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March 28, 1814. — Surrender of the Essex.

After a successful cruise of more than a year, Captain Porter was attacked in
the harbor of Valparaiso by two British vessels and forced to surrender. The
conflict was one of the most desperate of the war.

References:

History of the Navy. — Maclay.

History of the Navy of the United States.— Cooper.
Pictorial Field-Book of the War of 1812. — Lossing.
Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.

March 29, 1836. — Chemung county erected from territory of Tioga.

March 30, 1802. — Genesee county erected from territory of Ontario.

March 30, 1820.- -Missouri Compromise.

As the Northern people opposed any increase in the number of slave states
they tried to prevent the admission of Misouri, with its constitution allowing
slavery. After a long and violent discussion, the measure called the Missouri
Compromise was adopted. Slavery should be prohibited in all the territory,
except Missouri, lying north of the parallel 36 30' and west of the Mississippi.
Missouri was admitted August 10, 1821.

References:

History of the United States.— Schouler.
Students' History of the United States.— Channing.
Popular History of the United States.— Bryant.
Johnston's Orations.

March 30, 1842. — John Fiske born.

Selections from :

American Political Ideas.

The Critical Period in American History.

March 30, 1867. — Purchase of Alaska.

In 1867, the Russian territory in America, now known as Alaska, was bought
by the United States for a little over $7,200,000. It is a vast region, lying far
north, but its climate is tempered by the warm Pacific current, and it has great
tracts of fine cedar and other timber, vakiable fisheries, furs, and important
minerals.

References:

Men and Measures of Half a Century.— McCulloch.



428



MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.



March 30, 1870. — Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution.

The Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution, guaranteeing to all citizens of
the United States the right of suffrage, without regard to race, color, or
previous condition of servitude, was declared adopted March 30, 1870.

March 31, 1854.— Treaty with Japan.

Japan had always excluded all foreigners from her ports, but as the acquisi-
tion of California made commercial relations important, Commodore Perry was
sent to open communications. At length a treaty was signed, permitting the
United States to trade in two ports, and also the residence of American citizens
and consuls at these ports. Thus America was among the first to obtain inter-
course with Japan.

References:

Popular History of the United States. — Anderson.
Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.

April 2, 1792. — First United States mint.

By the act of Congress April 2, 1792, the first United States mint was estab-
lished at Philadelphia for the purpose of national coinage.

References:

Dictionary of United States History. — Jameson.
Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.

April 2, 1743. — Thomas Jefferson born.

Selections:

Declaration of Independence.

April 2, 1821. — Erie county erected from territory of Niagara.

April 3, 1783. — Washington Irving born.

Selections from:

Knickerbocker History of the United States.
Life of Columbus.

April 3, 1822. — Edward Everett Hale born.

Selections from:

Franklin in France.

The Man without a Country.

My Double, and How He Undid Me.



IMPORTANT DATES IN AMERICAN HISTORY. 429

April 3, 1865. — Occupation of Richmond.

On the 29th of March, 1865, commenced the final movement of the national
forces which General Grant had gathered around Richmond. After ten days'
marching and fighting, the Confederates were compelled to evacuate their de-
fenses at both Petersburg and Richmond.

References:

Story of the Civil War. — Ropes.

Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. — Davis.

Bird's Eye View of Our Civil War. — Dodge.

Appropriate Selections:

Evacuation of Richmond. — Pollard.

April 4, 1786. — Columbia county erected from territory of Albany.

April 6, 1 5 13. — Discovery of Florida.

In 1513 Ponce de Leon, searching, not for gold, like his countrymen, but for a
fountain which the Indians declared would restore a man to perpetual youth,
came upon another unknown coast. It was on Easter Sunday, in Spanish " El
Pascua Florida," and the new land has borne the name of Florida ever since.

References:

The Discovery of Florida. — Bancroft.

Popular History of the United States. — Anderson.

America, vol. II. — Winsor.

April 6, 1795. — Schoharie county erected from territory of Albany and
Otsego.

April 6, 1862.— Battle of Shiloh.

On the morning of the 6th of April, General Grant's army, while encamped
at Shiloh, was severely attacked by General A. S. Johnston's army. At nightfall
the Union troops had been driven back to the river, where the gunboats aided
them to keep the enemy in check. General Johnston was killed. The arrival
of reinforcements under General Buell enabled Grant to assume the offensive on
the following day, and the Confederates were driven towards Corinth. The
forces engaged on both sides numbered more than 100,000 men. The losses on
both sides were severe.

