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Sussex in the great Civil War and the interregnum, 1642-1660 online

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of Colonel Gibbons' foot company. Mr. Sackville Graves 4
was seized with his horses and arms, and his papers
examined; but he was shortly released by order of the
Council, on giving security for peaceable conduct. 5 Bram-

1 Cal. S. P. Dom., Interreg., Navy Papers, p. 460.

2 Ibid., cciv, 7. 3 Ibid.

4 It is possible that his assistance to the Marquis of Ormonde in
the previous year had become known to the authorities, and that he
was therefore a suspected person.

5 Cal. S. P. Dom., Interreg., cciv, 7, 12.


bletye House, the residence of Sir Henry Compton, was
searched for the Earl of Northampton, suspected of high
treason in corresponding with Sir George Booth and other
enemies. 1 Edmund Lane was removed from public em-
ployment in the city of Chichester for scandalous words
spoken against the Parliament. 2

Meantime Lambert, with a large force, was marching
against the insurgents in Cheshire. On igih August he
attacked them near Warrington, and dispersed them with
little loss. Booth was captured and lodged in the Tower.
The insurrection had failed.

The Parliament was now as desirous of disbanding
its extemporized forces as it had been anxious to raise
them. Colonel Fagge was ordered, if possible, to pay off
some of his bands, to secure their arms and magazines,
and to demolish effectually the walls of Chichester and
Arundel. 3

Colonel Downes, now a member of the Council of State,
was requested to write to the officers of the company of
foot raised by Major Clarke at Chichester, thanking them
for their services, and desiring their readiness to serve
again if occasion should require.* A careful watch was still
kept on the coast. At Rye the Mayor was ordered to set
a town guard, and the companies to be in readiness for any
emergency. 5 " The Council having given order for the
company of the army foot that quartered in your town to
march to Sandwich, have thought good, although they
doubt not of your care of your town, the security whereof,
as it is of consequence to you, so of great concernment to
the whole nation, to desire that in the absence of the afore-
said company you will give order for strict watch and ward
to be kept, that all such persons as shall endeavour to come
in or to go out at your port whom you shall suspect to be
any way dangerous to the peace of the nation may be

' Cal. S. P. Dom., Interreg., 7. * Ibid., 12. 3 Ibid., 22.

4 Ibid., 30. ' /&V/., 22.


stayed and secured." l The Corporation of Rye had for
some time been very importunate for the repayment of
certain moneys advanced to Colonel Gibbons, and expenses
incurred for his troops, "houses hired and paid rent for,
candles and coals "; also of charges " for maintaining watch
both for fire and candle, and for pay for drums to set the
watch every night, and for a gunner and for powder match,
and fixing of arms." They had applied successively to
Colonel Gibbons, Colonel Morley, Colonel Fagge, and
the Council of State for the payment of these charges,
" otherwise the people here are so poor, and the trading so
much decayed, that we are not able to subsist, but must, as
many already speak, leave the town and seek a livelihood
elsewhere if no remedy therein can be had." 2 The sum of
100 was now ordered to be paid to Thomas Marshall, the
Mayor, " for the foot company under him," which was
perhaps in part satisfaction of these claims. 3

On 1 2th September Captain Robert Vesey of the Constant
Warwick, wrote to the Admiralty Commissioners from
Plymouth Sound: "In sailing to my station I met off the
Isle of Wight a small open French shallop, having no deck,
that came out of Newhaven, co. Sussex, bound for New-
haven in France, and having bales of goods and 12 or 14
English gentlemen passengers. As the weather was bad
and the wind contrary, they could not get over for France,
neither did they make any way to the English shore, by
which I supposed they were of the discontented party that
were seeking to make their escape. They had no passes."
The boat sank, but the passengers were saved, and " being
examined and found to be honest men, were permitted to
follow their occasions." *

The restored Parliament was most anxious for a good
understanding with Holland, but it was not slow to push
lawful claims. John Baldwyn of Newhaven, Sussex, having

1 Rye MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com., xiii, 4), 234. * Ibid,, 230.

3 Cal. S. P. Dom., Interreg., cciv, 22. 4 Ibid., 27.


petitioned, for himself and others complaining that a
small ketch laden with oysters, bound from Portsmouth to
Colchester, had in April been surprised by an Ostender
and taken to Zealand, and as was believed, sold to one
Worts of Yarmouth, and praying restitution it was
ordered by the Council of State on ipth September, that
Mr. Downing learn the truth therein, and if it be as al-
leged, represent the case to the States General, and press
for compensation, and report to the Council ; also that he
do the same for all other similar cases, that the subjects
of this State may have satisfaction for their losses and
damages. 1

