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Appledram, 20 to Mr. Abbot of Midhurst, 10 to Mr.
Bothell of Merston, and $ to Mr. Welborne of Funting-
ton ; and to settle go out of certain tithes to other min-
isters named. Also to settle 60 out of the tithes of Oving
upon such ministers as the County Committee should ap-
point. 3 No less than 378 such grants are recorded between
6th October 1652 and 4th September 1655.*

From these and other sources a considerable number of
small livings were augmented, especially between 1656 and
1658.' William Speed, who had succeeded John Corbett as
minister at Chichester, was granted .80 in addition to a
former sum of .90 ; e and the vicarage of Rye received an
increase of 70.'' With the same object many adjacent
livings were united. 8 Patching was joined to Clapham, the
parishioners of the latter certifying that their minister,

1 Cal. Com. for Compounding, 1216, undated, but probably 1651.

2 Ibid. 3 /*/., 1863.

4 Ibid., v, xxvi. 5 See Viet. Hist. Sussex, ii, 37.

6 Cal. S. P. Dom., Interreg., cxxxi, 52. 7 Ibid., clvii, 85.

8 Viet. Hist. Sussex, loc. cit.



296 SUSSEX IN THE GREAT CIVIL WAR

Samuel Wilmer, had been " zealous in gathering the scat-
tered saints into one body to enjoy gospel ordinances," but
was overwhelmed with expense. The parishes of St. Peter-
the-Less, St. Pancras, and St. Martin were united with St.
Andrew's, Chichester, that of Earnley with East Witter-
ing, and that of Climping with Ford ; l Ovingdean was
joined to Brighton, 2 Tortington to Arundel, 3 and Tangmere
to Boxgrove. 4

The loyalty of young John Stapley and his brother
Anthony to the Commonwealth, of which their father had
been so conspicuous a pillar, was not long proof against
the pressure of family and social influence. Not only had
his mother been a sister of George Goring, Earl of Norwich
(she died in 1637), but he had himself married a daughter
of Sir Herbert Springate of Broyle Place, by his wife
Barbara, daughter of Sir William Campion. At old Lady
Campion's house in London John Stapley made the ac-
quaintance of Dr. Hewitt, an ex-chaplain of Charles I, who
had been permitted to hold the living of " Gregory's near
Paul's." Hewitt was a preacher of great eloquence;
" doctor mellifluus, doctor altivolans, et doctor inexhausti-
bilis," a fervid admirer termed him. He employed his
influence in the interest of Charles II, collected money for
distressed Cavaliers, and in the winter of 1657-8 was busy
hatching a plot. Charles was to land, either in Sussex or
on the east coast, with a force of 8,000 men, under the
command of Marsin; his landing to be the signal for a
general rising, Hewitt's own business being with the City
of London. But "the doctor," wrote Corker the Spy to
Morland, Thurloe's assistant, "is rather a Tully than a
Catiline, and hath been more prevalent with his tongue
than his brains." 5

Hewitt had no great difficulty in winning over John

1 Cal. S. P. Dom., Interreg., cxxx, 5. 2 Ibid., cliv, 12.

3 Ibid., clvi, 105. 4 Ibid.) clxxx, 163.

6 Thurloe, State Papers, i, 718.



MAJOR-GEN. GOFFE AND JOHN STAPLEY 297

Stapley to his side. Stapley seemed a valuable recruit; he
was held a moderate man ; " many would rise with him
who would not follow the Cavaliers." Among the Royalists
he was looked up to as the most influential man in the
county of Sussex. 1 Hewitt played on his fears, represent-
ing that if he did not assist at the restoration of Charles II
he was a lost man, his father having been so prominent on
the other side; and on his ambition, by offering him a
commission, made out to " Sir John Stapley, Baronet," for
raising a regiment of five hundred horse, with supreme
command in Sussex.