References:

Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. — Davis.
Bird's Eye View of Our Civil War. — Dodge.



4 ^ MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.

Appropriate Selections:

The Battle of Shiloh.— William Sainton.

Shiloh.— Brig. Gen. George F. McGennis, in War Papers.

April 7, 1806. — Allegany county erected from territory of Genesee.

April 7, 1817. — Tompkins county erected from territory of Cayuga and
Seneca.

April 8, 1808. — Cortland county erected from territory of Onondaga.

April 9, 1682. — Discovery of Louisiana.

In February, 1682, La Salle passed down the Illinois river, and on into the
Mississippi, on an exploring expedition. The river he called St. Louis, and the
vast region through which it flowed, Louisiana, in honor of the French King.
On April 9, 1682, he planted a cross with the arms of France near the mouth
of the river, and claimed all the territory drained by it and its tributaries for
King Louis.

References:
Half-Hours with American History. — Morris.
History of the United States. — Hildreth.

April 9, 1865. — Surrender of Lee at Appomattox.

After the evacuation of Petersburg and Richmond, Lee withdrew his army and
endeavored to escape by the valley of the Appomattox to the mountains. The
retreating army was hotly pursued by the Union forces under Grant, and on
the 9th, Lee, overtaken and surrounded, surrendered near Appomattox Court
House.

Story of the Civil War. — Ropes.

Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. — Davis.

Bird's Eye View of Our Civil War. — Dodge.

Appropriate Selections:

Last March of Lee's Army. — Armstead L. Long, in Half-Hours with Ameri-
can History. — Morris.

April n, 1794. — Edward Everett born.
Selection:
Apostrophe to La Fayette, at the close of Everett's address " On the Circum-
stances Favorable to the Progress of Literature."

April 11, 1823. — Wayne county erected from territory of Ontario and
Seneca.



IMPORTANT DATES IN AMERICAN HISTORY.



431



April 12, 1777. — Henry Clay born.
One of America's greatest orators.

April 12, 1 8 16. — Hamilton county erected from territory of Mont-
gomery.

April 14, 1861. — Evacuation of Fort Sumter.

Regarding their duty to the general government as secondary to the obliga-
tion they owed to their respective states, and in spite of the President's assur-
ance that the new administration did not intend interfering with the constitu-
tional rights of any of the states, the southern leaders organized an army under
General Beauregard to reduce Fort Sumter. Accordingly, on the morning of
April 12th, the first shot was fired on the fort. After a bombardment of thirty-
four hours Anderson was compelled to evacuate. On the following Monday, as
if with spontaneous protest against any dissolution of the Union, the flag of the
Republic was raised throughout the free states.

References:

Popular History of the United States.— Anderson.
School History of the United States. — Lee.
Bird's Eye View of Our Civil War. — Dodge.
Story of the Civil War. — Ropes.

Appropriate Selections:

The Flag. — Horatio Woodman.

Fort Sumter's Bombardment. — Orville J. Victor, in Half-Hours with Ameri-
can History. — Morris.

The Flag of Fort Sumter. — Anonymous, in Moore's Personal and Political
Ballads.

The 12th of April. — E. C. Stedman.

April 14, 1865. — Assassination of Lincoln.

Lincoln had served but a few weeks of his second term, when, less than one
week after Lee's surrender, he was assassinated by a desperado acting in sym-
pathy with the Confederate cause.

References:

Life of Lincoln. — Morse

Abraham Lincoln. — Nicolay and Hay.

Appropriate Selections :
My Captain. — Whitman, p. 291.



432 MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.

April 15, 1 8 14. — John Lathrop Motley born.

Selections from:
The Rise and Fall of the Dutch Republic.

Merry Mount.

April 17, 1854. — Schuyler county erected from territory of Chemung,
Steuben, and Tompkins.

April 18, 1838. — Fulton county erected from territory of Montgomery.

April 18, 1847. — Battle of Cerro Gordo.

The American forces under General Scott made a daring assault on the enemy
at Cerro Gordo on the morning of April 18th, and before noon the Mexicans
were defeated with a loss of one thousand men and their artillery.

References:

Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.

Our Country. — Lossing.

War with Mexico. — R. S. Ripley.

Story of the Mexican War. — Mansfield.

Appropriate Selections ■'
The Bivouac of the Dead. — p. 28.

April 19, 1775. — Battle of Lexington.