The Royalist plot had failed, but a new danger faced the
Commonwealth. The old schism between the Parliament
and the army had broken out afresh. Two men, Monk,
with his army in Scotland, and Montagu, in command of
the fleet, held the future in the hollow of their hands, and
no man could divine their real intentions. Monk had sent
unreserved assurances of his loyalty to the Parliament,
which felt emboldened to resist the demands of Lambert's
officers that he should be made a Major-General, and second
in command to Fleetwood. A body of seven commissioners,
of whom Herbert Morley was one, was appointed for the
government of the army. 2 Lambert retaliated by marching
at the head of his troops through London to Palace Yard,
where Morley, Haselrig, and Walton had drawn up forces
to resist him. 3 Morley met him pistol in hand, and swore
that if he stirred a foot he would shoot him. Lambert
answered : " Colonel Morley, I will go another way, though
if I please I could pass this." 3 He then faced about,
marched into Old Palace Yard, and succeeded in occupy-
ing the Parliament-House, and denying all access to

1 Cal. S. P. Dom., Interreg., cciv, 32.

2 Commons' Journals, vii, 796.

3 Clarke Papers, iv, 71, 85, Fleetwood to Monk.

4 Carte's Collection, ii, 246.


members. The army appointed a Committee of Safety,
with orders to draw up a new Constitution.

Morley, Haselrig, and Walton retired to Portsmouth,
where they secured the garrison. " Yesterday came certain
news that Colonel Whetham hath delivered up the govern-
ment of Portsmouth to Sir Arthur Haselrig, Colonel Morley
and Colonel Walton, who have declared for the Parliament,
and the navy there hath done the like. They intend to
make orders about the army, and Colonel Morley's interest
in those parts is very considerable." l Morley made " in-
cursions into Hampshire and Sussex, where he had many
friends." z The three then sent letters to the Lord Mayor
and the Commissioners of the London militia, demanding
their support, and entered into an acrimonious correspond-
ence with Fleetwood. Troops were sent down to besiege
them in Portsmouth, but on 2Oth December five companies
of foot and five troops of horse went over to the besieged,
and the rest of the besieging force submitted. 3 " A very
worthy person " at Portsmouth, signing himself N. L., wrote
to " a friend of his in London " that " Sir Arthur Haselrig
and Colonel Morley have behaved themselves very gallantly
. . . the siege is raised and the town at liberty without a
drop of blood."*

The leaders then marched on London with a force com-
prising about fifteen troops of horse and a regiment of foot.
They entered London unopposed on 26th December, and
restored the Parliament. 5 On the 29th they received the
public thanks of the House. " Haselrig, Walton and Morley
came into the House in their riding habits, and Haselrig
was very jocund and high." e But the shadow of Monk was
over all their proceedings.

Morley was appointed Lieutenant of the Tower, and his

1 Clarke Papers, iv, 166. 3 Clarendon, xvi.

3 Public Intelligencer, iQ-26th December.

4 Broadsheet in B.M., pressmark 669, f. 22 (30).

5 Clarke Papers, iv, 170. 6 Whitelock's Memoirs, p. 686.


friend John Evelyn thought the occasion fitting for an
endeavour to induce him to anticipate the supposed designs
of Monk, and to bring about a restoration of the monarchy.
He has described his proceedings in his Memoirs.

" Dec. 10, 1659 [this date and the following are evidently
erroneous]. I treated privately with Col. Morley, then
lieutenant of the Tower, and in great trust and power,
concerning delivering it to the King, and the bringing
of him in, to the great hazard of my life, but the Colo-
nel had been my schoolfellow, and I knew would not
betray me.

"Dec. 12, 1659. I spent in public concerns for his Majesty,
pursuing the point to bring over Col. Morley and his
brother-in-law Fagge, governor of Portsmouth.

" Jan. 12, 1660. Wrote to Col. Morley again to declare for
his Majesty.

"Jan. 22, 1660. I went this afternoon to visit Col. Morley.
After dinner discoursed with him, but he was very jealous;
and would not believe Monk came in to do the King any
service. I told him he might do it without him, and have
all the honour; he was still doubtful, and would resolve on
nothing yet, so I took leave." l

Monk crossed the Tweed on 2nd January 1660, and'
marched southwards at a leisurely rate. Along his route
he received addresses calling for the election of a full and
free Parliament. He entered London on 3rd February.
On i6th March the Long Parliament dissolved itself after
a chequered existence of nearly twenty years. A new
Parliament, " thoroughly royalist and perhaps half presby-
terian," 2 known as the Convention Parliament, met on 25th
April. On 8th May Charles was proclaimed King, and on
the 29th entered London in triumph.

