in some way connected with his indi-
vidual experiences.

The following arrangement of dates has been compiled for use in
morning exercises in schools, in the belief that if used intelligently
such exercises will materially aid the avowed purpose of this volume
in stimulating an intelligent patriotism, through a knowledge of
events that have been influential in shaping the development of our
country to its present marvelous greatness and have added to its
acknowledged prestige.

The references have, so far as possible, been chosen from works
easily accessible, but they may always be supplemented to advantage
by the alert and enterprising teacher. Either a class or a particular
pupil chosen for the work should carefully study the history relating
to the event which is the subject of a morning exercise, preparatory
to its presentation, and should, under the direction of the teacher,
provide short recitations or quotations supplementary to those given
in connection with the several dates. Abundant material may be
obtained from the excellent selections given in this volume.

It is suggested that pupils whose birthdays are the same as the
anniversary of an event which is the subject of a morning exercise
should be chosen to take part therein. It is also suggested that morn-
ing exercises should be limited to fifteen minutes.

(389)



39°



MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.



In the arrangement, September has been placed first in order to
correspond substantially with the opening of the schools of our State.
As the dates in any given list must differ materially in importance,
those of greater moment in the list presented have been printed in
black-face type in order that they may be readily distinguished from
others of minor importance but still of interest locally or in connection
with other school work.

Believing that the faithful and efficient teaching force of the State
will find much that is helpful in the material submitted, I unhesitat-
ingly commit to their care the great interests which this particular
work, as well as this entire volume, is intended to promote.



IMPORTANT DATES IN AMERICAN HISTORY.

September i, 1675. — Attack on Hadley.

The Indians under Philip attacked Hadley. Most of the garrison were absent.
Moreover it was a feast day, and the people were in the meeting-house when
the alarm was given. The colonists were almost driven back when Goffe, the
regicide, suddenly appeared, led the troops, repulsed the Indians, and as sud-
denly disappeared.

References:
Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.

September 2, 1864. — Capture of Atlanta.

General Sherman, by a series of masterly movements, compelled the Con-
federates to retreat, and after crossing the almost inaccessible country between
Chattanooga and Atlanta, finally succeeded in capturing the important military
center, Atlanta, the most important strategic point in possession of the Con-
federates in the southeast.

References:

Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. — Davis.
Bird's Eye View of Our Civil War. — Dodge.

September 3, 1783. — Treaty of peace signed at Paris. (This treaty
marked the close of the Revolutionary War.)

References:

Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.
History of the United States, vol. X. — Bancroft.
Rise of the Republic of the United States. — Frothingham.

Appropriate Selections:

The Advantages and Disadvantages of the Revolution, from David Ramsay's
History of the American Revolution.

September 5, 1774. — First Continental Congress.

The first Continental Congress met in Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, Septem-
ber 5, 1774. Every colony except Georgia was represented, and the delegates
were the ablest politicians of the colonies. Its chief work was the adoption of
a Declaration of Rights, and the establishment of the American Association.

(39i)



392 MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.

References.'

Rise of the Republic of the United States.— Frothingham.
American History Leaflets, No. n.
History of the United States. — Hildreth.
The American Revolution. — Fiske.
History of the United States. — Bancroft.

Appropriate Selections:

" The Continental Congress and its Doings." — Edmund Olliver.
" The First American Congress." — Maxey.

Selection:

" When liberty is the prize, who would shun the warfare, who would stoop
to waste a coward thought on life? We esteem no sacrifice too great, no con-
flict too severe, to redeem our inestimable rights and privileges. 'Tis for you,
brethren, for ourselves, for our united posterity, we hazard all; and permit us
humbly to hope that such a measure of vigilance, fortitude, and perseverance
will still be afforded us that, by patiently suffering and nobly doing, we may
eventually secure that more precious than Hesperian fruit, the golden apples of
freedom. We see the hand of heaven in the rapid and wonderful union of the
colonies; and that generous and universal emulation to prevent the sufferings
of the people of this place gives a prelibation of the cup of deliverance. May
unerring Wisdom dictate the measures to be recommended by the Congress;
may a smiling God conduct this people through the thorny paths of difficulty
and finally gladden our hearts with success."

Septembers, 1887. — Labor Day first observed in the State of New
York.