On the night of the 18th of April, 1775, General Gage dispatched eight hundred
troops under Colonel Smith and Major Pitcairn to destroy some military sup-
plies which the Americans had collected at Concord, Massachusetts, about sixteen
miles from Boston.

The patriots of Boston, suspecting such a movement, were on the alert.
Signals had been pre-arranged by them, the alarm was given, and, when the
British reached Lexington early in the morning of April 19th, they found about
seventy of the militia drawn up under arms. Then was shed the first blood of
the Revolution, the King's troops firing upon the American militia. At Con-
cord some of the supplies were destroyed, but, the militia assembling, a skirmish
took place in which several from both sides were killed. On their way back to
Boston, the British were reinforced at Lexington; but during their retreat, as
far as Charleston, the Americans pursued, keeping up a constant and destructive
fire. The loss of the British during the day was over 200; that of the patriots
about 90. The battle at Lexington was a signal for war.



IMPORTANT DATES IN AMERICAN HISTORY. 433

References:

Siege of Boston. — Frothingham.

Battles of the United States.— Dawson.

Ballad History of the Revolution — Part I.— Moore.

One Hundred Years Ago.— E. E. Hale.

Field-Book of the Revolution.— Lossing.

American Monthly for April and July, 1875.— Potter.

History of American War. — Stedman.

Appropriate Selections:

Concord Hymn.— R. W. Emerson, p. 170.
Battle of Lexington. — O. W. Holmes.
Paul Revere's Ride. — Longfellow.
The Rising in 1776.— T. B. Read, p. 116.
The Revolutionary Alarm, p. 170.
George William Curtis, pp. 171, 172.

April 19, 1 861.— First blood shed in civil war.

The news of the capture of Fort Sumter produced an almost uncontrollable
excitement throughout the country, and the President's proclamation calling
for troops was responded to at once by all the free states. A Massachusetts
regiment, while on its way to defend the nation's capital, was attacked, April
19th, in Baltimore, by a mob of southern sympathizers. Two of the soldiers
were killed and a number wounded.

References:

Bird's Eye View of Our Civil War.— Dodge.

Story of the Civil War.— Ropes.

United States. — Rhodes.

Popular History of the United States.— Anderson.

Appropriate Selections:
Apocalypse. — Clarence Butler.
The Massachusetts Line. — Robert Lowell.
Our Country's Call.— William C. Bryant.

April 20, 1898.— Declaration of war between United States and Spain.

The report on Cuban affairs having finally passed both Houses, April i8th,
went at once to the President, who, on April 20th, signed the resolutions
adopted — that Spanish rule must cease in Cuba. In fact, if not in terms, it
was a declaration of war.

References:

The War with Spain.— Henry Cabot Lodge.
28



A9A MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.

434

Appropriate Selections:
Selection I., p. 198.
The Stripes and the Stars, p. 308.

April 21, 1649. — Toleration act in Maryland.

The Toleration Act provided for the punishment of all disbelievers in God and
for the punishment of those in any way interfering with any one's form of belief.

References:

Old Virginia and Her Neighbors. — Fiske.

A Short History of the English Colonies in America. — Lodge.

April 22, 1889. — Oklahoma opened to settlers.

April 25, 1862. — Capture of New Orleans.

In Louisiana the Union cause met with success of great importance. This was
the capture of New Orleans on the 25th of April. The Union fleet, commanded
by Farragut and Porter, ascended the Mississippi, bombarding and running
past the Confederate forts. The city was reached, and General Butler, taking
formal possession, placed it under martial law.

References:

New Orleans.— King.

Battles and Leaders of the Civil War.— Davis.

Appropriate Selections:

New Orleans Won Back. — Robert Lowell.
The Varuna. — George H. Baker.
Farragut on the Mississippi. — Joel P. Headley.
Admiral Farragut, p. 92.

April 26, 1777. — The Marquis de Lafayette, a wealthy young French-
man of character and ability, sailed from Bordeaux to aid the
Americans as a volunteer. He provided a ship and military stores
at his own expense.
References:
The American Revolution. — Fiske.
American History told by Contemporaries. — Hart.
Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.
1776. — Lossing.

Appropriate Selections:
Lafayette Joins the Americans. — Sprague. Found in Anderson's Popular
History of the United States.



IMPORTANT DATES IN AMERICAN HISTORY. 435

April 26, 1846.— First blood shed in the Mexican war.

