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Charles S Macfarland.

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LIBRARY

OF THE

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.

Class



THE CHRISTIAN MINISTRY
AND THE SOCIAL ORDER



Christian ^linfetrp an*
Social Artier



LECTURES DELIVERED IN THE COURSE IN

PASTORAL FUNCTIONS AT YALE

DIVINITY SCHOOL,

1908-1909



EDITED BY

CHARLES S. MACFARLAND





NEW HAVEN, CONN.: YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS
LONDON: HENRY FROWDE : : MCMIX



Copyright, 1909, by
YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS



Entered at Stationers' Hall, London






Printed in the United States



PREFACE

THE lectures in this volume were selected from a
supplementary course of constant instruction in
1908-9 at Yale Divinity School, which attempted to
cover, as far as possible, the entire field of pastoral work.
They were chosen out of many, not on the ground of
comparative merit, but solely on the basis of the
subjects herein treated, which may be comprehended
under the relation of the minister to the order of
human society.

They do not adequately represent "the Course in
Pastoral Functions," but only one aspect of the wide
and comprehensive nature of the course. It is also
impossible, in a book, to give anything like complete
expression to the work of the lecturers. In all cases,
these instructors used what might be called the "case
system," setting before the student actual examples of
the way in which these principles have been carried out
in the pastoral work of the instructors. Indeed, the
chief intent of the course is to open up to the theological
student the definite, concrete tasks and problems which
await him. Thus, this volume can only intimate the
deeper nature of such a method of instruction and
can but partially exhibit the lectures themselves, which
were so intimately personal and so peculiarly illustra-
tive as to preclude actual reproduction.



195094



vi PREFACE

The wide-spread interest, however, in both this em-
phasis on the method of instruction and the particular
subjects selected for this volume, has called forth so
many requests for publication that it has been deemed
worth while to publish the book.



CONTENTS

PREFACE v

INTRODUCTION A SIGNIFICANT ELEMENT IN THEOLOGICAL

EDUCATION The Editor 1

THE PART AND PLACE OF THE CHURCH AND THE MINISTRY
IN THE REALIZATION OF DEMOCRACY

Rev. Charles S. Macfarland 11

TRADE UNIONS: THE CAUSES FOR THEIR EXISTENCE

Henry Sterling 45

THE WORK AND METHODS OF TRADE UNIONS

Henry Sterling 63

AN EXPOSITION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE TRADE UNION

MOVEMENT John Mitchell 83

THE OPPORTUNITY OF THE MINISTER IN RELATION TO IN-
DUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS Rev. Charles S. Macfarland 113

THE CHURCH AND THE WAGE-EARNER

Rev. Edwin B. Robinson 145

THE OPPORTUNITY AND THE MISSION OF THE CHURCH AND
MINISTRY AMONG NON-ENGLISH-SPEAKING PEOPLE

Rev. Ozora S. Davis 169

THE MINISTER AND THE RURAL COMMUNITY

Rev. Wilbert L. Anderson 199

THE ESSENTIALS OF A MINISTRY TO MEN

Rev. Anson Phelps Stokes, Jr. 223

THE MINISTRY OF MENTAL HEALING Rev. George B. Cvtten 241

THE MINISTER IN ASSOCIATION WITH INTERNATIONAL MOVE-
MENTS Rev. Frederick Lynch 269



INTRODUCTION

A SIGNIFICANT ELEMENT IN THEOLOGICAL
EDUCATION

BY THE EDITOR



OF THE

f UNIVERSITY J

OF



A SIGNIFICANT ELEMENT IN THEOLOGICAL
EDUCATION

THE institution of "The Course in Pastoral Func-
tions" at Yale Divinity School undoubtedly evi-
denced the serious systematization of an important
method in theological instruction. While it may be
said that this kind of teaching has always been used
in a supplementary way, this is among the early
attempts to make it complete and systematic and to
adjust it to the regular work and study.

There has been a growing feeling that our theological
schools do not have that close and operative relation
with the life of the churches and of human society that
they ought to have. They have been more or less
exclusively academic. While the graduates went forth
to their work thoroughly grounded in the underlying
principles of their ministry, they were not so thoroughly
prepared for the immediate vital and practical prob-
lems and opportunities which awaited them. They
were often unacquainted with their more definite, con-
crete duties.

