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Appropriate Selections:

Spring at the Capital. — E. A. Allen.

Samuel Francis Smith. — p. 47.

Sonnet on Disbanding the Army. — Col. David Humphreys.



IMPORTANT DATES IN AMERICAN HISTORY.



441



May 24, 1 8 19. — First ocean steamer.

About May 24, 1819, the Savannah crossed the Atlantic from Savannah, Ga,,
to Liverpool. Both sails and steam were used.

References:
Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.

May 25, 1637. — Pequod settlement.

Toward the close of 1635, difficulties with the Indians commenced. The
Pequods, a warlike tribe in the southeastern part of Connecticut, having com-
mitted many acts of hostility, Hartford, Windsor, and Wethersfield united in
declaring war against them. A force of colonists and friendly Indians proceeded
against the Pequods, burned their forts and wigwams, killed more than 600 of
their number, and completely broke them up as a tribe.

References :

History of the United States. — Hildreth.
Half-Hours with American History. — Morris.

May 25, 1803. — Ralph Waldo Emerson born.

Selections:

Hymn on the Dedication of the Concord Monument, p. 144.
From the Essay on History.
From the Essay on Heroism.

May 27, 1819, — Julia Ward Howe born.
Selections:

Battle Hymn of the Republic, p. 139.

May 27, 1844. — The first telegraph message.

The first telegraph line was established between New York and Baltimore by
Professor Morse and was successfully operated May 27, 1844.

References :

Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.
Popular History of the United States. — Anderson.

May 29, 1736. — Patrick Henry born.
Selections:
An Appeal to Arms (Address in the Convention of Virginia, September 28,
1775).



442 MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.

May 29, 181 3. — Attack on Sackett's Harbor.

The British, learning that a large force had left Sackett's Harbor, sent a thou-
sand men to attack the place. They were met by a small force, under General
Brown, and repulsed.

References:

Pictorial Field-Book of the War of 1812. — Lossing.
Battles of the United States. — Dawson.
Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.

May 29, 1848. — Wisconsin admitted to the Union.

May 31, 1854. — Kansas-Nebraska bill.

In 1854 Kansas and Nebraska came into the Union under the rule of popular
sovereignty, which left the question of slavery to the people of each territory.
After a struggle of some months, the Kansas-Nebraska bill became a law. The
Missouri Compromise was abrogated, and the question of slavery in the terri-
tories was adrift again, never to be got rid of except through the abolition of
slavery itself by war.

References :

American History Leaflets, No. 17.

History of the United States. — Rhodes.

History of the United States. — Schouler.

Constitutional History of the United States. — Van Hoist.

Life of Douglas. — Sheahan.

Life of Chase. — Schucker.

May 31, 1862. — Battle of Fair Oaks.

The few Union victories were counterbalanced by the ill success of McCle.llan,
who had attempted to reach Richmond by the peninsula between the York and
the James rivers. Having arrived within a short distance of the city, he was sud-
denly attacked at Fair Oaks, by the Confederates, when a bloody but indecisive
conflict took place. A movement of McClellan's to change his base of opera-
to the James river brought on a series of destructive battles, .lasting
through seven days (June 25 to July 1), the result of which was to leave the
Union army in a weakened condition.

References:

Battles and Leaders ot the Civil War. — Davis.
Bird's Eye View of Our Civil War. — Dodge.

Appropriate Selection:

American Volunteers, p. 222.



IMPORTANT DATES IN AMERICAN HISTORY.



443



May 31, 1889. — Flood at Johnstown.

A broken dam in the Conemaugh Valley, Pennsylvania, flooded Johnstown,
and destroyed 2,295 lives.

June 1, 1774. — Boston port bill.

England, enraged at the colonies' action in regard to the tea, passed the Port
bill, closing Boston harbor to all commerce, and transferring the seat of govern-
ment to Salem. The act aroused the greatest indignation of the colonists; they
burned copies of it on scaffolds, and observed the day upon which it went into
effect with fasting and prayer.

References:

Rise of the Republic of the United States.— Frothingham.
Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.
The American Revolution. — Fiske.
History of the United States. — Bancroft.

June 1, 1792. — Kentucky admitted to the Union.

June 1, 1796. — Tennessee admitted to the Union.

June 1, 1813. — The Chesapeake and the Shannon.

The American frigate Chesapeake, commanded by Captain Lawrence, was
attacked by the British frigate Shannon, just outside Boston harbor. Soon
some of the Chesapeake's rigging was cut so that a sail became loose and blew
out, bringing the vessel into the wind. Then the rigging and anchor became
so entangled that the ship had to remain exposed to the enemy's fire. As Law-
rence, mortally wounded, was carried below, he cried, " Don't give up the ship."
Finally the English sprang on board and pulled down the flag.