The annexation of Texas caused war between Mexico and the United States,
as the United States claimed the Rio Grande river as the boundary line, while
the Mexicans claimed the Nueces river. General Taylor was sent into Mexico
to protect our interests; this the Mexicans regarded as an invasion of their
rights. They attacked a small force near Matamoras and killed sixteen men,
compelling the rest to surrender.

References:
Our Country. — Lossing.

April 26, 1865. — Surrender of Johnston's army.

After some time spent in elaborate negotiations between Sherman at his head-
quarters, and Grant and President Johnson at Washington, terms were finally
agreed upon, and Johnston surrendered on terms substantially the same as those
accorded to Lee.

References:

Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.

Appropriate Selections:

The Conquered Banner. — Abram J. Ryan.

April 28, 1760.— Battle of Sellery. (Virtual close of the French and
Indian war in America.)

De Levis, Montcalm's successor, made extensive preparations for the recovery
of Quebec. He marched to Sellery, three miles above the city, and there, on the
20th of April, 1760, was fought one of the most desperate battles of the war. The
French were obliged to retreat, Montreal capitulated, and the whole of Canada
was surrendered to the English.

The war continued till 1763, when a treaty of peace was signed in Paris by
which France ceded to Great Britain (February 10th) all her American posses-
sions east of the Missouri and north of the Iberville river in Louisiana; at the
same time, Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain. This finally determined that
the dominant civilization of North Amtrica was to be English instead of French.

References:

Popular History of the United States.— Anderson.
History of the United States.— Hildreth.
History of the United States.— Bancroft.

Appropriate Selections:

State of the Colonies in 1765-— Grahame.



436



MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.



April 30, 1789. — Inauguration of Washington at New York.

References:

Popular History of the United States. — Anderson.
Popular History of the United States.— Bryant.
1776. — Lossing.
Critical Period of American History. — Fiske.



Appropriate Selections:



" Welcome, Mighty Chief, once more,
Welcome to this grateful shore;
Now no mercenary foe
Aims again the fatal blow —
Aims at thee, the fatal blow.

" Virgins fair, and matrons grave,
These thy conquering arm did save;
Build for thee triumphal bowers,
Strew, ye fair, his way with flowers,
Strew your hero's way with flowers."



April 30, 1803. — Louisiana purchased from France.

Price, $15,000,000.

References:

United States Reader. — Anderson.

Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.

Our Country. — Lossing.

April 30, 1812. — Louisiana admitted to the Union.

May 1, 1 541. — De Soto discovered the Mississippi river.

In 1539, Ferdinand De Soto, with a large force of men, landed on the coast of
Florida, in a search for gold. The Spanish cruelties had made all the Indians
hostile to them, and De Soto had to fight his way westward to the Mississippi
river, which he reached May 1, 1541. He crossed the great river and proceeded
some distance up the west bank, always disappointed in not finding gold. The
party endured great hardships and De Soto himself died of a fever. His
followers buried him in the Mississippi river, to secure his body from the savages,
and after many days of suffering a few made their way back to Mexico.



IMPORTANT DATES IN AMERICAN HISTORY.



437



References:



Discovery of America. — Fiske.

History of the United States, vol. I. — Bancroft.

Narrative and Critical History of the United States, vol. II. — Winsor.

Appropriate Selections:

Expedition of De Soto. — Parkman.

May i, 1898. — Battle of Manila Bay.

During the night of April 30th, Admiral Dewey took the American fleet past
the dreaded fort at the entrance to Manila Bay and then up the twenty-six
miles through the narrow channel and over the Spanish mines to Manila, where,
the next day, May 1st, the Americans completely destroyed the Spanish fleet.
By the 3rd of May, the two forts at the entrance of the harbor had surrendered
to Dewey, and Manila was blockaded by the Americans.

References:

The War with Spain. — Henry Cabot Lodge.

Appropriate Selections:

Dewey's Victory, p. 200.
Second Selection, p. 199.
Manila Bay, p. 238.

May 3d and 4th, 1863. — Battle of Chancellorsville.

General Hooker, toward the latter part of April, crossed the Rappahannock,
and, encountering Lee at Chancellorsville, was disastrously defeated, losing more
than 11,000 men. He then recrossed the river. In this battle the Confederate
army lost its most brilliant general, Thomas J. Jackson, commonly known as
" Stonewall " Jackson, who, towards the close of the action, was mortally
wounded, it is said, by the fire of his own men, being, with his staff and escort,
mistaken in the darkness for a company of the Union cavalry.

References:

Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. — Davis.
Bird's Eye View of our Civil War. — Dodge.
School History of the United States.— Lee.

