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LIVESAY, G. H. P., Woodleigh, Worthing.
LLOYD, John, Astwick Manor, Hatfield, Herts.
LODER, Gerald W. E., F.S.A., Wakehurst Place, Ardingly.
LUCAS, C. J., Warnham Court, Horsham.

MABERLY, Miss, Mytten, Cuckfield, Hayward's Heath.

MACFARLANE, J. B., 49, East Street, Brighton.

MCKELLAR, Surgeon-General E., Woodleigh, Preston Park,


MALDEN, H. M. S., Henley House, Frant.

MARCH, Fredk. C., 9, Cornwall Gardens, Preston Park, Brighton.
MARGESSON, Major E. W., Findon Place, Worthing.
MARTYN, W. E., 2, Temple Gardens, London, E.G.
MAYHEWE, Arthur, D.L., Wyfolds, Eastbourne.
MEE, Rev. J. H., The Chantry, Westbourne, Emsworth.
MERRIFIELD, F., 14, Clifton Terrace, Brighton.
MITCHELL, G. S., Broadbridge Place, Horsham.
MITCHELL, Reginald F., Lyminster Lodge, Arundel.
MITCHELL, W. Woods, Maltravers House, Arundel.
MONK, Mrs., St. Anne's, Lewes.
MONTGOMERIE, D. H., 69, Bedford Gardens, Campden Hill,

London, W.

MOOR, Rev. Prebendary, Preston Vicarage, Brighton.
MURRAY, T. Douglas, Iver Place, Iver, Bucks.

NEWGASS, Mrs., Shernfold Park, Frant.

NEWINGTON, Mrs. Campbell, The Holme, Inner Circle, Regent's

Park, London, N.W.
NEWLANDS, The Right Hon. Lord, Barrowfield Lodge, Brighton.


NICHOLSON, Arthur, 30, Brunswick Square, Brighton.
NICHOLSON, Wm. Edward, Lewes.
NORFOLK, His Grace the Duke of, E.M., K.G., Arundel Castle.


NORMAN, Rev. S. J., M.A., F.R.G.S., South Lawn, Chichester.
NORTON, Rev. F. C., Ditchling Vicarage, Hassocks.


OLIVER, Mrs., 26, Brunswick Terrace, Brighton.
OSBORNE, Sir Francis, Bart., The Grange, Framfield.

PAKENHAM, The Hon. Lady, Bernhurst House, Hurst Green.
PEACH, Charles Stanley, Abingworth, Thakeham.
PEMBERTON, C. S., 24, Brunswick Terrace, Hove.
PENNEY, Norman, F.S.A., Devonshire House, Bishopsgate,

London, E.G.
PENNEY, Sidney Rickman, Larkbarrow, Dyke Road Drive,


PHILCOX, Miss, Ashburnham, Patcham.
PLUMMER, H., Lyntonville, Hayward's Heath.
PONSONBY, Mrs. J. H., 15, Chesham Place, London, S.W.
POPLEY, Wm. Hulbert, 13, Pavilion Buildings, Brighton.
PORTEOUS, Mrs., 25, Stanhope Gardens, London, S.W.

RALLI, Mrs. Stephen, St. Catherine's Lodge, Hove.
RANDALL, Mrs., Cocking Rectory, Midhurst.
RAWLINSON, George, Roseneath, Hurstpierpoint.
RECKITT, Mrs. Arthur B., Kenmore, St. Leonard's-on-Sea. (Two.)
REEVE, Kingsworth, Meryon House, Rye.
RENDELL, Rev. Canon, Eydon Rectory, Byfield, Northants.
RENSHAW, Walter C., K.C., Sandrocks, Hayward's Heath.
RENTON, J. Hall, Rowfield Grange, Billingshurst.
RICHARDSON, David, The Gables, Elswick, Newcastle-on-Tyne.
RICHMOND AND GORDON, His Grace the Duke of, K.G., Good-
wood, Chichester. (Two.)