September 7, 1888. — Congress prohibited Chinese immigration.

September 8, 1565. — Founding of St. Augustine.

On the eighth of September, 1565, Don Pedro Menendez, a Spaniard, com-
menced to lay the foundation of St. Augustine, Florida, the oldest town in the
United States.

References :

Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.
Narrative and Critical History of the United States.— Winsor.
Pioneers of France in the New World.— Parkman.
Discovery of America. — Fiske.

September 9, 1850. — California admitted to the Union.



IMPORTANT DATES IN AMERICAN HISTORY. 093

September 10, 1813. — -Battle of Lake Erie.

Perry, in command of the American ships, met a British fleet of six ships,
and a hard-fought battle of four hours ensued. The result was a brilliant victory
for the Americans; it established their naval supremacy on Lake Erie, Detroit
was evacuated by the British, the Indians of Michigan were intimidated. Perry's
motto for the day was Lawrence's dying words: " Don't give up the ship," and
his message to Harrison after the victory, " We have met the enemy and they
are ours."

References:

Popular History of the United States. — Anderson.
History of the Navy. — Maclay.

History of the Navy of the United States. — Cooper.
History of the Battle of Lake Erie. — Bancroft.

Appropriate Selections :

Selection from ■ The Second War between England and the United States. —
Headley.

September 11, 1777. — Battle of Brandy wine Creek.

At the landing of Howe's fleet at Chesapeake Bay, Washington marched to
Brandywine to make a stand for Philadelphia, but superior numbers and
stratagem gave the enemy the victory. W'hile the Americans were being at-
tacked from the front, a part of the British forces secretly fell upon them in the
rear and routed them.

References:

The American Revolution. — Fiske.
Popular History of the United States. — Anderson.
Battles of the United States. — Dawson.
Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.
1776. — Lossing.

September n, 18 14. — Battle of Plattsburg and McDonough's victory.

A large British army advanced from Canada to attack Plattsburg, and at the
same time their fleet, commanded by Commodore Donnie, began an attack upon
the American fleet under Commodore McDonough, then lying in the bay of
Plattsburg. Both land and naval contests were sharp and decisive. All the
British vessels, with the exception of some galleys, were captured, while the
army hastily retreated.

References:

History of the Navy. — Maclay.
Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.
Pictorial Field-Book of the War of 1812. — Lossing.
Battles of the United States. — Dawson.



- 94 MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.

September 13, 1759.— Taking of Quebec.

The great object of the campaign of 1759 was the reduction of Canada.
General Wolfe was to lay siege to Quebec; Amherst was to reduce Ticonderoga
and Crown Point, and then co-operate with Wolfe; and General Prideaux was
to capture Niagara and Montreal and then join Amherst.

During July, Niagara surrendered, and Johnson, successor to Prideaux, in-
stead of going to Montreal, made his way to Albany. The French abandoned
both Ticonderoga and Crown Point without striking a blow, and Amherst went
into winter quarters, failing Wolfe. With 8,000 men Wolfe ascended the St.
Lawrence and landed his army on the isle of Orleans. On July 31st, he made
a daring, through unsuccessful, attempt upon the French intrenchments at Mont-
morencie, near Quebec. Not discouraged by the disaster, the English continued
the struggle, and finally effected a landing at night about two miles above the
city, and, climbing the steep banks of the river, by daybreak on September 13th,
stood on the Plains of Abraham, in battle array. This battle virtually decided
the French and Indian war, and the supremacy of the English in America.

References:

Popular History of the United States. — Anderson.
History of the United States. — Hildreth.
History of the United States. — Bancroft.

Appropriate Selections:

Taking of Quebec and Death of Wolfe. — Parkman.
Elegy in a Country Churchyard. — Gray.

September 13, 18 14. — Bombardment of Fort McHenry, Baltimore.

After the burning of Washington, Ross started to attack Baltimore, but was
slain on the way. His forces, checked for a time by the militia, prepared to co-
operate with a fleet of sixteen vessels. But Fort McHenry hindered the advance
of the fleet, and after a twenty-four hours' bombardment the British with-
drew.

References:

History of the Navy. — Maclay.
Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.
Pictorial Field-Book of the War of 1812. — Lossing.
Battles of the United States. — Dawson.

