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of Elizabeth were Bonaventure Dusseville, a bookbinder,
John Frottier, a locksmith, and Pierre Sommellier, a clock-
maker. 2 Fas est et ab hoste doceri. There were as yet no
Jews; they had to wait for the tolerance of Cromwell.

Chichester was held by the Parliament as a garrison
town until 2nd March 1646, when it was decided to dis-
garrison it, and the ordnance was transferred to Arundel. 3
Waller left it in the hands of Colonel Anthony Stapley of
Framfield and Patcham, Member of Parliament for the
county, and his appointment as governor was subsequently

1 S. A. C., xxii, 223.

2 Rye MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com., xiii, 4), p. 6.

3 S. A. C, v, 53.



THE SIEGE OF CHICHESTER 63

confirmed by Parliament. He seems to have been ill-
provided with funds, as on i8th November 1643 we find
him writing somewhat peremptorily to the Speaker, William
Lenthall, in acknowledgement of his letter of the i6th,
directing that the rents and estate of Sir William Morley
were not to be taken, "if you please to discharge this
estate or any other and not to provide otherwise to pay
these men under my command, you will, I hope give me
leave to provide myself and men as I can, and to quit the
employment, when I cannot longer serve you in it" l

1 Portland MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com.), i, 156.



T



CHAPTER V

THE ROYALIST INVASION
HE calm which followed Waller's capture of Chiches-



ter lasted through the greater part of 1643. The two
most powerful men in Sussex were now Colonel Anthony
Stapley, Governor of Chichester, and Colonel Herbert
Morley. The common people, if they had no enthusiasm
for the King's cause, felt little for the Parliament's. Re-
cruiting was unpopular, and money, except from the
sequestration of the estates of Royalists, was as difficult to
obtain as men. On 23rd May Colonel Morley wrote to
the Speaker concerning a riot at West Hoathly fair, when
Ancient Streater was beating for volunteers, in which the
Ancient was badly hurt, and the head of his drum
beaten in. 1

The seaport towns probably did a thriving business in
carrying passengers and despatches secretly to and from
the Continent. In another letter of Colonel Morley's to
the Speaker, dated Lewes, 24th April 1643, he says:
" About three weeks since the Earl of Thanet passed the
seas into France. The barque that carried him belongs to
one Hayne of Brighthelmstone, which I have made stay of
till I receive your pleasure, for I conceive it no small crime
to transport those that have made war against the Parlia-
ment without your warrant. Friday last a party of my
horse took one of my Lord Montague's servants, that was

1 Portland MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com.), i, 709.
64



THE ROYALIST INVASION 65

ready to take barque for France. About him they found
divers letters and scandalous pamphlets against the Parlia-
ment I opened some of the letters, but finding the en-
closed directed to himself and his lady, I send them to
you sealed as I found them." 1

It would appear also that although the Sussex ports
were all held for the Parliament, a certain trade was done
from some of them in supplies for the Royalist forces. On
2/th September 1643 Captain Tristram Stevens wrote to
the committee at Portsmouth from aboard his ship the
Charles, that a Frenchman, one Jerome, had arrived at
Weymouth from Newhaven with 100 barrels of powder
and other arms and ammunition for the garrison there,
and urging the employment of one of the Parliament's
ships to intercept this traffic. 2 Probably the supplies came
originally from Dieppe. A reference to this traffic is to be
found among the papers of the Corporation of Rye.

On loth June 1644 the Mayor wrote to the Earl of
Warwick, Lord High Admiral : " We have thought it our
duty to signify unto you that our town of Rye being the
ordinary passage for Dieppe, where divers merchants of
London and their goods, merchant strangers and othti
passengers do weekly pass from hence thither, which brings
in a considerable sum of money to the State for customs
and excise, lately a barque of our town was surprised by
one of the King's men-of-war of Weymouth, which had in
her 3,000 worth of goods, and persons of quality, two of
them Mr. Arundel's sons, a member of the House of Com-
mons, and Colonel Browne's son and heir, and divers mer-
chants of good worth. We beseech your Lordship to take
this into your consideration and that you will be pleased
to appoint a small man of war for the safety of our passage
barques to lie between our town and Dieppe Road, which
will do good service for the State, for there is store of