Armed with his commission, Stapley proceeded to Sussex,
and sounded some of his friends. His brother Anthony
readily joined the plot. Captain Henry Mallory was offered
a commission. Stapley appointed a rendezvous with George
Hutchinson of Cuckfield "in a great furzy field near
Brighthempstead," and pressed him to be Major in his
regiment. Stapley said he had two hundred arms, and
had kept fourteen horses in his stable all that winter. Ten
or fifteen days later, Stapley, Mallory, and Hutchinson
met at Hangleton races. Stapley said he had been in
London and seen Cromwell, who " gave him a severe look
at first, but that they parted on good terms."

Mr. Thomas Woodcock of Newtimber met Stapley
hunting, and they held some discourse concerning the
raising of forces in Sussex. " It was but very little, because
we were at that time in sport and had not time to speak of
it" Subsequently at Patcham, in his " own house in his
chamber," Stapley offered Woodcock a commission.
Woodcock said he had no interest in the county to raise
men, but would venture his own person in the service.

Anthony Stapley, who resided at Lewes, was also active.
William Dyke of Frant subsequently deposed that towards

1 Information of Henry Mallory, taken at Preston, I4th April.
This and other depositions in this matter are printed in Thurloe,
vol. vii.



298 SUSSEX IN THE GREAT CIVIL WAR

the end of March, being in Clifford's Inn, he walked with
Captain Anthony Stapley, who told him there was a design
for Charles Stuart coming to England, and proposed to him
that he should be of his party. Dyke replied that he did
not believe he could come in, but Stapley said that he knew
there was a great party for him. About a fortnight later
Stapley came to his home at Frant and stayed a few days.
He said the landing would shortly take place, and asked
what horses and arms Dyke had. Dyke replied, two geld-
ings and no arms. They went together to Tonbridge and
stayed to dine there, and Stapley sent a messenger to Mr.
Rivers, who lived near, asking him to come over to them.
When Rivers came, Stapley took notice of the horse he
rode, and told Dyke he intended it for a charging horse in
the intended insurrection. Rivers asked 30 for the horse,
and Stapley said if he would take his note of hand he
would give it. Stapley then told Rivers that Charles Stuart
was shortly to land, and Rivers agreed with Dyke that his
attempt would be vain.

While the Stapley brothers were pursuing this very in-
effectual course Woodcock spoke of John Stapley's " im-
becility in martial affairs " Thurloe's spies were keeping
him informed as to the progress of the plot. Chief among
these was a clergyman named Francis Corker, formerly
Vicar of Bradford, who pretended to be a devoted Royalist,
and was admitted to the counsels of the party. At the
Restoration he endeavoured to curry favour by asserting
that he had often persuaded Thurloe to liberate Royalist
prisoners. He then asserted that he had had little associa-
tion with Stapley, but had received money from him, part
of which he had lent to distressed Cavaliers. Corker wrote
to Thurloe that he had seen the commissions in blank
directed to several counties. There were six commissions
for Sussex, to be delivered to Mr. Stapley, and issued by
him to whom he pleased. Mr. Stapley was absolutely
resolved not to act at all if either Colonel Morley or Lord



MAJOR-GEN. GOFFE AND JOHN STAPLEY 299

Dacre were put over him. 1 But he was willing to act under
Sir Humphrey Bennet, 2 who had "maintained two hundred
horse dispersed in Sussex this long time." Corker stated
that officers were to be sent from London to Mr. Stapley
when things were ready, " because he complains that Sussex
is a country so little inured to war that it doth not afford
them." 3 He also sent a list of the " active Cavaliers " in
Sussex: Mr. John Stapley, Mr. Thomas Woodcock et
fratres, Mr. Goring, Mr. Mallory, Mr. Nic. Gildridge, Mr.
Thos. Foster, Mr. Nutt, Mr. Selwin, junior, Mr. Bishop,
Mr. Sackvile, Mr. Will Markwick, Mr. Graves, Mr. Ash-
burnham, and Messrs. Car, Naylor, Hall, and Milnes,
clergymen. 4