Our standard theological schools have not been
wanting in strong intellectual equipment. Their fac-
ulties have been adorned by illustrious names. Upon
this side there has been no serious diminishing. The

3



4 THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION

permanent faculties are now composed of eminent
scholars. So far as the inculcation of fundamental
principles is concerned, no one has felt that there was
any general deficiency. Nor is it to be supposed that
there would be any advantage in the disparagement of
this intellectual training. First of all, the minister must
have a great message, and his scholarship needs to be
deep and broad. It would be a serious mistake to
lose any prestige in this respect. Theology in all its
branches, using the word broadly, should remain as the
essential feature of preparation for preaching the gospel.
The so-called practical work is necessarily dependent
and complementary. The lectures in this very course
continually emphasized the work of the minister as a
student. Yale has not been behind the other schools of
learning in her practical work, but it is probably true
that they all have need of some revision in this interest.

There has been, therefore, at least a certain inter-
rogatory attitude as to whether or not there was a
certain lack of practical preparation. Did the men go
out ready to cope with the great problems of the church
and especially of human society? Did they know men
as well as books? Were they prepared to put into
immediate and effective practice the great principles
which they had learned? Men need to know how to
act and what to do, as well as how and what to
think. They must understand the world of life as
well as the universe of principles, and be as familiar
with intimate effects as with remote causes.

Other professional schools, such as those of law and



THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION 5

medicine, have always, or at least for a considerable
time, had faculties composed very largely of men
engaged in the active practice of their professions.
The clinical method and the case system have been
important features. Normal schools are also adopting
the same idea. These new theological courses seem to
be analogous. The men who have been appointed as
instructors are active, and in most cases, remarkably
successful ministers, in average pastorates. They come
to the class-room fresh from their work. It is expected
that they will make the point of connection between the
great principles taught by the regular members of the
faculty, and the actual conditions, needs, and oppor-
tunities which society presents to the minister when he
enters upon his active life. All other departments of
education have found it necessary to subject them-
selves to the processes of modification and substitution,
and there is no reason why this department should not
be amenable to these necessary means of progress.

Moreover, this course of instruction seems to indicate
a large conception of the church and the ministry.
Apparently the minister is not simply to be sent out to
shepherd a particular flock. He is to do this, but more
than this. He is to serve his community, and human
society at large, in any and every way by which his
personality may be brought to bear. He goes out into
the kingdom of God rather than solely into a church.
He is to do more than administer ecclesiastical functions.
The idea seems to be that, from his standing ground as
a pastor, he is to engage in all great social movements,



6 THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION

and is to make his church a directing factor in such
movements. He and the church together are to serve
the world. This is what may be read between the lines
of this system of instruction. It is indicated by such
subjects as that of service among non-English-speaking
people, by Dr. Davis; the relation of the minister to
national and international movements, by Mr. Lynch,
and the work of civic reform, industrial organizations,
political life, and social movements. The course was
evenly balanced in this regard. The care of his church
is not overlooked. He is to look after the flock, but
also to have other sheep not of that fold.

It seems as though this ought to have a marked effect
in making the Christian ministry attractive to strong
men. It cannot be denied that it has been deemed
unattractive. Was this because the minister was sup-
posed to be confined to a limited round of relatively
small functions? Was it because his profession, to a
certain extent, seemed to shut him off from the great
movements of mankind? Undoubtedly there has been
some such feeling, and it has probably had very much
to do with the diminishing number of men seeking this
great profession. If, however, the ministry of the
gospel is to be so large a thing as this scope of prepara-
tion indicates, if the minister from henceforth is to be
a power in civic life, an influence in solving the great
problems of our democracy, then we may venture to
predict a very speedy renaissance.

At any rate the new ministry will be effective. If we
read this programme aright, it means that our Divinity



THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION 7

schools are, first of all, to turn out strong men, men of
action. They are to go out and make strong churches.
They are to make themselves and those churches the
directors of great social movements. It is a splendid
programme.