At Rye Henry Mildmay, one of the King's judges, was
arrested by John Baker, corporal of the militia troop of

1 Evelyn's Memoirs, London, 1827, ii, 144-5-

2 Political History of England, vii, p. 479-


horse under the Earl of Winchelsea. Baker received a
gratuity of 10 for his " good service." 1

On 24th May Evelyn wrote : " Came to me Col. Morley,
about procuring his pardon, now too late, seeing his error
and neglect of the counsel I gave him, by which if he had
taken it he had certainly done the great work with the
same ease that Monk did it, who was then in Scotland, and
Morley in a post to have done what he pleased, but his
jealousy and fear kept him from that blessing and honour.
I addressed him to Lord Mordaunt, then in great favour,
for his pardon, which he obtained at the cost of 1,000, as
I heard. O the sottish omission of this gentleman! What
did I not undergo of danger in this negotiation to have
brought him over to his Majesty's interest, when it was
entirely in his hands! " 2

Evelyn, courtier and virtuoso, in playing the tempter's
part, had failed to understand the character and constancy
of his old schoolmate, who through twenty years had faced
undaunted the stress of war and revolution. If a history
may have a hero, Herbert Morley will fitly fill the hero's
place in this one. A Puritan of deep convictions and of
unwavering faith in them, he maintained an honest and
honourable part amid the troubles and temptations of the
time. No tinge of self-seeking sullies the fair record of his
career. Opposed alike to the arbitrary pretensions of
Charles and the despotic assumptions of Cromwell, he held
throughout the revolution a consistent course, his single
aim the furtherance of his principles for the welfare, as he
conceived it, of his country and his county. With no pre-
judice for or against those principles, one may readily
render due homage to the man who in the day of universal
apostasy disdained to forswear them, and nobly rejected
the wealth and honours which the crisis of the Restoration
offered to his grasp. Active and eminent alike in war and

1 Cal. S. P. Dom., Interreg., Warrants for Payments, 2ist May, 1660.

2 Memoirs, ii, 147.


in council, in the capital and in the southern counties,
Morley of Glynde holds a distinguished place among the
protagonists of the age, and the worthies of his own Sussex.

The Restoration was celebrated throughout the country
in a becoming manner. At Hastings the Corporation ac-
counts record payments "to the musketeers on the pro-
clamation of the King 1 los. qd. More upon them in
white wine the same day los. For half a barrel of beer
and bread to the ringers $s. zd. More to the ringers upon
the Thanksgiving Day 2s. Allowed and paid to William
Bagg for the King's arms in the Court hall 3 5 s" l

In the following August an Act of Indemnity and
Oblivion was passed for the settlement and quieting of the
kingdom. It was described by the wits of the day as an
act of indemnity for the King's enemies, and of oblivion
for his friends. The regicides and a few others were speci-
ally exempted from its provisions. The honours which
were distributed certainly exhibit a strong desire to con-
ciliate influential persons of the opposite party. The
following Sussex men were created Baronets: Fagge of
Wiston, Covert of Slaugham, Warner of Parham, Thomas
of Folkington, Stapley of Patcham, Juxon of Alborne,
Springate of Broyle, Shirley of Preston. Of these Colonel
Fagge had been nominated one of the King's judges,
and had acted throughout with his brother-in-law Her-
bert Morley; John Stapley was presumably rewarded
for his share in the plot of 1658, his compromising
letter to Cromwell being perhaps unknown; and it may
be that his neighbour and relation, Anthony Shirley, was in
some way privy to those proceedings, and was one of those
with whom Colonel Culpepper negotiated during his visit
to Brighthelmstone in 1659.' Herbert Springate was one
of the sequestrators appointed to deal with delinquents'
estates in 1643, but seems to have taken no very active

1 Hastings MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com., xiii, 4), P- 363.

2 See ante, p. 308.


part in affairs subsequently. The institution of an order
of the Royal Oak, to commemorate Charles' escape after
Worcester, was contemplated, but was never carried out.
The knights, 617 in all, were to wear a silver medal with a
device of the King in the oak at Boscobel. The scheme
was laid aside as likely to revive animosities. The follow-
ing Sussex men were intended to be made knights : l

Value of his estate.