John Stapley's proceedings were cut short about the end
of March by a summons from Cromwell to attend him at
Whitehall. In the presence of the Protector he at first
denied all knowledge of the plot, but finding how much
was known, and " cajoled by promises and threats," 5 he
broke down and confessed all. He then wrote the following
abject letter:

" May it please your Highness,

" Your misled and unadvised and now distressed
supplicant doth take the boldness to present his troubled
and despicable estate, that he is now brought into, through
the deceit and collusion of your and his enemies, that sur-
prised him, and through the delusion infatuated his judg-
ment and reason, that never was inclined to a compliance
with yours, this nation's and his father's enemies; the
consideration of which hath begot a sense of his folly which
doth oppress me much; the thoughts of my enemies re-
joicing; the trouble of my friends; and above all to be

1 There is no evidence whatever that either had any knowledge of
the plot.

* Of Shalden, Hants. 3 Thurloe, State Papers, i, 717.

4 Ibid., 710. 5 Clarendon.



300 SUSSEX IN THE GREAT CIVIL WAR

excluded from your Highness' favour; but confessing and
forsaking with God persons find favour; and I believe your
Highness is guided by the influence of his spirit, that 1 so
doing from the sincerity and simplicity of soul, I trust
through your Highness' clemency to find the same. And
for the future, I do promise by the assistance of the Almighty,
I will not only live peaceably, but with the utmost of my
endeavours stand by your Highness with life and fortune,
to preserve your Highness' person, interest and dignity;
and if ever Charles Stuart should in my days, make any
attempt against your present government, I will personally
appear against him, though it be but in the capacity of a
private trooper, if I may not be intrusted by your Highness,
or your successors, with better preferment.

" My lord, I do humbly beg your pardon, that I did not
at first declare to your Highness the whole business that I
was concerned in. I was dashed at your presence, and
astonished at the consideration of my sin ; for which I have
asked pardon of God, and do ask it of you. My lord, it is
the glory of a prince to pass by an offence. I humbly beg
pardon for this presumption, resolving to continue as I am,
and ever shall be,

" Your Highness'
" Devoted and faithful servant till death,

" J. STAPLEY." l

The authorities were busy at this time searching Sussex
houses for incriminating papers. On Good Friday a
detachment of dragoons, under the command of Lieut.
Hopkins, visited Eastbourne Place, the house of Mr. William
Wilson. The search had scarcely commenced when Mrs.
Wilson (her husband being confined by serious illness to
his bed) ordered a large pie filled with wheatears to be
placed before them. " The officer, it being quite a novelty

1 Noble's Regicides, ii, 244.



MAJOR-GEN. GOFFE AND JOHN STAPLEY 301

to him, was equally amazed and delighted, and merrily
insisted that all his military companions should taste of the
rare repast, which they did with much jollity, going away
much better pleased with their entertainment than the
family were with their guests. Whilst they were feasting,
Mrs. Wilson (such is her own account of the transaction)
went up to her husband, then sick in bed, who desired her
to bring him a file of letters out of his closet. He took off
one or more, and ordered her instantly to burn them, and
to stir the ashes, and then to call up the officer; which
his wife accordingly did. No sooner was the officer come
than he took hold of the file from which the burnt letter
had just been taken, looked at the papers, and finding
nothing, very complaisantly wished Mrs. Wilson joy that
he had found nothing according to his expectations; 'for
had I,' says the officer, ' found anything according to the
information given in against him, my orders were to have
taken him away.' " 1

Stapley disclosed the names of all his associates and the
details of the plot as far as he was cognisant of it. His
brother Anthony also turned informer, and did not scruple
to bear witness against his own brother. Numerous arrests
took place, but the conspirators still planned a rising in
the City of London. Active among them was " an ancient
man in grey clothes," who sometimes called himself Carle-
ton, sometimes Roberts: 2 this was Guy Carleton, an ex-
fellow of Queen's College, Oxford, and a relative of George
Carleton, Bishop of Chichester, 1619-1628, and his son
Henry Carleton of Guyson's, Fairlight, a Captain of Horse
in the Parliamentary army, and one of the Sequestrators
for the County of Sussex. 3 At the Restoration Guy Carle-
ton was appointed Dean of Carlisle, and subsequently
Bishop of Chichester. The City rising fixed for i$th May