For example, instruction should be given in the con-
versational use of foreign tongues. Suppose the min-
ister can thus make a point of contact with the great
masses of foreigners who are coming into almost every
community? He might save them from being led
about and unworthily used by selfish leaders. Why
might he not step in and be their guide rather than
the cheap politician? It seems as though there ought
to be a great deal in all this.

This method of systematic practical instruction will
undoubtedly go farther in years to come. It must go
farther if young ministers are to go out into the world
ready to become effective leaders in society. This
element of teaching will unquestionably be amplified
and broadened and given increased space in the theo-
logical curriculum of the future. The course, however,
from which the lectures in this book have been selected,
was fairly comprehensive. In addition to that portion
which is represented in this volume, the following
subjects were also presented :

"The Minister's Work in Civic Reform, in Polit-
ical Life, and in Municipal Betterment," was given
considerable attention. "The Sunday School" was
treated by Rev. A. F. Schauffler, D.D., of New York,
and "The Midweek Service" by Rev. Frederick B.



8 THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION

Richards, of Boston, a graduate of Yale Divinity School
in the class of 1891. The problem of " Church Adminis-
tration and Finances " was opened up by Rev. Henry
A. Stimson, D.D., of New York. "The Methods of
Caring for Church Benevolences " were set forth by
Secretary Cornelius H. Patton, D.D., of the Class of
1886. The "Methods of the Emmanuel Clinic " were
explained by Rev. Elwood Worcester, D.D., of Em-
manuel Church. Rev. Nehemiah Boynton, D.D., of
Brooklyn, instructed the students in the important but
often neglected requirements of "Professional Courtesy."
The bringing in of labour leaders like John Mitchell,
Henry Sterling, and several other social leaders, in
the course in Sociology, is marked evidence of the
seriousness of the work in hand, the idea being to
open up to the students the hearts and consciences of
men who represent great bodies of wage-earners, and
who guide the destinies of other humanitarian move-
ments. Ought not the minister to join forces with
these men at the very beginning of his ministry, or at
least know them, their work and their ideals? Several
well-known business men, including Henry Clews and
Rossiter Raymond, were also brought into this order,
which was carried out under the Department of Soci-
ology. Commercial problems, from another point of
view, were also presented in another series of Uni-
versity lectures, by business leaders. 1

1 Such as " the Page Lectures," published by the Yale University
Press, and including, for example, "Corporate and Other Trusts,"
by James McKeen.



THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION 9

It is interesting to notice the way in which the various
lecturers supplement each other's work. For example,
while one instructor treated the matter of getting into
touch with great outside bodies of wage-earners, in
order to associate them with the church and its ministry,
another, Mr. Robinson, showed what we must do with
them and for them within the church itself.

Not the least among the good results has been that
the academic shades of the school have been lightened
by the wider opening of the doors and windows to the
vital throbbing life of the world of men and deeds.
Thought and contemplation have been brought into
contact with action and achievement. Truth and fact
have come together for adjustment. A certain new
warmth and feeling have been noticeable.

The end is not yet. This has been only a beginning,
although a serious one. When this method is carried
out to completion it will mean a great joining of forces.
The regular faculties are, and should remain, great
scholars, thinkers, men of ideals. These supplementary
instructors are men of action, leaders, doers of the
word that has been taught, men of ideas.

The following up of the lectures by personal inter-
views between the students and the instructors will
offer a further opportunity of helping the students to
get into personal relations with ministers of experience,
and may also acquaint the instructors with present
day theological thought. Indeed, no little of the gain
is to the lecturing visitors themselves.

Undoubtedly, also, the custom will follow, of putting



10 THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION

the students out under the care of such ministers, as a
part of their education. This will help solve the problem
of pecuniary aid, as the students may thus render ser-
vice to the pastors and churches in return for the scholar-
ship funds. This, as a part of the whole scheme, will
help to keep the churches and the schools of theology
in close touch with each other, as they should be.

The theological school should thus be closely asso-
ciated with the college on the one side and with the
churches and the life of the world on the other. Adapt-
ing itself to its twofold environment, it is thus fitted
to fulfil its function as the religious interpreter and
moulder of human society. There ought to be a mighty
movement when these great streams of thought and
streams of action fairly meet.