1 Portland MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com.), i, in. 2 Ibid., i, 131.

F



66 SUSSEX IN THE GREAT CIVIL WAR

ammunition weekly shipped from Dieppe for Weymouth
by one Pinozeire." l

But the prevailing peace in Sussex had been brought
about by the presence of Waller's army, and its withdrawal
was the signal for fresh Royalist endeavours. The irrepress-
ible Sir Edward Ford was soon at work again. On 3rd
August Sir Thomas Pelham and other justices informed
the Speaker that Mr. Thomas Cotton, a dangerous papist,
had that day been brought before them. They enclosed
the warrant found in his saddle which would clearly desig-
nate the nature of his employment. By this and many
other pregnant circumstances they were very sensible of
their more than approaching danger, which to prevent they
would be willing to apply their utmost industry, but being
conscious of their inability to stand of themselves, they
humbly addressed themselves to the House, craving advice
and assistance, and that London and the adjacent counties
might associate with them for mutual defence. The en-
closure was a warrant dated Oxford, igth July, from Sir
Edward Ford, High Sheriff of Sussex, to his kinsman
Thomas Cotton, authorizing him to persuade the well-
affected in Sussex and the parts adjacent, to contribute
horses, arms, plate, or money for his Majesty's service, and
to receive and give acquittances for such contributions " that
I may more clearly distinguish the well-affected from
cordial traitors and penurious neuters." 2

The danger to the Parliamentary cause was a very real
one. Colonel Morley was at Farnham on i6th September
and informed the Speaker that he had received intelli-
gence that a large Royalist force, consisting of the Earl of
Crawford and his men, Colonel Ford's, Colonel Bennett's,
the Sheriff of Wilts', Sir Edward Deering's and Crispe's
regiments were about to lay siege to Southampton; and
that the garrison there was not above 300, the soldiers'

1 Rye MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com., xiii, 4), p. 214.
, 126.



THE ROYALIST INVASION 67

pay in arrears, and the town abounding in malignants. He
feared that unless immediate action was taken, such as
sending him forthwith 2,000 horse and dragoons, the
southern counties would all be lost and London itself in
danger. " This approaching cloud," he said, " may raise a
storm in Sussex, which county is full of neuters and malig-
nants ; and I have ever observed neuters to turn malignants
upon such occasions." 1 This fear of the "neuter," the
moderate man, who was not a partisan, but for the sake of
peace was ready to shout with the side that was uppermost,
continually appears throughout this period.

The state of Portsmouth was also causing anxiety. On
28th October Parliament was informed that it was in
want of a governor, and also of men, money, powder, and
match. Either Sir Robert Harley or Sir William Erie
" stopped the relation of such things in the open house,
' for this is no place to mention the state of Portsmouth
in, for 'tis likely his Majesty may come to the knowledge
of it.' " *

On 4th November a Decree of Association united in the
cause of the Parliament the counties of Sussex, Kent, Surrey,
the Isle of Wight, and the town and county of Southampton.
Sir William Waller was appointed Major-General of the
Association. He had been mustering troops at Hounslow
Heath, and now made Farnham his base of operations.
His army seems to have been very badly equipped. On
23rd November 1643, William Cawley the Chichester
brewer, and member for Midhurst, wrote to Speaker
Lenthall from Farnham, acquainting the House " in what
extreme sad condition I both hear and find Sir William
Waller's army proceeding, especially from want of pay,
whereby they are altogether disabled for the present to
do the Parliament that service, which if supplied with
moneys may be expected from them. The soldiers, both

1 Rye MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com., xiii, 4), i, 130.

2 Godwin's Civil War in Hampshire, ch. xiii.



68 SUSSEX IN THE GREAT CIVIL WAR

horse and foot, want clothes, boots, shoes, and almost all
necessaries for their subsistence, yea their exigency is such
and so great that when they are commanded upon any
service be the expedition ever so emergent many of
them cannot stir for want of money to shoe their horses.
If speedy course be not taken to supply this so consider-
able an army with a round sum at least io,ooo/. for a
small sum will rather discontent than satisfy it's much
feared by those who best know that a sudden ruin of this
brigade will inevitably follow. I find Sir William Waller
very much troubled that he cannot punish the abounding
vices and enormities of his soldiers for fear of mutinies and
desertions to which for want of pay they are too apt, which
not only produces a contempt of their officers, but great
discontent also to the country, from they are sometimes
necessitated to take that for their livelihood which the
people can ill spare." l

We may judge from this communication, as from his
previous despatch on the occasion of his flight from
Chichester to Portsmouth, that Mr. Cawley had a very
happy turn for letter-writing.