References :

History of the Navy. — Maclay.

History of the Navy of the United States. — Cooper.

Popular History of the United States. — Anderson.

June 3, 1898. — The Merrimac sunk in Santiago Harbor.

Lieutenant Richard P. Hobson, with seven selected volunteers, took the collier
Merrimac into the channel of Santiago harbor, and there sunk her by means
of torpedoes, as a temporary obstruction to the escape of the Spanish fleet.
The deed was fraught with the greatest danger and required the most con-
spicuous bravery and daring.



444 MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.

References:

The War with Spain. — Henry Cabot Lodge.
With Sampson through the War. — Goode.

Appropriate Selections:
Eight Volunteers, p. 233.

June 9, 1792. — John Howard Payne born.
Actor and playwright.
Appropriate Selections:

Home, Sweet Home, p. 39.

June 10, 1861.— Battle of Bethel.

It can hardly be said that the national government made any offensive move-
ment before the 24th of May. Then General Scott, commanding the Union
army, sent troops into Virginia; and Arlington Heights, as well as the town of
Alexandria, were occupied. Some days after, June 10th, a force was sent under
General Butler to capture a body of Confederate troops posted at Little Bethel,
a village on the north side of the James river. During the night, two of the
Union regiments fired on each other by mistake; and the Confederates, thus
made aware of their approach, escaped. The Union troops then pushed on, and
were severely repulsed in an attack upon the Confederate works at Big Bethel.

References :

Bird's Eye View of Our Civil War. — Dodge.
Story of the Civil War. — Ropes.
United States. — Rhodes.

Appropriate Selections:

Bethel.— A. J. H. Duganne.
Army Hymns. — O. W. Holmes.
The Present Crisis. — J. R. LoweJl.

June 12, 1812. — Putnam county erected from territory of Dutchess.
June 14, 1777. — Birth of the flag of the United States.

Congress resolved, " That the flag of the thirteen united colonies be thirteen
stripes, alternate red and white, and the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue
field, representing a new constellation."



IMPORTANT DATES IN AMERICAN HISTORY. aac

References:

History of the United States.— Hildreth.

Diary of the American Revolution. — Moore.

History of our Flag — Rev. A. P. Putnam, in Anderson's United States

Reader.
A Brief History of the Flag. — See p. 5.

Appropriate Selections:
The American Flag. — J. R. Drake, p. 303.
God Save the Flag.— O. W. Holmes.
Our National Banner. — W. M. Evarts.

The School House Stands by the Flag.— Hezekiah Butterworth, p. 45.
Selections 1 and 3, p. 15.
Our Flag, p. 9.

The Red, White and Blue, p. 19.
Selection, No. 6, p. 35.

June 14, 1812.— Harriet Beecher Stowe born.

Selections from:
Uncle Tom's Cabin.

June 15, 1772. — Benjamin Franklin drew electricity from the clouds
and proved its identity with lightning.
References :
Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin.

June 15, 1836.— Arkansas admitted to the Union.

June 15, 1844. — Charles Goodyear patented the process of vulcanizing
India rubber.

June 17, 1775.— Siege of Boston began.
References:

The American Revolution. — Fiske.

Popular History of the United States.— Bryant.

June 17, 1775.— Battle of Bunker Hill.

On the evening of June 16th, Colonel Prescott was sent with a detachment
of one thousand men to fortify Bunker Hill, but instead he fortified Breed's
Hill, which was nearer Boston. The next morning the British commenced a
cannonade upon the redoubt. This attack failed, and, later, General Howe, with



446



MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.



three thousand men, was sent to dislodge the patriots. Twice the British ap-
proached within a few rods, each time to be repulsed with a heavy loss. Upon
Clinton's arrival, the third charge was more successful, as the Americans had
exhausted their ammunition, and were forced to retreat. The Americans lost
General Warren. The determined and for a time successful resistance on the
part of the Americans was so encouraging that it had all the effects of a
triumph.

References:

The American Revolution. — Fiske.

Siege of Boston. — Frothingham.

Harper's Monthly.— July, 1875.

Popular History of the United States.— Bryant.

Appropriate Selections:
Warren's Address.— John Pierpont.
Grandmother's Story of Bunker Hill.— Holmes.

Laying of the Corner-Stone of the Bunker Hill Monument.— Webster.
Edward Everett, pp. 234-5.