It ought also to help solve the question of supplying
the ministry with men. It would seem that the strong
young men in our colleges cannot fail to be attracted
by so splendid a conception of the ministry as under-
lies this system of training.

CHARLES S. MACFARLAND,

of the Alumni Advisory Committee of
Yale Divinity School

THE CONGREGATIONAL PARSONAGE,
South Norwcdk, Conn., May 15, 1909.



THE PART AND PLACE OF THE CHURCH
AND THE MINISTRY IN THE REALI-
ZATION OF DEMOCRACY

BY

REV. CHARLES S. MACFARLAND, PH.D.

A graduate of Yale Divinity School in 1897, and the
pastor of the Congregational Church in the manufacturing
and cosmopolitan city of South Norwalk, Connecticut.



THE PART AND PLACE OF THE CHURCH AND
THE MINISTRY IN THE REALIZATION OF
DEMOCRACY

IT becomes my task, in this course, to take you out-
side the work of the pastor in relation to his own
church and parish, and to consider some of the oppor-
tunities for influence and service which the minister
may find in the corporate life of the city, state, and
nation and of human society at large. We are to
consider how he may deal with men in masses and
societies.

I do not mean that this shall be interpreted as any
disparagement of the closer circle of his duties as the
shepherd of his own flock, but, like the Master, he must
have other sheep who are not of that fold.

Nor do I mean, in urging these great practical and
utilitarian considerations, to underestimate the value
of consecrated scholarship or the effect of the preaching
of the gospel. I am assuming that the minister has the
work of his own church in hand, and that he has com-
mand of all its forces. I take for granted that he is
meeting the requirements of his pulpit and his pastorate.
These assumptions are necessary. He must first of all
make his church, and himself as the leader of that
church, a strong central power from which his wider

13



14 THE MINISTER AND DEMOCRACY

influence must radiate. His forces must be both cen-
tripetal and centrifugal.

For example, if he is to fill this larger place which I
am to describe, he must have, first of all, the intellectual
power to dominate the minds of men. He must have
spiritual influence in order to reach and change their
hearts and must, above all, win their allegiance and
affection.

While there are many petty functions from which he
must teach and induce his people to be large enough
to release him, he must not neglect to conserve the
forces of his own church as the centre of his power, in
order that he may thus have an unshaken platform
from which to speak to the more distant and uncertain
multitudes. While the electrical forces of his person-
ality must extend to vital touch with every department
of human life, the unfailing battery must be in his own
church and study.

Thus you must realize, at the outset, that I am not
misleading you to substitute the circumference for the
centre. I shall fail of my object if I lead you to suppose
that you are to dissipate your forces and spread your-
selves out thin. The real fact, therefore, is, that it is
only the man who is strong in his own church who can
maintain his strength in the larger life of his community.
Indeed, to a large extent, he must work out his influ-
ence, not by direct contact, but through other person-
alities. Those personalities must be the men, and the
women also, of his own church.

With this understanding, I will now proceed to open



THE MINISTER AND DEMOCRACY 15

up to you, if I can, some ways in which the minister
may become a vital factor in his city, a man to be
reckoned with in every great movement, a man to be
consulted upon all important questions affecting the
life of the people, a dominant force in the making and
the moulding of the democratic order.

He will not find this position already waiting for him.
If he will allow himself to be ignored he will be pretty
much left alone within the narrow circle of his own
parish. He must create his own power. He must seek
and find his larger opportunities. To do this he will
need to become a keen, observant, energetic, instant,
moral opportunist.

All the great movements of mankind, in the social
and the political orders of our great and divine humani-
tarian interests, may be comprehended as the struggle,
in which our own nation is leading, for the realization
of a true democracy, a Christian democracy, the effort
to actually realize human brotherhood under the divine
fatherhood.

You enter upon your ministry under very new and
different conditions from those which your fathers, or
even your elder brothers, faced. You look out upon a
very complex life and civilization. Your parishes, and
your communities still more, you will find, in a large
sense, will be made up of many alien peoples and many
divergent minds and movements. They ought to be so
constituted. The more they are so, the better.