George Lunsford .... ,600 per annum.
Thomas Middleton . . . . 600

Walter Dobell 1,000

Lunsford of Windmill Hill . 600
Edward Eversfield .... 600
John Eversfield . . . ' . . 1,500

Henry Goringe 2,000

John May ;" 600

Mitchelbourne of Stanmer . .;>'' 600 *

The Sussex gentry had not been backward in offering
the King an address of congratulation on his return. 3 John
Evelyn records: "June soth. The Sussex gentlemen pre-
sented their address, to which was my hand. I went with
it and kissed his Majesty's hand, who was pleased to own
me more particularly by calling me his old acquaintance,
and speaking very graciously to me." 4 But the county
generally was not easily turned from its attachment to
Puritanism. Even in 1663 the towns of Lewes and
Chichester were particularly "perverse"; so much so, in-
deed, that the trained bands had to be marched into
Chichester to prevent an armed rising, 5 while a request
was made for the justices to assist "the honest party" at
Lewes, as there was no militia in East Sussex. 6

1 S. A. C., v, 104.

2 For a list of other names proposed see S. A. C., xxiii, 210.

3 Cal. S. P. Dom., Chas. II, i, 46. * Memoirs, ii, 150.
* Cal. S. P. Dom., Chas. II, Ixxx, 99.

8 Ibid., 56 ; Viet. Hist. Sussex, i, 528.


Of the Sussex regicides, Sir Gregory Norton, Anthony
Stapley, and Peregrine Pelham had died before the Restora-
tion, felices opportunitate mortis. Of the remainder, William
Cawley escaped to the Continent, and William Goffe to
America. James Temple and John Downes surrendered
and were brought to trial.

James Temple, member of the Long Parliament for
Bramber, doubtless came of a branch of the ennobled
family of that name; "but who shall identify a Temple at
this time? when Dr. Fuller assures us that Hester, the
widowed lady of Sir Thomas Temple of Stow, Bart., saw
seven hundred descendants ; and assures us he bought the
truth of what he avers, by a wager he lost upon it." * He
was governor of Tilbury fort or bfock-house in 1649.* He
acted as guardian for Sir Charles Shelley of Michelgrove,
an infant, and petitioned against the sequestration of that
estate 3 it was alleged by his opponents in his own inter-
est. 4 He was tried at the Sessions House in the Old
Bailey on i6th October 1660, and pleaded Not Guilty; but
being shown his hand-writing to the warrant, withdrew his
plea. He was condemned to death, but was suffered to
remain in the Tower, where, it is supposed, he died.*

John Downes was tried on the same day as James
Temple. He is said to have been " a Londoner of mean
family"; but he rose to considerable eminence on the
Parliamentary side. He sat for Arundel in the Long Par-
liament, and was a member of the Council of State in 1651
and 1659. At his trial, Downes made a powerful appeal
for mercy on the ground that when Charles denied the
jurisdiction of the Court appointed to try him, and claimed
to be heard before the Lords and Commons, he had urged

1 Noble's Regicides, ii, 263.

z Cal. Com. for Compounding, 2862; Cal. Com. for Advance of
Money, 527.

3 Cal. Com. for Compounding, 2370.

4 Mystery of the Good Old Cause. 5 State Trials, v, 1217.


that this course should be adopted. " I remember," he
said, " the persons between whom I sat, as it fell out, were
one Mr. Cawley and Colonel Wauton ; these two I sat be-
twixt ; these were the very words I spake to them : ' Have
we hearts of stone? Are we men?' They laboured to
appease me; they told me I would ruin both myself and
them; said I, 'if I die for it, I must do it.' Cromwell sat
just the seat below me; the hearing of me made some stir.
Whispering he looked up to me, and asked me if I were
myself? What I meant to do, that I could not be quiet?
' Sir,' said I, ' no, I cannot be quiet.' Upon that I started
up in the very nick. When the president commanded the
clerk to read the sentence, I stepping up and as loud as I
could speak, spoke to this effect these words, or to the like
purpose: ' My lord,' said I, ' I am not satisfied to give my
consent to this sentence, but have reason to offer you against
it, and I desire the Court may adjourn to hear me. 1
Presently, he stepped up and looked at me; 'Nay,'saith
he, ' if any of the Court be unsatisfied, the Court must
adjourn.' Sir, accordingly they did adjourn into the inner
Court of Wards; when they came there, I was called upon
by Cromwell to give an account why I had put this trouble
and disturbance upon the Court." Downes alleged that he
urged that after the passing of the Act constituting the
Court, Parliament had made an order that upon the arising
of any emergency not contemplated at that time, the Court
should immediately acquaint the House with it ; and that
this was such a case. " The King denied the jurisdiction
of the Court, and yet with all vehemency desired to speak
with his Parliament. Were not these emergencies? if not,
I knew not what were emergencies." He further argued
that such a sentence as was contemplated should only be
given on the fullest evidence; "there was a great shortness
in this, that not one member of the Court did hear one wit-
ness viva voce. I did press that if the Court did give judg-
ment against the King without a fair examination, I said