June 18, 1778. — Evacuation of Philadelphia.

The loss of Burgoyne's army, the alliance with France, and the arrival of a
French fleet under D'Estaing so alarmed the British that they left Philadelphia.

References:

Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.

The American Revolution. — Fiske.

1776. — Lossing.

History of the United States. — Hildreth.

Appropriate Selections:

Battle of the Kegs. — Francis Hopkinson.

June 19, 1812. — Declaration of war against Great Britain.

The losses to commerce caused by the closing of the ports of England and
France in their war, the right of search, the impressment of American seamen,
and other insults to which England was subjecting the United States, led to
the final declaration of war against Great Britain by the United States.

References:

Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.
Pictorial Field-Book of the War of 1812.— Lossing.

June 19, 1863. — West Virginia admitted to the Union.



IMPORTANT DATES IN AMERICAN HISTORY

<+47

June 19, 1864.— Alabama and Kearsarge.

The Confederates, by means of English-built privateers sailing under the
Confederate flag, succeeded in destroying a large number of American mer-
chantmen. Sumner, in the Alabama, pursued his career of destruction, luring
vessels by hoisting the British flag; but the Alabama was at last met by the
Kearsarge, Captain Winslow, and. after a short encounter, was sunk.
References:

The Navy during the Rebellion.— Boynton.
Battles and Leaders of the Civil War.— Davis.
Bird's Eye View of Our Civil War.— Dodge.
Story of the Civil War.— Ropes.

June 24, 1497.— Discovery of North America by John and Sebastian
Cabot.

In 1497, about one year before Columbus discovered the continent, and two
years previous to Amerigo's visit, John Cabot and his son Sebastian, while
sailing under a commission from Henry VII. of England, discovered the coast
of Labrador, and thus were the first to discover the mainland of America. In a
second voyage, made by Sebastian Cabot, in 1498, the coast, from Labrador to
Chesapeake Bay, was explored. These achievements of the Cabots, the dis-
covery and explorations, proved of momentous importance, especially to Eng-
land, as, by reason of them, that country based her claims to all the region from
Labrador to Florida.

References:

America, vol. III.— Winsor.

Discovery of America, vol. II. — Fiske.

American History Leaflets. — No. 9.

Students' History of the United States — Channing.

June 24, 1675.— First battle of King Philip's war.

After the death of Massasoit, the Indians became alarmed at the rapidly grow-
ing settlement of the whites, and so the New England tribes united to over-
throw the colonists. The first attack was made by King Philip upon the people
of Swanzey, as they were returning from church.

References:

Popular History of the United States.— Bryant.

June 24, 1795.— Jay's treaty ratified.

Difficulties had arisen with England because of violations of the treaty of
1783, so that a new treaty to dispose of them was negotiated by John Jay.



448



MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.



References:
Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.
History of the United States. — Hildreth.
Our Country. — Lossing.

June 24, 1871. — Corner-stone of state capitol at Albany laid.

The ceremonies were under the direction of the Grand Lodge of Free and
Accepted Masons of the State of New York. The first stone in the foundation
was laid July 7, 1869.

June 28, 1776. — Attack on Fort Moultrie.

The people of Charleston, expecting an attack, had constructed a palmetto
fort on Sullivan's Island, which was garrisoned by eight hundred men under
Colonel Moultrie. On June 28th, . the British fleet under Parker attacked it,
the conflict lasting nine hours. Finally, however, Parker was forced to with-
draw, with much shattered vessels. The fort was later named Moultrie in honor
of the commander.

References:

The American Revolution. — Fiske.
Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.
Popular History of the United States. — Anderson.
1776. — Lossing.

June 28, 1778. — Battle of Monmouth.

The British army under Clinton, retreating from Philadelphia, was overtaken
by Washington at Monmouth. Lee, leading the advance, was directed to make
an attack, but instead, commanded a retreat. Upon Washington's arrival an
advance was made. At nightfall there was no decisive result, and in the morn-
ing the British had fled.

References:

Popular History of the United States. — Anderson.
Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.
The American Revolution. — Fiske.
1776. — Lossing.

Appropriate Selections:

Selections from Irving's Life of Washington.

June 28, 181 5. — Decatur in the bay of Algiers.

During the War of 1812, the Dey of Algiers, believing the United States unable
to protect her commerce, broke the treaty and again resumed the practice of



IMPORTANT DATES IN AMERICAN HISTORY. 449

piracy against our ships. When peace with England was established, a fleet
of ten ships, under Decatur, was sent to the Mediterranean. On the way he
captured two Algerian vessels and, arriving in the bay of Algiers, June 28th,
he forced the Dey to relinquish all American prisoners and all claim to a tribute
from the United States.