RIDSDALE, E. A., 7, Queen's Gate Gardens, London, S.W.
ROBERTS, Henry D., 35, Florence Road, Brighton.
ROUND, J. Horace, LL.D., 15, Brunswick Terrace, Hove.

SALZMANN, L. F., Hope Park, Bromley, Kent.
SAMPSON, Lt.-Col. Dudley, D.L., Buxshalls, Lindfield.
SANDEMAN, Lt.-Col. J. G., M.V.O., F.S.A., Whin-Hurst, Hayling

Island, Havant.

SANDS, Harold, F.S.A., Bernersmede, Carlisle Road, Eastbourne.
SAYER-MILWARD, Rev. W. C., Fairlight Place, Ore.
SCARR, George, Beach House, Radcliffe, Lancashire.
SCOTT, C. H., Heaton Mersey, Manchester.


SCULL, W. D., B.A., The Pines, Crowborough Beacon.

SHIELL, A. G., St. Dennis, Withdeane.

SIGNET LIBRARY, The, Edinburgh (John Minto, M.A., Librarian).

SIMEON, Rev. J. P., The Vicarage, Patcham.

SLADE, Edward F., Ham brook Grange, Emsworth.

SMITH, Alpheus, Glendale, 14, Leigham Vale, Streatham, S.W.

SMITH, R. Cunliffe, Glenleigh House, Hankham, Pevensey.

SMITH, Wm. J., 41-43, North Street, Brighton. (Three.)

SMITHERS, H. W., 9, Eaton Gardens, Hove.

SNEWIN, Hubt. E., Hawthorndene, Worthing.

STANDEN, Gilbert, 34, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London.

STEVENS, F. Bentham, LL.B., High Street, Lewes.

STEWART, Edward, Brook House, East Grinstead.

STREATFEILD, R. J., The Rocks, Uckfield.


THOMAS, D. C., 21, Second Avenue, Hove. (Three.)
THOMAS, Mrs., 21, Second Avenue, Hove. (Three.)
THOMAS, Walter L., 7, More's Garden, Cheyne Walk, London,


TOLLEMACHE, Hon. Mrs. R., 10, Brunswick Terrace, Hove.
TREDGOLD, Miss, 12, Holland Road, Kensington, London, W.
TREE, B. H. W., 15, St. Margaret's Road, St. Leonard's-on-Sea.
TURNOUR-FETHERSTONHAUGH, Lt.-Col. the Hon. K., Up-park,


WAHL, Mrs. R. F., i, Pembridge Square, Bayswater, London.

WEDGWOOD, Rowland H., Slindon, Arundel.

WILLETT, Mrs., St. Andrew's, Seaford.

WINCHILSEA AND NOTTINGHAM, The Right Hon. the Earl of,

Harlech, Merioneth.

WOOLLAN, Joseph Henry, 42, South Park Road, Wimbledon.
WYATT, Rev. T. G., The Vicarage, Hay ward's Heath.
WYNDHAM, Colonel C. J., Heathfield Lodge, Midhurst.
WYNDHAM, Hon. Percy, Clouds, East Knoyle, Salisbury.

YOUNG, Rev. W. E. A., Pyecombe Rectory, Hassocks.

Sussex in the Great Civil War and
the Interregnum 1642-1660



HE who sets out to write the history of his county in a
period of great national disturbance will be faced ere
he has advanced far by the difficulty of delimiting his fron-
tier. For ordinary administrative purposes, civil or military,
a county may be a satisfactory unit, but county boundaries
mean nothing to soldiers in the field; their proceedings
are governed by other considerations. It is, therefore, not
surprising to find that the military operations, not in them-
selves very considerable, which took place in Sussex during
the Civil War, were closely interwoven with similar opera-
tions in the adjoining counties of Hampshire, Surrey, and
Kent. And no less than the movements of the armies were
the motions and aspirations of the civil population deter-
mined by what was happening elsewhere. It is my purpose,
while bearing in mind this relation to the main drift of
events, to set forth as far as may be in ordered sequence
the chief occurrences within the county, to glance at the
state of its inhabitants at the time, and now and then to
follow the fortunes of Sussex men who were playing their
part upon a wider stage.