1 Wilson MSS., S. A. C., xi, 28.

2 Thurloe, State Papers, vii, 147.

3 Lower's Worthies, p. 93.



302 SUSSEX IN THE GREAT CIVIL WAR

proved abortive, and a few days later the conspirators who
had been arrested were brought to trial before a Court
specially appointed for the purpose. Dr. Hewitt and Sir
Henry Slingsby, a gentleman of Yorkshire, who had en-
deavoured to persuade some officers of the garrison to
betray Hull to Charles II, were found guilty and executed.
Against John Mordaunt, son of the Earl of Peterborough,
who had had control of the Surrey branch of the plot, the
chief Witnesses were John Stapley and Henry Mallory,
who was to attest Mordaunt's efforts to arrange for the
joint action of the Cavaliers of Surrey and Sussex. But the
night before Mordaunt's trial Mallory fled, instigated and
assisted by Mrs. Mordaunt, and the evidence of Stapley
was held insufficient, 1 with the result that Mordaunt was
acquitted. Mallory was captured on 5th June, and con-
demned to death but reprieved and imprisoned. Captain
Thomas Woodcock was arraigned, and John Stapley gave
evidence against him, but he was acquitted. The case
against Sir Humphrey Bennet was dropped. John and
Anthony Stapley were pardoned, partly for the value of
their information, partly, it may be, from respect for their
father's memory. 2

John Stapley would seem to have been anxious to ex-
press his loyalty to the Commonwealth not only by words
but by deeds. The valuable living of Rotherfield, of which
he was patron, becoming vacant at this time, he made over
the presentation to William Cawley, who presented his son
John. 3 At the Restoration, John Cawley was admitted to
holy orders in the Church of England by Bishop King at

1 Thurloe, State Papers, vii, 88, 101.

2 For a full account of this plot and trial see Firth's Last Years of
the Protectorate, ch. xii. See also State Trials, v, 871, 883, 907.

3 6th July 1658. Presentation by Wm. Cawley the younger, of
Chichester, Esq. (in his gift by virtue of a guift and graunt of John
Stapley of Patcham, Esq., the Patron) of John Cawley, Clerke to the
Rectory of Rotherfield, void by the resignation of Paul Durand
(Lambeth MSS., No. 946, m. 35).



MAJOR-GEN. GOFFE AND JOHN STAPLEY 303

Chichester. He subsequently became Archdeacon of
Lincoln. 1

The Marquis of Ormonde had been in London during
the winter on business connected with the proposed land-
ing of Charles, and by his discretion, and the perfection of
his disguise had escaped the vigilance of Thurloe's police.
He declined to have anything to do with Hewitt's attempt
to organize a rising in the City of London, and left Eng-
land about the end of February. He was assisted to escape
from the Sussex coast by Mr. Sackville Graves, a Justice
of the Peace, of West Firle. 2 The Government, it was said,
seized the ship which lay next to Ormonde's, but missed
that which actually carried him. 3

1 S. A. C., xxxiii, 270; xxxiv, 33.

2 "Aegre dilapsus est Ormondiae Marchio, scapham in Sussexia
Sackvilli Gravesii opera conscendens " (Bate's Elenchus Motuum,
Lond., 1663, ii, 397).