References:

Popular History of the United States.— Anderson.
History of the Navy of the United States.— Cooper.
History of the Navy. — Maclay.
Popular History of the United States.— Bryant.

Appropriate Selections:

Selection from Cooper's History of the Navy of the United States. Death of
Commodore Decatur.



July 1st, 2d, 3d, 1863.— Battle of Gettysburg.

On the 9th of June, Lee, whose army numbered nearly four hundred thou-
sand men, began a northward movement. Hooker followed the invaders
into Maryland, where (June 28th), his command was transferred to General
Meade. At Gettysburg one of the most important conflicts of the war took
place during the first three days of July. Lee was finally defeated, and, his
army being reduced one-third, made a rapid retreat. The battle of Gettys-
burg is generally regarded as the greatest of the war. It was the turning point
in the long conflict between the North and the South.

References :

Battles and Leaders of the Civil War.— Davis.
Bird's Eye View of Our Civil War.— Dodge.
Students' History of the United States.— Channing.
School History of the United States.— Lee.

Appropriate Selections:

Pickett's Charge at Gettysburg.— Comte de Paris, in Half-Hours with Ameri-
can History. — Morris.
National Cemetery at Gettysburg.
Gettysburg.— Captain Dudley H. Chase, U. S. A.
Bugles of Gettysburg, p. 219.
George William Curtis, p. 210.
Susan J. Adams, p. 210.
Henry C. Potter, p. 234
29



4SO MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.

July 2, 1775. — Washington took command of the army at Cambridge.
References:

The American Revolution. — Fiske.

Popular History of the United States.— Bryant.

Rise of the Republic of the United States.— Frothingham.

Life of Washington.— Sparks.

Appropriate Selections:
The Inconveniences of Militia.— General G. Washington, found in Ameri-
can History told by Contemporaries. — Hart.
" Every exertion of my worthy colleagues and myself will be equally ex-
tended to the restoration of peace and harmony, as to the fatal but necessary
operations of war."

July 2, 1881. — Assassination of Garfield.

Garfield had been in office less than four months when he was shot by an
assassin (Charles J. Guiteau), at the railroad station in Washington, as he was
about to leave the capital for a summer trip to the east.

References:

Life of James A. Garfield.— J. R. Gilmore.
Students' History of the United States.— Channing.

July 3, 1890. — Idaho admitted to the Union.

July 3, 1898.— Battle of Santiago.

On Sunday morning, July 3d, at half-past nine, the Spanish fleet started out
of the harbor at Santiago with a rush, but the American fleet, always in readi-
ness, closed in upon it and by half-past one every Spanish ship was a half-
sunken wreck on the Cuban coast.

References:

War with Spain. — Henry Cabot Lodge.
With Sampson through the War. — Goode.

Appropriate Selections:
The Men Behind the Guns, p. 224.

July 4, 1609. — Discovery of Lake Champlain.

In 1608, Champlain planted on the St. Lawrence the post of Quebec. The
next year, joining a party of Hurons and Algonquins in a war expedition
against the Five Nations, he ascended the Sorel, and, first of white men, entered
the lake which still bears his name. A series of explorations presently followed,
whence arose the French claims to that vast tract of interior America, compre-
hended, along with Canada and Acadia, under its general name of New France.



IMPORTANT DATES IN AMERICAN HISTORY. 451

References:

Popular History of the United States. — Anderson.
Discovery of America. — Fiske.

Appropriate Selections:

Discovery of Lake Champlain. — Parkman.

The American Indians, in History of the United States.— Hildreth.

July 4, 1776. — Declaration of Independence,

By the last of June the British had been repulsed from Charleston, and in
the meantime, Congress, then in session at Philadelphia, was preparing to de-
clare a separation of the political relations existing between Great Britain and
the colonies. A resolution to that effect offered by Richard Henry Lee of
Virginia, on the 7th of June, was passed by a large majority on the 2d of
July. Two days after, Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia, in behalf of a committee
of five members, presented a document which he had prepared; and, then, July
4, 1776, this document, the Declaration of Independence, was unanimously
adopted by Congress.

Appropriate Selections:
Independence Bell. — Anonymous, p. in.
Speech of John Adams. — Webster, p. 175.
The Bell.— B. F. Taylor, p. 113.

July 4th and 5th, 1778. — Massacre in the Wyoming valley.