One advantage the historian of to-day enjoys. It is no
longer expected that he should take a side. He need not
speak of " rebels " or " malignants," and if he uses the term



" regicide," it will be not as a stigma of reproach, but as a
convenient label. The conventional idea of the eighteenth
century, born on the day when Charles faced the block
with placid courage, fostered by the sycophantic histories
of the Restoration and by the attitude of the Church, and
kept alive in romantic minds by the pathos which attaches
to a fallen dynasty the idea that the King was almost a
demi-god and wholly a martyr, and that Cromwell and his
associates were a set of bloodthirsty criminals, has not
survived the investigations of a scientific age. The re-
action of the nineteenth century went too far. The
" usurper " found a strange medley of worshippers. He
was hailed alike as hero by the advocates of resolute
government, and as saint by peace-at-any-price dissenters.
One party recalled with envy his " settlement " of the
Irish question; the other with admiration that he helped to
abolish bishops and brought a king to trial. Then at
length the truth emerged. The painstaking, emotionless,
scientific historian, concerned to co-ordinate facts rather
than to bolster up a parti pris, in the full maturity of his
unrivalled knowledge summed up the Civil War, not as the
licentious uprising of ill-restrained ambition against divinely
constituted sovereignty, but as " rendered inevitable by the
inadequacy of the intellectual methods of the day to effect
a reconciliation between opposing moral forces which
derived their strength from the past development of the
nation " ; x and he pronounced Cromwell to have been " no
divinely inspired hero, indeed, or faultless monster, but a
brave honourable man, striving, according to his lights, to
lead his countrymen into the paths of peace and god-
liness." *

And although the echoes of that great convulsion have
reverberated almost until our own time, the conditions of
our existence to-day are too far divergent to colour, at all

1 S. R. Gardiner, History of the Great Civil War, ch. i.

2 Ibid. Preface to the Second Edition.


reasonably, our views of it. We may feel some sympathy
for the weak, if well-meaning, king, succeeding to the evil
heritage of his father's " king-craft " and bad counsellors,
and driven to desperate courses by his imperious wife ; 1
we may respect the persistence with which he maintained
" his own conception of government, that of a wise prince
constantly interfering to check the madness of the people," 2
even if the duplicity of his methods repels us, and we
realize that his " habitual perfidy " (in Macaulay's phrase)
made it impossible for men once strenuously in opposition
to come to any terms which they could confidently believe
to be binding on him; we may admire his patience in
adversity, and especially the courage and dignity with
which he met his end ; but into the ideas and, especially,
the religious enthusiasms of his opponents, few of us are
able to-day to enter. Politically we live under something
like the conditions for which at the beginning of the con-
test they were striving ; in questions of faith and of reli-
gious organization the modern world is taking a wholly
different line from theirs; for most of us their aspirations
and their difficulties have little meaning; their very lan-
guage is commonly distasteful to us.

With the decisive battles of Hastings and Lewes upon
its records, the county of Sussex must ever hold a foremost
place in English military history. But owing partly to
its geographical position, partly to the general attitude
of its inhabitants, it was left out of the main stream of
contention in the great Civil War. Its cathedral of Chi-
chester indeed suffered severely, its feudal castle of Arundel
was partly destroyed, some of its great houses were battered,
and it may be that some of its iron forges were damaged ;
apart from these the county endured little injury from the
ravages of war. Yet the drain of able-bodied men, the

1 " Go, you coward, and pull out those rogues by the ears," she
said, to urge him to attempt the arrest of the five members.
a Gardiner, ch. Ixxi.


fines and sequestrations which crippled the Royalist gentry,
and the unprecedented taxation which fell heavily on all
classes must have had a very depressing effect on the
county's well being at the time.

The historian Buckle, 1 with his own theories to support,
has represented the Civil War as a war of classes. It was
certainly not so in its inception; it was rather a war of
temperaments. If the majority of the nobility and gentry
was for the King, and the majority of the yeomanry and
townsfolk for the Parliament, there was a great and power-
ful minority in each class ; the political cleft was far from
coinciding accurately with the social cleft. 2 Yet it is also
true that as time wore on the able men who rose from the
ranks of the lesser gentry and the commercial classes on
the parliamentary side pushed out the aristocratic leaders
who owed their position to their birth; and it may be
remarked that the flood-tide of parliamentary success was
coincident with the rise of these new men.