Appropriate Selections:

The Star Spangled Banner. — Key.

The Flag of Washington.— F. W. Gillett.



IMPORTANT DATES IN AMERICAN HISTORY. 395

September 14, 1807.— Fulton first ascended the Hudson by steam
power.

This experiment was the beginning of the revolution in methods of navigation.

September 14, 1847.— Occupation of the Cit y of Mexic0 -

The approaches to the City of Mexico were strongly guarded by batteries and
troops, but by perseverance and daring all were overcome, and Santa Anna and
his army fled.

September 14, 1847, " General Scott, at the head of the American troops, made
a triumphal entry into the city."

References:

History of the Mexican War— Mansfield.
Popular History of the United States.— Bryant.
Battles of the United States.— Dawson.
Our Country. — Lossing.
War with Mexico.— R. S. Ripley.

Appropriate Selections:

Selection from Mansfield's History of the Mexican War.

September 15, 1789. — James Fenimore Cooper born.
Selections from:

The Spy.

The Deerslayer.

The Pathfinder.

September 16, 1776.— Battle of Harlem Plains.

While Washington's army was in New York, after the retreat from Long
Island, it was decided to fortify Harlem Heights. Here the Americans were
attacked by a strong detachment of British, and after a severe skirmish, were
victorious.

References :

The American Revolution. — Fiske.
Popular History of the United States.— Bryant.
Battles of the Revolution.— Carrington.
Battles of the United States.— Dawson.

September 16, 1823.— Francis Parkman born.
Selections from:

The Conspiracy of Pontiac.

France and England in North America — A Series of Historical Narratives.



396



MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.



September 17, 1787. — Adoption of the National Constitution at Phila-
delphia.

A stronger government than that provided for by the articles of confederation
which had formerly held the colonies together, was found necessary, and a con-
vention met at Philadelphia in May, 1787, to formulate a constitution.

References:

Critical Period of American History. — Fiske.

Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.

Rise of the Republic of the United States.— Frothingham.

1776. — Lossing.

Appropriate Selections:

The Building of the Ship. — Longfellow.
Insufficiency of the Confederation. — Hamilton.
See Dexter Smith, p. 318.



September 17, 1862. — Battle of Antietam.

Taking advantage of the weak condition of the Union army, the Confederates,
under General Lee, marched towards Washington, but were confronted by the
forces of Generals Bank and Pope. These generals were defeated, the latter in
the second battle of Bull Run (August 29th and 30th); and Lee crossed the
Potomac into Maryland. Meanwhile McClellan had been recalled from the
James, and, having assumed the command of the army in Maryland, defeated
Lee in the battle of South Mountain and in the greater conflict of Antietam
(September 17). Lee at once withdrew across the Potomac, but McClellan
made no pursuit and in November was superseded by Burnside.

References:

Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. — Davis.
Bird's Eye View of Our Civil War. — Dodge.

Appropriate Selections:

Barbara Frietchie. — Whittier.

The Conflict at Antietam. — Lossing.



September 18, 1793. — Cotton Gin invented by Eli Whitney.

References :

Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.



IMPORTANT DATES IN AMERICAN HISTORY.



397



September i8> 1793. — President Washington laid the corner-stone of
the National Capitol.
See " The Capitol," p. 51.

September 19, 1777. — First battle of Stillwater (Saratoga), or battle of
Bemis Heights.

Under Arnold's and Kosciusko's direction, Gates had fortified Bemis Heights,
a point which Burgoyne must cross on his way to Albany. The British, recog-
nizing the necessity of pushing on, began the attack at once. The contest was
ended by darkness, each side claiming the victory. Although the British re-
mained on the field, their advance to Albany was stopped. The American loss
equaled about half that of the British.

References :
The American Revolution. — Fiske.
Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.
History of the United States. — Hildreth.
1776. — Lossing.

Appropriate Selection:

The Right of the Line. See p. 20.

September 19, 1863. — Battle of Chickamauga.

In June, 1863, Rosecrans again undertook the task of capturing Chattanooga,
but succeeded only so far as to compel Bragg to abandon the place. On
September 19th, the Confederates under General Bragg suddenly attacked the
Union forces under General Rosecrans at Chickamauga, and nearly routed
them. But here, as at Murfreesboro, General George H. Thomas saved the day
by holding the center of the Union position.