it was such a thing as no judge at any assizes would do
against a common person." Cromwell answered, " with a
great deal of storm," that it was not fit that the Court should
be hindered from its duty by one peevish man, and desired
them without more ado, to go and do their duty. Downes
further alleged that he had signed the death-warrant under
coercion ; " I was threatened with my very life." l He was
condemned, but was not executed, and died in prison.

William Cawley, member for Midhurst in the Long
Parliament, had been one of the most active of the Sussex
members throughout the period. In 1629 he had com-
pounded for knighthood, and had paid a fine of 14.? He
was one of the few regicides who obtained a seat in the
Convention Parliament of 1659; but being excepted both
as to life and estate from the Act of Indemnity, he fled to
the Continent, and appears to have resided at Lausanne.
His life-history is summed up on the monument erected to
his father in St. Andrew's Church, Chichester:

Of the parish of St. Andrew, thrice Mayor of this City,

Was buried in this Church May 3rd 1621.

His son William Cawley was baptised here in 1602.

In 1626 he founded the hospital of St. Bartholomew

Without the North Gate, now used as the Workhouse of this City.

In 1647 he represented this city in Parliament

And in the disputes which arose in the reign of

King Charles he was one of those who signed the

Death Warrant of that unfortunate monarch.
Upon the Restoration he was excepted out of the
Act of Oblivion. He died at Bruges in Flanders

At an advanced age.

1 State Trials, v, 1212. Mr. Gardiner, Civil War, ch. Ixxxi, falls into
a strange error in this matter. He says : " Downes, indeed, who did
not sign at all, described himself as having been frightened into
assenting to the judgment, but he had nothing to say about any ill
effects resulting to him on account of his refusal to sign." Yet he
prints the death warrant with Downes' signature appended. At his
trial, Downes was shown his signature and admitted it.

2 S. A. C., xvi, 50.


But it would seem that he died in Switzerland. For a
few years ago a tomb was discovered beneath the boarded
floor of the Church of St. Martin at Vevay, bearing this
inscription :

Hie jacet tabernaculum terrestre Gulielmi Cawley Armigeri Angli-
cani nuper de Cicestria in Comitatu Sussexiae qui postquam aetate
sua insenivit Dei consilio obdormivit 6 Jan 1666 aetatis suae 63. :

Major-General Goffe was also excepted from the Act of
Indemnity. Before the Restoration actually took place a
warrant had been issued for his arrest, on i6th April
1660, probably on suspicion that he was concerned in
Lambert's intended rising. On 22nd September a reward
of ;ioo was offered for his apprehension; 2 but he suc-
ceeded in escaping to America with his father-in-law,
Lieutenant-General Whalley.

Goffe had been high in favour with Cromwell, and had
even been spoken of as his possible successor: "he is
judged the only fit man to have Major-General Lambert's
place and command, as Major-General of the army; and
having so far advanced, is in a fair way to the Protector-
ship hereafter if he be not treated as Lambert was." 3 He
was one of the persons summoned by Cromwell during his
last illness to receive his declaration appointing his son
Richard his successor, attested Cromwell's appointment on
oath before the Council, and subscribed the proclamation
declaring Richard Cromwell Protector. After Richard's
fall his importance greatly diminished ; but he was one of
four Commissioners sent by the Council of the Army to
Scotland in November 1659, to mediate with Monk for the
prevention of a new civil war.

1 The Consecration form of the chapel of St. Bartholomew's Hos-
pital, by Prebendary Deedes, Chichester, 1909, p. 5.

2 By the King. A proclamation for apprehension of Edward Whalley
and William Goffe. B.M., Thomason Tracts, pressmark 669, f. 26 (9).

3 Second Narrative of the late Parliament ; Harleian Miscellany,
ed. Park, iii, 483.


Goffe and Whalley landed at Boston, Mass, in July 1660,
and were well received by the Governor, John Endicott.
But the English Government sent peremptory orders for
their arrest, and they were forced to fly. Some of their
subsequent adventures have been the theme of novelists, 1
who have told the story of Goffe using his talents of leader-
ship to defend the town of Hadley, Mass., from an attack
by Indians. He died there about 1679." He, too, like his

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