In Sussex the dividing line was certainly not social. Of
the great nobles, Thomas, Earl of Arundel, was on the
Royalist side, but he resided abroad, busy with the col-
lection of works of art, and took no part in the contest.
Against him may fairly be set Algernon Percy, Earl of
Northumberland, the lord of Petworth, " the proudest man
alive," 3 who held high office under the Parliament. Of the
gentry, especially in West Sussex, numerous leading
families, some of them Catholic, took the King's part;
among them may be named the Gages, the Gorings of
Danny, the Bishops, the Lunsfords, the Coverts, the
Culpeppers, the Fords, the Bowyers, May of Rawmere, the
Morleys of Halnaker, the Ashburnhams, the Carylls, and
the Lewknors. It is noticeable that some of these, such as
the Bowyers, the Mays, and the Morleys (to be distin-
guished from the Morleys of Glynde), were of the newer

1 History of Civilization in England, vol. ii, ch. iii.

2 See Gardiner, Civil War, ch. i. 3 Clarendon.


class of gentry, who had purchased land with the profits of
commerce or the law, and, as may be frequently observed
in such cases, were perhaps especially inclined to take
what seemed the more aristocratic side. In the parlia-
mentary ranks will be found names no less eminent for
descent or position in the county. The Pelhams, the
Eversfields, the Gorings of Burton, the Gratwicks, the
Burrells, Colonel Morley of Glynde, Sir John Trevor, Hay
of Glyndbourne, Sir Herbert Springate, Anthony Stapley
of Patcham, Thomas Middleton of Hills Place, William
and Thomas Michelbourne, Peter Courthope, Henry
Shelley, Anthony Shirley of Preston these were among
the Sussex gentry who, being members of the Long Parlia-
ment, took the Covenant, or at some time were in the
military or civil service of the Parliament. And of many
of the leading families some members took one side, and
some the other.

If the gentry were divided, the burgesses, the yeomanry,
and the inhabitants generally were for the Parliament, as
in the other counties of the south-east and east. Sussex
especially had become very Puritan, 1 and it may be that
the slow, conservative, independent character of the Anglo-
Saxon population inclined it to view political differences
from a severely practical standpoint. The romantic attach-
ment to a royal house, regardless of its merits or faults,
especially in time of misfortune, which prevailed in the
more impressionable west, had no great force in hard-
headed Sussex.

In the seventeenth century forest covered a great part of
Sussex, which is still one of the most thickly timbered
counties in England. A contemporary writer 2 speaks of
the weald as having formerly been a most unfruitful
wilderness, and unfitted either for pasture or tillage until
it be " holpen by some manner of comfort, as dung, marie,

1 See ch. ii. a Gervase Markham.


fresh earth, fodder, ashes or such other refreshments." In
his day and for long after agriculture was in a backward
state, the fields small, badly drained, and surrounded by
woods or " shaws," which increased the general dampness
of the county. These conditions and the exceeding badness
of the Sussex roads made military operations within the
county very difficult. It was only a hard and prolonged
frost which enabled both Hopton and Waller to march
considerable armies with great rapidity to Arundel in
December, 1643; an d later, the Parliament declined to
demolish certain great houses in the county, which it was
feared might be seized by the Royalists, on the ground that
their situation would be their best defence.