3 Firth, Protectorate, ii, 65.



CHAPTER XVIII

ANARCHY AND RESTORATION

THE Lord Protector died on 3rd September 1658, and
was buried with a pomp which belied Milton's saying
that the trappings of a monarchy will set up a common-
wealth. John Evelyn writes of it in his diary: "Oct. 22.
Saw the superb funeral of the Protector. He was carried
from Somerset House in a velvet bed of state drawn by six
horses, housed with the same; the pall held by his new
lords ; Oliver lying in effigy in royal robes, and crowned
with a crown, sceptre and globe, like a king. The pendants
and guidons were carried by the officers of the army ; the
imperial banners, achievements, etc., by the heralds in their
coats; a rich caparisoned horse, embroidered all over with
gold ; a knight of honour armed cap-a-pie, and after all,
his guards, soldiers and innumerable mourners. In this
equipage they proceeded to Westminster; but it was the
joyfullest funeral I ever saw, for there were none that cried
but dogs, which the soldiers hooted away with a barbarous
noise, drinking and taking tobacco in the streets as they
went." 1

Oliver's son, Richard, now thirty-three years of age,
succeeded him without any disturbance, and was recog-
nized as Protector both at home and abroad. But his
reign was foredoomed to failure. Amiable and virtuous,
but of no uncommon abilities, he lacked that power over
the army which alone could make or unmake him, that

1 Evelyn's Memoirs, London, 1827, ii, 138.
304



ANARCHY AND RESTORATION 305

his father, as the greatest captain of the age, had wielded.
Conscious of his impotence to control the contending fac-
tions he retired into private life in the following May.
" Tumble-down Dick " long figured on the sign-boards of
village inns, and perhaps still survives.

Colonel Morley had lived in seclusion at Glynde since
the establishment of the Protectorate, but to Richard Crom-
well's Parliament, which met in January 1659, he was re-
turned both for Sussex and for Lewes. His brother-in-law,
John Fagge, was also returned for Sussex and for Bramber.
Both chose to sit for the county. Among other members
elected in Sussex were H. Pelham and W. Cawley for
Chichester, William Freeman and H. Chowne for Horsham,
W. Yaldwyn for Midhurst, Sir John Trevor and Anthony
Shirley for Steyning.

Morley at once began to fill an active part in affairs ; the
day after he took his seat he protested against persons
known to be Royalists being accepted as members of the
House: " You have," he said, " vipers in your bowels, divers
delinquents. I have taken an oath to be true and faithful
to his Highness and also to the liberties of the people. If
I admit Cavaliers to sit here, I break my oath in both." l
On the question of excluding Mr. Jones, M.P. for Brecon,
for this cause, he said : " I would have not only his dis-
charge, but his crime entered upon your books." 2 On the
debate of i8th February, with reference to the putting of
bounds upon the arbitrary powers of the Protector, and re-
straints upon the revived House of Lords, he spoke strongly
in favour of the authority of the Commons: "I see this
bounding is a tender point. We are loth to come to it.
We are now putting a negative upon ourselves, instead of
bounding the chief magistrate, and now are setting up
another house. So that when both those are set up, we
shall have a negative upon neither." 3 Of the war with

1 Burton's Diary, London, 1828, iii, 237.

2 Ibid., 241. 3 Ibid,, 339.

X



306 SUSSEX IN THE GREAT CIVIL WAR

Holland he said : " My heart has bled for the blood already
spilt, seeing how we were mistaken in what we fought for.
I am against a war, unless upon clear grounds. . . . The
Council has made a dishonourable peace and a worse war." 1
He expressed his enmity to military domination thus:
" You have taken away the Major-Generals out of the field
and from exercising their power in the country, and you
are now making of them Major-Generals in Parliament;
they are most of them military men, that have forced Par-
liaments before, and if you make them part of your Con-
stitution, they will force your resolutions." a

In April this Parliament came to an abrupt end. The
generals, headed by Fleetwood and Desborough, forced
Richard Cromwell to agree to its dissolution, locked the
doors and set a guard in the Court of Requests to turn back
obstinate members. 3 The army was once more supreme,
but the officers shrank from collecting taxes on their own
authority, and after some negotiation with the republicans,
agreed to restore the remnant of the Long Parliament, and
to set up once more a Commonwealth without a Protector
or a House of Lords.

