Charles William Eliot.

American historical documents 1000-1904, with introductions, notes and illustrations online

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ing-Indians of both these islands depend on him, as God*s
Instrument for their good. [5] Advice also was given for
the setling of Schools; every Child capable of learning,
equally paying, whether he make use of it or no : Yet if any
should sinfully neglect Schooling their Youth, it is a trans-
gression liable to censure under both Orders, Civil and Eccle-
siastical, the offence being against both. So we walk at

In as much as now we have ordained Indian Officers unto
the Ministry of the Gospel, it is needful to add a word or two
of Apology: I find it hopeless to expect English Officers in
our Indian Churches; the work is full of hardship, hard
labour, and chargeable also, and the Indians not yet capable
to give considerable support and maintenance ; and Men have

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bodies, and must live of the Gospel: And what comes from
England is liable to hazard and uncertainties. On such
grounds as these partly, but especially from the secret wise
governance of Jesus Christ, the Lord of the Harvest, there
is no appearance of hope for their souls feeding in that
way : they must be trained up to be able to live of themselves
in the ways of the Gospel of Christ; and through the riches
of God's Grace and Love, sundry of themselves who are
expert in the Scriptures, are able to teach each other: An
English yoimg man raw in that language, coming to teach
among our Christian-/ndifln^, would be much to their loss;
there be of themselves such as be more able, especially being
advantaged that he speaketh his own language, and knoweth
their manners. Such English as shall hereafter teach them,
must begin with a People that begin to pray unto God, (and
such opportunities we have many) and then as they grow
in knowledge, he will grow (if he be diligent) in ability of
speech to communicate the knowledge of Christ unto them.
And seeing they must have Teachers amongst themselves,
they must also be taught to be Teachers: for which cause
I have begun to teach them the Art of Teaching, and I
find some of them very capable. And while I live, my pur-
pose is, (by the grace of Christ assisting) to make it one
of my chief cares and labours to teach them some of the
Liberal Arts and Sciences, and the way how to anaHze,
and lay out into particulars both the Works and Word of
God; and how to communicate knowledge to others method-
ically and skilfully, and especially the method of Divinity.
There be sundry Ministers who live in an opportunity of be-
ginning with a People, and for time to come I shall cease my
importuning of others, and onely fall to perswade such unto
this service of Jesus Christ, it being one part of our Minis-
terial Charge to preach to the World in the Name of Jesus,
and from amongst them to gather Subjects to his holy King-
dom. The Bible, and the Catechism drawn [6] out of the
Bible, are general helps to all parts and places about us,
and are the ground-work of Community amongst all our
Indian-Churches and Christians.

I find a blessing, when our Church of Natick doth send
forth fit Persons imto some remoter places, to teach them the

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fear of the Lord. But we want maintenance for that
Service; it is a chargeable matter to send a Man from his
Family: The Labourer is worthy of his Hire: And when
they go only to the High-wayes and Hedges, it is not to be
.expected that they should reward them: If they believe
and obey their Message, it is enough. We are determined
to send forth some (if the Lord will, and that we live) this
Autumn, sundry ways. I see the best way is, up and be
doing : In all labour there is profit ; Seek and ye shall find.
We have Christ's Example, his Promise, his Presence, his
Spirit to assist; and I trust that the Lord will find a way
for your encouragement.

Natick is our chief Town, where most and chief of our
Rulers, and most of the Church dwells; here most of our
chief Courts are kept; and the Sacraments in the Church
are for the most part here administred : It is (by the Divine
Providence) seated well near in the center of all our pray-
ing Indians, though Westward the Cords of Christ's Tents
are more enlarged. Here we began Civil Government in the
year 1650. And here usually are kept the General-Trainings,
which seven years ago looked so big that we never had one
since till this year, and it was at this time but a small
appearance. Here we have two Teachers, John Speen and
Anthony; we have betwixt forty and fifty Communicants
at the Lord's Table, when they all appear, but now, some arc
dead, and some decriped with age; and one under Censure,
yet making towards a recovery; one died here the last
Winter of the Stone, a temperate, sober, godly man, the
first Indian that ever was known to have that disease; but
now another hath the same disease: Sundry more are pro-
posed, and in way of preparation to joyn unto the Church.

Ponkipog, or Pakeunit, is our second Town, where the
Sachems of the Bloud (as they term their Chief Royal-Line)
had their Residence and Rights, which are mostly Alienated
to the English Towns: The last Chief Man, of that Line,
was last year slain by the Mauquzogs, against whom he rash-
ly (without due Attendants and Assistance, and against
Counsel) went; yet all, yea, his Enemies say. He died
valiantly; they were more afraid to kill him, than he was to
die; yet being de- [7] serted by all (some knowingly say

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through Treason) he stood long, and at last fell alone: Had
he had but lo Men, yea 5 in good order with him, he would
have driven all his Enemies before him. His Brother was
resident with us in this Town, but he is fallen into sin, and
from praying to God. Our Chief Ruler is Ahauton, an old
stedfast and trusty friend to the English, and loveth his
Country. He is more loved than feared; the reins of his
bridle are too long. Wakan is sometimes necessarily called
to keep Courts here, to add life and zeal in the punishment
of Sinners. Their late Teacher, William, is deceased; He
was a man of eminent parts, all the English acknowledge
him, and he was known to many: He was of a ready wit,
sound judgment, and affable; he is gone unto the Lord; And
William, the Son of Ahauton, is called to be Teacher in his
stead. He is a promising young-man, of a single and upright
heart, a good judgment, he Prayeth and Preacheth well, he
is studious and industrious, and well accounted of among
the English,