On the same day Waller wrote to the House to a similar
effect. He stated that he had presumed to send some
parties to Godalming and Midhurst to take up some coarse
cloths, linen, shoes, boots, and stockings for the soldiers,
and if there might be an assurance given of the payment
for these commodities, he was confident it would be best
both for the soldiers and the country. 2

Waller seems to have been a just and generous com-
mander. In his "Vindication" he wrote: "And for the
payment of arrears I may say I was for it to the uttermost
farthing. I may not say, too, who were against it, but
those who seemed to be pillars, or somewhat, whatsoever
they were it maketh no matter to me, contributed nothing,

1 Portland MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com.), i, 159. 3 Ibid., i, 160.



THE ROYALIST INVASION 69

nay, gave their flat negative to it. And truly herein I did
but discharge my conscience, for I was ever of opinion that
a soldier's pay is the justest debt in the world. For if it be
a crying sin to keep back the wages of an hireling, that
doth but sweat for us, it must needs be a roaring altitonant
sin to detain pay of the soldier that bleeds for us. There is
a cry of blood in it, and God will make inquisition for it! "

In answer to Waller's urgent appeal for money the
House voted an additional sum of 5,000. 2

If the Parliamentary cause was to be saved in the south-
eastern counties it was high time that something should
be done. The Cavaliers of Sussex, says Clarendon, had
" formed so good an opinion of their own reputation and
interest that they were able, upon the assistance of few
troops, to suppress their neighbours who were of the other
party, and who upon advantage of the power they were
possessed of, exercised their authority over them with great
vigour and insolence."

The Royalists in Kent were also eager to make a move,
and hoped that Hopton's forces, which were scattered along
the borders of Hampshire, would be able to join hands with
them. The position in Sussex therefore became of great
importance. It was considered on the Parliament's side
that the state of the roads at this season made the county
impassable for an army, but the event showed that this was
not the case. A Cavalier raid on Petworth, the Earl of
Northumberland's house, had already been made, and the
raiders had taken thence " twenty brave horse, and carried
them to Oxford." 3

On 23rd November 4 there was a fight at South Harting,

1 Vindication of the Character and Conduct of Sir William Waller,
Knight, London, 1793.

2 Commons' Journals, iii, 319, 320.

3 Scottish Dove, 27th October 1643.

4 In S. A. C., xxviii, 100, the Rev. H. D. Gordon states that
Chichester was taken for the King on 22nd November, and recovered



70 SUSSEX IN THE GREAT CIVIL WAR

a Sussex village on the borders of Hampshire, in which was
situate Up Park, the residence of Sir William Ford, the
High Sheriff's father. It seems that on that night about
" six score of the Earl of Crawford's regiment entered the
village very far spent with travel, want of sleep, and food,
and extremely weather-beaten with a rainy stormy night." *
They were quartered in the village, six of the principal officers
and a boy being accommodated at the house of " the noble
knight and brave housekeeper, Sir John Caryll." Within an
hour Colonel Norton arrived with four hundred Parliament-
ary dragoons, not knowing till he was within the town that it
was already occupied, " but having notice thereof he caused
his men to rank themselves ten and ten, and so to make
good every door and house of the town that none might
escape; which being done the rebels cry ' Horse, Horse,' in
the street, which the King's soldiers mistaking to be the
call of their own commanders, offered in divers places to
come forth, but were presently shot and killed, so that see-
ing no possibility of bringing forth themselves or their
horses into the street, almost all of them fled by backways
on foot to save themselves, leaving the rebels outrageously
domineering in the town." But the tables were completely
turned by the gallantry of the six officers and the boy
quartered at Sir John Caryll's house. Mounting their horses
they rushed out of a back lane upon the dragoons, shouting
" Follow," " Follow," " Follow," as if they were leading a
large force. The dragoons fled in disorder leaving some
half-dozen of their number shot dead by the officers, about
the same number, says the chronicler, as they had killed of
the Royalist party. This incident naturally caused much
delight and amusement in Cavalier circles. The number
slain is probably exaggerated. The Parish Register of

by Waller on agth December. He gives no authority for these state-
ments, and appears to be confusing the proceedings of 1642 with those
of 1643.