The fall of the House of Cromwell raised afresh the
hopes of the partisans of the House of Stuart. The weary
round of revolution and military violence gave little pros-
pect of settled order, or relief from burdensome taxation.
All over England Royalist plots were formed; but the
sources of information on which Cromwell had relied were
still available for the service of the Parliament. How great
the emergency was considered may be gathered from the
activity of the new Council of State, to which Herbert
Morley had been elected on I4th May. 4 He was also
appointed an Admiralty Commissioner, and in that capacity
was energetic in procuring seamen in his own county for

1 Burton's Diary, London, 1828, iii, 478.

2 Goddard MS., pp. 271-2. 3 Clarke Papers, iii, 191-3.
4 Commons' Journals, vii, 654.



ANARCHY AND RESTORATION 307

the fleet. On 2nd July Captain Ambrose Smith wrote to
him from Portsmouth: "here are 40 volunteers on board,
and 10 more ready, but I have been at great charge in
raising and conducting many of them from Brathhampston l
and Shoreham, and other parts of the country; most of
them are very able men, and I doubt not but speedily to
fill up the number of 60 men without impressing any, and
therefore desire you will move the Commissioners for
conduct money, which the officers say here is \\d. a
mile." 2

In view of the threatened insurrection, 2,000 troops were
ordered to Arundel and Chichester on 9th July, 3 and
Thomas Sowton and Major Clarke were commissioned to
raise a company at each of those places.* Colonel Gibbons
was ordered to march from Rye to Tunbridge, where a
rising was expected about 1st August. 5 On 3ist July
Colonel Fagge was appointed to command the Sussex militia
troop, formerly under Captain Freeman, and the whole
militia forces of the county were placed under his charge.
On the same day President Whitelock wrote to Captain
Bremen, commanding at Chichester: "the Council hears
that the enemy intends attempting Chichester to-morrow
morning, and desires your utmost endeavours to prevent it.
Colonel Fagge is bringing you reinforcements. Capt.
Elsmore is concerned in this design, and was apprehended
with horses and arms, defensive and offensive, and colours
in his pockets, and having liberty on his parole to attend
Council, he broke his word and is escaped ; you are to try
to hear of him and take him, and send him in safe cus-
tody." 8 These measures were sufficient to prevent an
outbreak, but the danger continued. In Cheshire the Par-
liament was less successful in suppressing revolt Sir
George Booth and the Earl of Derby raised their standard
at Warrington, gathered some 5,000 men, and seized

1 Brighthelmstone. - Cal. S. P. Dom., Interreg., cciii, 55.

3 Ibid., 62. ' Ibid., 91. 5 Ibid., 92. 8 Ibid.



308 SUSSEX IN THE GREAT CIVIL WAR

Chester. They made no mention of Charles, but declared
themselves for a free parliament, and government according
to law.

Active watch was kept in the Channel to prevent a
landing from abroad. Admiral Lawson sent from the
Downs the Arcadia, Lily, and Swallow to ply between
Beachy and Chichester, and ordered them to search all
vessels passing that way for persons suspected to be
enemies to the Commonwealth, " in regard he has intelli-
gence that Charles Stuart intends to make some part of
that coast." 1 There seems to have been some such design.
Whitelock informed Fagge on nth August that Colonel
Culpepper, of Kent, had lately been in Brighthelmstone
conversing with persons living near there, who were formerly
engaged in a like plot ; and instructed him to take especial
care of the safety of those parts, to inquire into Culpepper's
doings, and his companions, to find out with whom he was
tampering, and to secure all suspected persons. 2 Fagge
made many prisoners, among them Lord Petre, concerning
whom the Council " received such satisfaction from various
well-tried friends," that Fagge was ordered to liberate him
" if he will pass his honour to live peaceably, and not abet
anything to the prejudice of Parliament." *

Cowdray House was once more a subject of anxiety, and
Fagge was ordered to send a party to garrison it; and
arms, powder, and shot were hurried to Lewes for the use



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