Appropriate Selections:

The Wood of Chancellorsville. — Delia R. German in R. G. White's Collec-
tion, Poetry of the War.
Keenan's Charge. — G. P. Lathrop.



438



MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.



May 4, 1796. — William Hickling Prescott born.

Selections from:

History of the Conquest of Mexico.
History of the Conquest of Peru.

May 8, 1846.— Battle of Palo Alto.

While returning from Point Isabel, General Taylor with a force of 2,300 men
was attacked at Palo Alto by a Mexican force of 6,000 men. The Mexicans lost
more than 500, whUe the American loss was 50.

References :

Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.

Battles of the United States.— Dawson.

Our Country. — Lossing.

History of the Mexican War. — Mansfield.

May 9, 1846. — Battle of Resaca de la Palma.

At the battle of Resaca de la Palma the Mexican guns were holding the
Americans well in check, when Captain May, at the head of his dragoons, charged
with great fury and dispersed the gunners. The Mexicans were defeated with
a severe loss.

References :

War with Mexico. — R. S. Ripley.
Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.
Battles of the United States. — Dawson.
History of the Mexican War. — Mansfield.

May 10, 1775. — Capture of Fort Ticonderoga.

Early in the morning of the 10th of May, 1775, Ethan Allen, with the Green
Mountains Boys, surprised and took Ticonderoga — "in the name of the Great
Jehovah and the Continental Congress." It was the first incident of the war
in which the Americans took the aggressive.

References :

Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.

Capture of Ticonderoga, in Narrative of His Own Captivity. — Allen. Found

in Anderson's United States Reader.
Battles of the United States, vol. I. — Dawson.
Diary of the American Revolution. — Moore.
History of the United States. — Hildreth.

Appropriate Selections:

On General Ethan Allen. — General Hopkins.



IMPORTANT DATES IN AMERICAN HISTORY. ^q

May 10, 1775. — Second Continental Congress.

On May 10, 1775, delegates from each of the thirteen colonies assembled for
the second continental Congress. They adopted decisive measures and ap-
pointed Washington commander-in-chief of the army.

References:
The American Revolution. — Fiske.

The Rise of the Republic of the United States.— Frothingham.
History of the United States of America. — Patton.

Appropriate Selections:

American History told by Contemporaries.— Hart. (The Necessity of Self-
Defence.)

May 10, 1865. — Capture of Jefferson Davis at Irwinville, Ga.
References:

The Last Four Weeks of the War.— Hatcher.

May 10, 1876.— International exhibition opened at Philadelphia.

See p. 79.

Appropriate Selections:

Centennial Address. — W. M. Evarts.
Centennial Hymns. — Whittier.

May 12, 1776.— Surrender of Charleston to the British.

After a siege of forty days, General Lincoln, in command of the American
troops, was forced to surrender to Clinton.

References:

The American Revolution. — Fiske.

Popular History of the United States.— Bryant.

1776. — Lossing.

Battles of the United States. — Dawson.

May 13, 1607.— First permanent English colony in America.

In 1606, King James I. divided the territory claimed by the English into North
and South Virginia, granting the former to the Plymouth Company, the latter
to the London Company. The first permanent settlement was made at James-
town, in 1607, by an expedition sent out by the London Company, commanded
by Captain Christopher Newport.



440 MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.

References:

History of the United States. — Anderson.
America, vol. III. — Winsor.
Explorers. — Higginson.

Appropriate Selections:

Settlement of Jamestown. — Grahame, in his Colonial History of the United

States.
Pocahontas. — Hemans. From the poem entitled American Forest Girl.

May 14, 1841. — Wyoming county erected from territory of Genesee.

May 19, 1643. — New England Confederacy.

May 19, 1643, the four colonies of Masachusetts, Plymouth, New Haven
and Connecticut entered into a league of confederacy " for unity, offence and
defence, mutual advice and assistance."

References:

Colonial History of the United States. — Grahame.
Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.
New England. — Fiske.
A Short History of the English Colonies. — Lodge.

May 23d and 24th, 1865. — Grand review.

The last great scene of the Civil war was a grand military pageant in the city
of Washington, when the armies of the United States passed in review before
the chief officers of the Government, the Congress, and representatives of for-
eign powers.

The Army of the Potomac was reviewed on the 23d of May, the Army of the
Mississippi on the following day. Washington had a two-days' holiday and
everywhere in the city were greetings and displays suitable for the victorious
returning soldiers.

References:
Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.



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