1 Mercurius Aulicus, loth December 1643.



THE ROYALIST INVASION 71

South Harting records " there were 3 souldiers buried Nov 1 '.
2 4 th , 1643." 1

Those who had relied on the mud of Sussex as a pro-
tection against invasion were soon undeceived. At the
beginning of December, taking advantage of a sharp frost,
Hopton advanced into the county. " The exceeding hard
frost," says Clarendon, " made his march more easy through
those deep and dirty ways, than better weather would have
done, and he came to Arundel before there was any imagin-
ation that he had that place in prospect." 2 Sir Edward
Ford was in command of a regiment of horse in Hopton's
army, and had with him many of the gentlemen of Sussex.
He had persistently urged the capture of Arundel, " which
standing near the sea would yield great advantage to the
King's service, and keep that rich corner of the country at
his Majesty's devotion." 3

But Hopton's invasion of Sussex was not a mere hap-
hazard movement instigated by the importunities of Royal-
ist gentry. It was, if somewhat belated, part of a great
plan of campaign, in accordance with which the King's
forces were to make a triple advance on London ; Hopton
from the south-west, through Sussex and Surrey, New-
castle from the north, and the King himself in the centre,
from Oxford. Hopton's part failed because he was unable
to advance until too late, and then had no force capable of
coping with Waller's army; Newcastle, after defeating
Fairfax at Atherton Moor, was checked by Cromwell's
victories of Gainsborough and Winceby; the King, after
his failure to capture Gloucester and to defeat Essex at
Newbury, abandoned his intended march on London, and
fell back on Oxford. This was the turning-point of the
war. The flood of Royalist success was over, and the ebb
was running strongly.

Hopton's route was by Petersfield, Harting, and Marden,

' S. A. C., xxviii, 102. 2 Ibid., viii, 6. 3 Ibid.^ 3.



72 SUSSEX IN THE GREAT CIVIL WAR

and thence over the downs to Arundel; and in order to
keep open the line of communication, Petersfield and Hart-
ing Place were garrisoned. 1 To guard the passes in the hills
Ford's regiment of horse was quartered at his father's house,
Up Park, throughout December.

Before reaching Arundel, Hopton sent a detachment of
cavalry to attack Lord Lumley's house at Stanstead.
There seems to have been a sharp fight there, but there is
much uncertainty as to the details. The Royalist force was
at first repulsed with loss by a Parliamentary force, prob-
ably under Colonel Stapley, and a son or brother of
Endymion Porter, the diplomatist, was sore wounded and
taken prisoner. But Stanstead shortly after fell into Royal-
ist hands. It was at that time a castellated building with
a turreted gateway and a courtyard. 2 Cowdray House, the
magnificent mansion of Lord Montague, where an almost
royal state had been kept up, and where Queen Elizabeth
had been so sumptuously entertained, was taken from the
Parliamentarians and garrisoned by Hopton, as also was
Petworth.

The advance guard of the Royalist force under Sir Ed-
ward Ford and Sir Edward Bishop arrived before Arundel
on 6th December. They captured the town and laid siege to
the castle. " The place," says Clarendon, " in its situation
was very strong, and though the fortifications were not
regular but of the old fashion, yet the walls were very
strong, and the graff broad and deep ; and though the gar-
rison was not numerous enough to have defended all the
large circuit against a powerful army, yet it was strong
enough in all respects to have defied all assaults, and might,
with putting themselves to any trouble, have been very
secure against all the attempts of those without. But the
provisions of victual or ammunition were not sufficient to
have endured any long restraint ; and the officer who com-

1 S. A. C., xxviii, 100; Royalist Compositions, ii, 240.

2 Godwin, Civil War in Hampshire, ch. xv.



THE ROYALIST INVASION 73

manded it had not been accustomed to the prospect of an
enemy." l

Meantime great alarm was felt by the Parliamentarians
throughout Sussex. On 7th December the Committee at
Lewes informed the House of the capture of the town of
Arundel by Lord Hopton and of the danger in which the
castle stood. Parliament immediately nominated John
Baker of Mayfield as High Sheriff of Sussex, and directed
the gentlemen of the four associated counties to withdraw
to consider the question of sending relief to Arundel Castle,
and of clearing the county of Sussex, and to provide for
the security of that county in the best way they could, and
to consult with the Earl of Northumberland, Lord Lieu-
tenant. But for the energetic dispositions of Colonel Herbert
Morley, " a gentleman of a nimble apprehension and vigil-
ant spirit," 2 and his subordinate Captain Temple, the
Royalist forces would certainly have overrun the whole
county. Temple saw to the " hastening of the works at
Bramber and Shoreham," and to the manning of them
when completed. 3 The Mayor and jurats of Rye were
ordered to despatch six of the biggest and most serviceable
pieces of ordnance in the town to Shoreham. 4 At the same
time steps were taken to remove the timber and lead from
Camber Castle, near Rye; the castle being "soe greatlie
ruinated and broken that any man may goe in there and
purloigne and take from thence the tymber and leade." 5
The corporation complained later that they had received
no consideration for the 2,000 worth of lead which they
had saved for the State. Their forwardness had exposed
them to the very scorn and obloquy of the county. 6