References:

Battles antl Leaders of the Civil War. — Davis.
Bird's Eye View of Our Civil War. — Dodge.

Appropriate Selections :

Rosecrans and the Chickamauga Company — Major William J. Richards, in
War Papers.

September 19, 1881. — Garfield died. Arthur became President.
September 20, 1697. — Peace of Ryswick, ending King William's war.
September 20, 1703. — Beginning of Queen Anne's war.



-ng manual of patriotism.

September 22, 1780. — Meeting of Arnold and Andre.

References:

Popular History of the United States. — Anderson.
The American Revolution. — Fiske.
1776. — Lossing.

Popular History of the United States.— Bryant.
Diary of the American Revolution. — Moore.

The Treason of Arnold, by Jared Sparks in Half-Hours with American His-
tory, by Morris.

Appropriate Selections:

Execution of Major Andre, in Letter to Lawrens, by Alexander Hamilton,

in Anderson's United States Reader.
Andre's Last Request. — Willis.

Benedict Arnold.— Garden. See Anderson's United States Reader.
75 I was born in America, I lived there to the prime of my life; but alas, I can

call no man in America my friend." — Arnold.

September 23, 1779.— Paul Jones' naval victory.

Paul Jones, with a smajl squadron, encountered two British frigates and a
merchant fleet off the coast of Great Britain. Jones lashed his flagship, The
Bon Homme Richard, to the British ship Serapis and one of the most desperate
of sea-fights ensued, lasting from seven until ten, when the frigates struck their
flags. It was the first naval victory won under the American flag.

References :

The American Revolution. — Fiske.

Popular History of the United States.— Bryant.

1776.— Lossing.

History of the Navy of the United States of America. — Cooper.

American History told by Contemporaries. — Hart.

Life of Paul Jones. — Mackenzie.

History of the Navy. — Maclay.

September 24, 1669. — Fort Orange surrendered to the English and was
renamed Albany.

September 24, 1846. — Surrender of Monterey.

After a series of assaults by General Taylor's troops, Monterey capitulated, a
city strong in natural defenses and furthermore garrisoned by ten thousand
troops. The American force was far inferior.



IMPORTANT DATES IN AMERICAN HISTORY. 3 qq

References:

Battles of the United States.— Dawson.
Our Country. — Lossing.
War with Mexico.— R. S. Ripjey.
History of the Mexican War.— Mansfield.

Appropriate Selections :

The Martyr of Monterey.— Rev. J. G. Lyons.
Monterey.— Charles F. Hoffman, p. 324.

September 24, 1869.— "Black Friday" in New York.

On the 24th of September, 1869, there was a terrific panic in the gold-room
on Wall street, New York, when a few conspirators held nearly all the gold in
this country, and would give it out only at ruinous prices. A telegram from
the Secretary of the Treasury at Washington offering $4,000,000 of gold for sale
made a great falj in the price, and relieved the financial situation. The business
of the country suffered for months because of the effects of the panic.

References:

School History of the United States.— Lee.

September 25, 15 13.— Discovery of the Pacific ocean by Balboa.

In 1513, Balboa, the governor of the Spanish Colony at the Isthmus of Darien,
while crossing the isthmus, gained the summit of a mountain from which he dis-
covered the Pacific Ocean. After falling on his knees and thanking God for the
privilege of being the discoverer of this great ocean, he descended to the sea-
shore and took possession of the whole coast in the name of the Spanish Crown.

References :

Discovery of America, vol. II. — Fiske.
America, vol. II. — Winsor

'Appropriate Selections:

Discovery of Pacific Ocean. — Irving.

September 25, 1690. — First newspaper in America.

On September 25, 1690, there appeared in Boston the first newspaper in
America, called " Public Occurrences," but the Legislature suppressed its publi-
cation after the first number.

References:

History of the United States.— E. E. Childs.



400



MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.



September 28, 1868. — Chinese Embassy.

In 1868 China sent to the United States the first embassy she had ever com-



Online LibraryCharles Rufus SkinnerManual of patriotism : for use in the public schools of the State of New York → online text (page 25 of 31)