When the Wyoming valley was almost defenceless, as most of the able-bodied
men had joined the patriot army, a band of Tories and Indians ravaged and deso-
lated every settlement.

References:

Popular History of the United States.— Bryant.

American Revolution. — Fiske.

1776. — Lossing.

Popular History of the United States.— Anderson.

July 4, 1804. — Nathaniel Hawthorne born.

Selections from:

Mosses from an Old Manse.
Snow Image.
Twice-Told Tales.



452 MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.

July 4, 1817 — First spadeful of earth turned for the Erie canal.

July 4, 1817, the first spadeful of earth was turned for the Erie canal, and
the canal, three hundred and sixty-three miles long, was completed in October,
1825. It was designed by De Witt Clinton, and cost $7,602,000. It has brought
untold wealth to the state.

References:

Popular History of the United States.— Bryant.
Students' History of the United States.— Channing.
The United States.— Schouler.

July 4, 1826. — Death of Jefferson and Adams.

On the fiftieth anniversary of American independence, Thomas Jefferson and
John Adams died. Both were members of the committee that framed the
Declaration of Independence, both signed it, both were foreign ministers, vice-
presidents, and presidents of the United States.

References:

Historic Americans. — Theodore Parker.
Popular History of the United States.— Bryant.
Popular History of the United States.— Anderson.

Appropriate Selections:

Oration on Adams and Jefferson. — Wert.

Selection from Life and Public Services of John Quincy Adams.— Seward.

July 4, 1828. — Driving of the first spike on the Baltimore and Ohio
railroad.
Charles Carroll, the last survivor of the signers of the Declaration of Inde-
pendence, drove the first spike for the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, the first
in America to carry both passengers and freight.

References:

Students' History of the United States.— Channing.
Popular History of the United States.— Bryant.

July 4, 1863. — Capture of Vicksburg.

General Grant having gained a series of victories over the Confederate forces
in the southwest, succeeded in taking Vicksburg, July 4th, after a daring and
perilous siege of several months. Port Hudson having soon afterwards sur-
rendered to General Banks, the Mississippi was completely opened.

References:

Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. — Davis.
Bird's Eye View of Our Civil War. — Dodge.
Story of the Civil War. — Ropes.



IMPORTANT DATES IN AMERICAN HISTORY. 453

Appropriate Selections:
General Grant and the Civil War, p. 187.
Selecton IV, p. 222.

Hymn, for July 4, 1863. — George H. Baker.
The Fall of Vicksburg.— William Ross Wallace.

The Siege of Vicksburg. — Adam Badeau, in Morris' Half-Hours with Ameri-
can History.

July 5, 1814. — Battle of Chippewa.

General Brown met the British under General Riall at Chippewa, near Niagara
Falls, where he won a brilliant victory.

References:

Pictorial Field-Book of the War of 1812. — Lossing.
Popular History of the United States.— Bryant.
Battles of the United States. — Dawson.

July 7, 1898. — Annexation of the Hawaiian Islands.

During the progress of the Spanish war the annexation of the Hawaiian
Islands was finally consumated. A joint resolution was passed by Con-
gress providing for the acquisition of the islands and for their temporary gov-
ernment. A group of twelve islands, with an area of 6,677 square miles and a
population of about 100,000 persons, half of them native islanders, was thus made
American territory.

References :

American Congress. — Moore.

July 9, 1755. — Braddock's defeat.

General Braddock, who had been sent to America as commander-in-chief of
the royal forces, headed the expedition against Fort Duquesne. Disregarding
the suggestions of Washington, his aide-de-camp, he fell into an ambush oi
French and Indians when within a few miles of the fort, and was defeated with
great loss, he himself being mortally wounded.

References:

Popular History of the United States. — Anderson.
History of the United States. — Hildreth.
History of the United States. — Bancroft.

Appropriate Selections:

Defeat of Braddock. — Sparks.

July 10, 1890. — Wyoming admitted to the Union.



454



MANUAL OF PATRIOTISM.



July 12, 1804. — Duel between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr.

Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr met in a duel to settle a political quarrel,
and Hamilton was killed.

References:

Popular History of the United States. — Bryant.

Our Country. — Lossing.

Students' History of the United States.— Channing.

Appropriate Selections:
Eulogy on Hamilton, from a discourse delivered in Albany by Dr. Nott, — found
in Anderson's United States Reader.

July 15, 1779. — Storming of Stony Point.

The American forces, under General Anthony Wayne, forced their way into
the fort from opposite directions, and meeting in the center, compelled the gar-
rison to surender. This stands out in high relief, as one of the most brilliant



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