The usual condition of the roads doubtless preserved the
county from a very active share in the operations of the
war. Their deficiencies at this time and long after have
been the theme of many writers. In the spring of 1690
Lord Chancellor Cowper, then a barrister on the Home
Circuit, wrote to his wife from Kingston-on-Thames
excusing himself for not having written to her from Hors-
ham, since from that place letters had to be sent six miles
to meet the post : " I write to you from this place as soon
as I arrive to tell you I have come off without hurt, both
in my going and return through Sussex ways, which are
bad and ruinous beyond imagination. I vow 'tis a melan-
choly consideration that mankind will inhabit such a heap
of dirt for a poor livelihood. The county is a sink of about
fourteen miles broad which receives all the water that falls
from two long ranges of hills on both sides of it; and not
being furnished with convenient draining, is kept moist
and soft by the water till the middle of a dry summer,
which is only able to make it tolerable to ride for a short
time." l Even in the eighteenth century such was the con-
dition of Sussex roads and Sussex civilization, that the

1 Lord Campbell's Life of Lord Chancellor Cowper, p. 267.


judges in the Spring Circuits dared venture no farther into
the county than the border towns of Horsham and East
Grinstead to hold their assizes. 1 A practical Sussex lady,
Judith, widow of Sir Richard Shirley of Preston, who had
remarried a judge in London, in her will dated loth January
1728, expressed a wish " to be buried at Preston if I die at
such time of the year as the roads thereto are passable,
else where my executors think fit." Fortunately she died
in the month of June, and her wish was carried out. 2 The
learned pedant, Dr. John Burton, who wrote an account in
Greek and Latin of his journey into Sussex in 1751, was
anything but complimentary to the county and its in-
habitants: " Why is it that the oxen, the swine, the women
and all other animals are so long-legged in Sussex? May
it be from the difficulty of pulling the feet out of so much
mud by the strength of the ankle, that the muscles get
stretched as it were and the bones lengthened?" He com-
plains that the moment he left the old Roman causeway of
Stane Street he " fell immediately upon all that was most
bad, upon a land desolate and muddy, whether inhabited
by men or beasts a stranger could not easily distinguish,
and upon roads which were, to explain concisely what is
most abominable, Sussexian." 3

Sussex was doubtless regarded by Londoners as a savage
and outlandish county. Their flesh was made to creep by
such tales as the following of the existence of uncanny
monsters in its purlieus: "True and Wonderful. A dis-
course relating to a strange and monstrous Serpent (or
Dragon) lately discovered and yet living to the great
Annoyance and divers Slaughters both of Men and Cattell,
by his strong and violent Poyson: In Sussex, two miles
from Horsam, in a Woode called St. Leonard's Forrest, and
thirtie miles from London, this present Month of August,

1 S. A. C., xi, 182.

' 2 Stemmata Shirleiana, 2nd ed., 1873, p. 314.

8 S. A. C., viii, 254-7.


1614." l This pamphlet relates that "there is a vast and
unfrequented place, heathie, vaultie, full of unwholesome
shades and overgrowne hollows, where this Serpent is
thought to be bred ; but wheresoever bred, certaine and too
true it is that there it yet lives. . . . He is of Countenance
very proud, and at the sight or hearing of men or cattel
will raise his necke upright and seem to listen and looke
about with great arrogancy. There are likewise on either
side of him discovered two great bunches so big as a large
foote-ball, and (as some think) will in time grow to wings ;
but God, I hope, will (to defend the poor people in the
neighbourhood) that he be destroyed before he grow so

When tales of such prodigies were eagerly swallowed it
is not surprising that a belief in witchcraft, which was held
in the highest quarters, and survived until long afterwards,
still prevailed. The papers of the Corporation of Rye
record several cases. In 1608 Anne, wife of George Taylor,
gentleman, was condemned to death for witchcraft, but on
the interference of the Earl of Northampton, Lord Warden
of the Cinque Ports, she was respited and apparently
escaped. His lordship wrote with humanity and discre-
tion : " As I like at no hand that authority be made a mark
to revenge private injuries, so am I not credulous of every
information I receive against the magistrates for due execu-
tion of justice, yet in this case I could be well contented in
respect of her sex and her present state, being now with
child, and grown very weak by reason thereof, and the
loathsomeness of the prison, to afford her all favour war-
rantable by law." 2 In 1645 the Mayor ordered that Martha,
the wife of Stephen Bruff, and Anne Howsell, widow, being
suspected to be witches, should be tried by putting them
into the water. 3