If you thus look out upon the life around you with a
thoughtful and serious heart, you will at once be faced



16 THE MINISTER AND DEMOCRACY

by great and perplexing problems. How is all this
social chaos to be made a moral cosmos? How are we
to bring all these widely differing peoples to live to-
gether in mutual understanding and affection? How
shall the employer and the wage-earner be brought to
obey the Master's command that men should love one
another? How shall our political and civic life be
transformed into a true theocracy? How shall all its
great evil powers be destroyed and its forces of right-
eousness be brought to prevail? He who looks out
upon human affairs thoughtfully will share the varying
and contrasting moods of the great psalmists. Such a
man faces a world which often makes him shudder, fills
his soul with horror, at times with depressing doubts,
and even, occasionally, with flashes of despair. He is
sometimes tempted to lay aside all our modern idealism
and be satisfied with getting a few choice souls into the
ark of safety, letting the floods prevail. For he wit-
nesses on every hand the damning sordid greed of gold.
Upon all sides the world's bribes, its prostitutions of
sacred trusts, its usurious profits, the binding of heavy
burdens grievous to be borne, its manifold representa-
tions of Dives at his table and Lazarus at the gate, its
whited sepulchres filled with dead men's bones, its
specious, haggard codes of both individual and corpo-
rate conduct, its heartless social castes. The man whose
soul is not occasionally cast down can hardly have a
soul to be cast down.

All of these great problems are too much for him
without God. His ultimate conclusion is either of two



THE MINISTER AND DEMOCRACY 17

unevadable alternatives it is either God and infinite
hope, or atheism and absolute despair. If, in the face
of his tremendous undertaking, he holds to the former,
he becomes a man of power, with both "the vision and
the task." Thus, like the psalmist, he must lift up
his eyes unto the hills, his mood must change, and
while he remains a thoughtful realist attempting the
problem, he must also become a great and glowing
idealist, believing in God, and believing also in mankind.
For, when lighted up by a radiant idealism, our
democracy assumes a splendid view. As I look out of
my study window, from the hilltop, I look upon a
glorious sight. It is not only that of the beautiful
waters of the sound; I love still more to look down
upon the smoky factories with their busy hum, and out
upon the great industrial life down yonder in the dis-
tricts where the peoples from all nations of the world,
and the islands of the sea, have come that they might
find truth and freedom. It is a resplendent vision just
because it does give men a splendid problem to solve
and a great work to do. It fills the minister with a
deep and responsible joy as he looks out upon those
great difficulties with the splendid consciousness in his
own heart and soul that he, and he in a certain way
almost alone, has the key to their solution in the great
gospel of his Master. He knows that where there is
no vision the people perish. He must look out upon
the heavenly horizon and witness the mirage. As he
looks down upon the life of his city he sees there, with
his splendid idealism, the new Jerusalem coming down



18 THE MINISTER AND DEMOCRACY

from God. His glorious task is not merely to save a
few fragments of human society, but to make his city
that new Jerusalem descending out of heaven, a holy
city. Thus every preacher's study should become an
Isle of Patmos.

Then there is another way of looking at this great
industrial and social order. He goes out, and as he
walks about the street and hears the rhythmic hum of
the factories, especially at dusk, when their lights are
shining, he thinks of the patient men and women in
there making, for their fellow men, the clothing that
they wear. Then the whirling wheels are music to his
ears and the curling smoke from the chimney-top is
like incense ascending to heaven. As he passes the
busy store he sees the weary girl with her aching back,
waiting upon and serving her fellows. He meets the
tired teacher of the public schools just going from her
arduous ministry, the lawyer who has just been trying
to gain justice for his clients. He passes the doors of
the hospital where the physician and the nurse have
kept their night-long vigil. He takes the street car, or
the train, and finds men ready to serve him and carry
him about upon his errands of mercy. As he returns
to his home by night he passes the policeman faithfully
and shiveringly protecting human life. In the mid-
night hour he hears the loud alarm and knows that
men are ready to protect his home from the dread
ravages of fire. Thus, everywhere, on every hand, in
this great democratic life of ours, he sees that men and
women are serving each other, according to the Master's


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Online LibraryCharles S MacfarlandThe Christian ministry and the social order; lectures delivered in the Course in pastoral functions at Yale divinity school, 1908-1909; → online text (page 1 of 18)