The efforts of the Parliamentarians in face of the unex-

1 Clarendon, viii, 6.

8 Cheynell, Chillingworthi novissima, 1644.

3 S. A. C., v, 58.

4 Rye MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com., xiii, 4), p. 213. * Ibid.
6 Ibid., p. 214.



74 SUSSEX IN THE GREAT CIVIL WAR

pected rapidity of the Royalist advance have found an un-
named historian, whom from the internal evidence of his
manuscripts, 1 we may judge to have been Colonel Edward
Apsley of Worminghurst, midway between Horsham and
Arundel, M.P. for Steyning. His account is as follows:

"Wednesday night, December 6th, Colonel Ford and
Sir Edward Bishop came to Arundel. About 5 of the
clock in the morning Mr. Knight came to my house and
brought the first alarm, whereupon I gave the first alarm
to this part of the Country. By time it was day, Mr.
Stanes came to me; finding I had no strength to rely on
for the company I had formerly made use of was put into
garrison at Cowdray House, he persuaded me to retire my-
self either to London or eastward. Upon his reasonable
persuasions, as I was going to give order to have my
horses made ready, I saw some twenty or thirty men in my
hall, standing with their arms as ready for service. Where-
upon turning to Mr. Stanes I told him that it should never
be said that I should abandon the country so long as any
would stand to me, and wished him to move me no farther,
for I was resolved that hap what hap could. Whereupon
I gave order to Captain Leighton to exercise those men
he had. As I was at dinner there came a report of 2000 of
the enemy coming within two miles, viz., to Chiltington
Common. I sent out to the men to bid them look to their
watches, but before I had dined the report was contra-
dicted. There were spies sent out, whereof one, Mr. Knight's
man, went into the town, and there lost me a man, but
very honestly returned, and brought certain intelligence of
the enemy.

"So soon as it was dark, I took horse and rode to Horsham,
and sending for Mr. Shephard and some other gentlemen
of the town, I inquired what strength they could make.
They told me they thought 200. We resolved that they

1 S. A. C., v, 57-9.



THE ROYALIST INVASION 75

should come to my house the next day. I took horse again
and with the help of Sir Thomas Siffield's guide, got to
Bramber by sunrise. There and at Shoreham I found
Captain Temple, Captain Carleton, Captain Surrenden,
and Captain Fuller; before night Colonel Morley came to
us also from Lewes. Captain Morley l had sent him that
had been employed as a spy with a letter to me to have a
rendezvous appointed, for there were 200 foot and 120
horse assembled, and to let me know that Sir E. Bishop
had driven away all my sheep. It was agreed the rendezvous
to be at Cobden Hill by 12 of the clock. Next day
between one and two Colonel Morley, Captain Temple and
myself came to them with 200 dragoons, under Captain
Carleton and Captain Surrenden. Captain Temple took
order to hasten the works at Bramber and Shoreham by
the pioneers, and Captain Fuller and his company to man
them.

"Upon the information of the spy, Colonel Morley, Captain
Temple and the rest of the council of war resolved to fall
into Arundel, or if we were hindered of that by the break-
ing of the bridge by the enemy, to draw a breast-work at
the head of the causeway, and so block them up at least on
that side. Hereupon we drew the forces into several bodies.
Now my Lord Hopton came into the town since my spy's
coming out. Upon this resolution, we marched in our
several divisions for Parham Park, and intended for
Arundel we took the word ' God with us.'

"The day was misty, especially on those high hills; so was
the night; only now and then upon a gale of wind the mist
brake up. In our march, false intelligence was given that
the enemy had laid Houghton Bridge ; it was then thought
not fit to engage the body in those narrow ways from
Parham Ash to Arundel in the night, till we knew whether
the bridge were laid or no, doubting that the enemy had

1 Colonel Herbert Morley's younger brother, William.



76 SUSSEX IN THE GREAT CIVIL WAR

notice of our advance, and so might distress us in the way.
Whereupon by the advice of the council of war, the forlorn
hope was turned into a party, and sent, commanded by
Lieutenant Burton, to see whether the bridge was laid or
no. Before the party could return to the body, the light of
the moon (which have much assisted us in the bottoms
where the mist was not so thick, and the ways very narrow)



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