But if her agriculture was backward, and her means of

1 London, J. Trundle, 1614. Harleian Miscellany, iii, 109.

2 Rye MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com., xiii 4), 137 seq. 3 Ibid., 216.


communication inadequate not an unmitigated evil in
time of war Sussex enjoyed other sources of wealth.
From early times the richness of the deposits of iron ore
and the abundance of fuel had occasioned a considerable
iron industry, which in the reign of Henry VIII became of
national importance. The first iron cannons made in Eng-
land were cast at Buxted by Ralph Hoge or Hogge in
1543. This founder employed as assistant Peter Baude, a
Frenchman; and about the same time Peter van Collet, a
Flemish gunsmith, devised and cast mortar pieces from
ii to 19 inches bore. 1 Their English pupils would seem in
course of time to have outstripped their masters. Shortly
before the Civil War we find two Frenchmen proceeded
against for " practising to allure into France Sir Sackville
Crow's workmen for casting ordnance." 2

At the time of the Civil War there were in Sussex about
twenty-seven furnaces, at most of which guns and shot were
made, and about forty-two forges or iron-mills. It was stated
in a petition to Charles II, praying for protection against
Swedish iron, that under the Commonwealth the iron works
had employed " at least 50,000 lusty able workmen." Even
if this is an exaggeration, a large working population must
have been engaged not only at the works themselves, but
in the cutting, hauling, and preparation of fuel, and in the
shipment of the finished product, which generally took place
from Lewes, Newhaven, or Rye. The great landowners,
such as the Pelhams, the Carylls, and the Nevilles, added
to their wealth by engaging in the industry, or by finding
in it a market for their timber; and newer families, such as
the Burrells, the Gratwickes, the Fowles, and the Fullers
rose by its aid to an important position in the county. In
the Civil War the almost uninterrupted possession of Sussex
and its iron-works must have been an asset of considerable
value to the Parliamentary cause.

1 Rye MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com., xiii, 4), ii, 183.

2 Cal. S. P. Dom., Chas. I, Ixx, 103 ; Ixii, 28.


The wholesale destruction of timber as fuel at the iron-
works was viewed with much disapproval in certain quarters.
Drayton expressed a sentimental regret:

Jove's oak, the warlike ash, vein'd elm, the softer beech,
Short hazel, maple plain, light asp, the bending wych,
Tough holly, and smooth birch, must altogether burn,
What should the builder serve, supplies the forger's turn. 1

And other commercial interests raised objections. Shore-
ham, Hastings, and Rye had for centuries done a large
trade in "billets" for firewood, not only coast-wise, but
with French ports. With the development of the iron in-
dustry, the price of these rapidly rose. In 1580 the charge
at Brighton for " billet or tale wood " had risen from 2s. 6d.
the hundredweight to 8s? The Corporations of Hastings
and Rye conferred on the subject, 3 and pressed for legisla-
tive interference. Various acts were passed regulating the
cutting of wood to make charcoal for the furnaces, and pro-
hibiting the use of timber trees for that purpose, in the
interests of the shipbuilding industry, 4 for which the excel-
lence of Sussex oak made it especially valuable. Long
afterwards it was noted that " the quality of the oak timber
may be collected from the circumstance of the Navy Con-
tractors preferring it in all their agreements and stipulating
for Sussex before every other species of oak." 5

For Sussex was not only an agricultural and a manu-
facturing county; its extended coast-line gave it some
maritime importance, which in earlier times had been much
greater. It has been shown that under Edward the Con-
fessor there was a desire to make the Sussex ports, Win-
chelsea, Rye, and New Burgh (Hastings), " a strong link of
communication between England and Normandy," by plac-

1 Polyolbion, Song XVII. 2 S. A. C., ii, 51.

3 Rye MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com., xiii, 4), p. 56.

1 Viet. Hist. Sussex, ii, 247.

5 Young, Agric. of Sussex, p. 164.


ing them under the control of F6camp Abbey, 1 and that
Steyning, then a port, was granted by Edward to the same
body. 2 Sussex abounded in harbours adapted to the use of

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