Hassunnimesut is the next Town in order, dignity, and
antiquity; sundry of our chief Friends in the great work of
Praying to God, came from them, and there lived their Pro-
genitors, and there lieth their Inheritance, and that is the
place of their desires. It lieth upon Nichmuke River; the
people were well known to the English so long as Connecticot
Road lay that way, and their Religion was judged to be real
by all that travelled that journey, and had occasion to lodge,
especially to keep a Sabbath among them. The Ruler of
the Town is Anuweekin, and his brother TuppukkoowUlin is
Teacher, both sotmd and godly Men. This Ruler, last Win-
ter, was overtaken with a Passion, which was so observable,
that I had occasion to speak with him about it ; he was very
penitent; I told him, That as to man, I, and all men were
ready to forgive him. Ah! said he, / find it the greatest
difficulty to forgive myself. For the encouragement of this
place, and for the cherishing of a new Plantation of Praying
Indians beyond them, they called Monatunkanet to be a
Teacher also in that Town, and both of them to take care
of the new Praying-Town beyond them. And for the like
encouragement. Captain Gookins joyned Petahheg with Anu-
weekin, The aged Father of this Ruler and Teacher, was

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last year Baptized, who hath many Children that fear God
In this place we meditate ere long (if the Lord will, and that
we live) to gather a Church, that so the Sabbath-Com-
munion of our Christian Indians may be the more agree-
[8] able to the Divine Institution, which we make too bold
with while we live at such distance.

Ogquonikongquamesut is the next Town; where, how we
have been afflicted, I may not say. The English Town called
Marlborough doth border upon them, as did the lines of the
Tribes of Judah and Benjamin; the English Meeting-house
standeth within the line of the Indian Town, although the
contiguity and co-inhabitation is not barren in producing
matters of interfering; yet our godly Indians do obtain a
good report of the godly English, which is an argument
that bringeth light and evidence to my heart, that our
Indians are really godly. I was very lately among them;
they desired me to settle a stated Lecture amongst them,
as it is in sundry other Praying Towns, which I did with
so much the more gladness and hope of blessing in it, be-
cause through Grace the Motion did first spring from them-
selves. Solomon is their Teacher, whom we judge to be a
serious and sound Christian; their Ruler is Owannamug,
whose grave, faithful, and discreet Conversation hath pro-
cured him real respect from the English. One that was a
Teacher in this place, is the man that is now under Censure
in the Church; his sin was that adventitious sin which we
have brought unto them. Drunkenness, which was never
known to them before they knew us English. But I account
it our duty, and it is much in my desire, as well to teach them
Wisdom to Rule such heady Creatures, as skill to get them
to be able to bridle their own appetites, when they have
means and opportunity of high-spirited enticenjents. The
Wisdom and Power of Grace is not so much seen in the beg-
garly want of these things, as in the bridling of our selves in
the use of them. It is true Dominion, to be able to use them»
and not to abuse ourselves by them.

Nashope is our next Praying Town, a place of much Afflic-
tion; it was the chief place of Residence, where Tahattawans
lived, a Sachem of the Blood, a faithful and zealous Chris-
tian, a strict yet gentle Ruler; he was a Ruler of 50 in our

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Civil Order; and when God took him, a chief man in our
Israel was taken away from us. His only Son was a while
vain, but proved good, expert in the Scripture, was Elected
to Rule in his Fathers place, but soon died, insomuch that
this place is now destitute of a Ruler. The Teacher of the
place is John Thomas, a godly understanding Christian, well
esteemed of by the English: his Father was killed by the
Mauquaogs, shot to death as he was in [9] the River doing
his Eele-wyers. This place lying in the Road-way which
the Mauquaogs haunted, was much molested by them, and
was one year wholly deserted; but this year the People
have taken courage and dwell upon it again.

In this place after the great Earthquake, there was some
eruption out of the Earth, which left a great Hiatus or Cleft
, a great way together, and out of some Cavities under great
Rocks, by a great Pond in that place, there was a great
while after often heard an humming noise, as if there were
frequent eruptions out of the Ground at that place: yet for
Healthfulness the place is much as other places be. For
Religion, there be amongst them some Godly Christians, who
are received into the Church, and baptized, and others look-
ing that way.

Wamesut is our next Praying-Town ; it lyeth at the bottom
of the great Falls, on the great River Merymdk, and at the
falling-in of Concord River; the Sachem of this Place is
named Nomphon, said to be a Prince of the Bloud, a Man of
a real Noble Spirit: A Brother of his was slain by the
Mauquaogs as he was upon a Rock fishing in the great River.
In revenge whereof he went in the forementioned rash Ex-
pedition, but had such about him, and was so circumspect,
that he came well off, though he lost one principal Man.
This place is very much annoyed by the Mauquaogs, and have
much ado to stand their ground.

In this Place Captain Gookins ordered a Garrison to be
kept the last year, which Order while they attended they
were safe; but when the Northern Sachems and Souldiers
came, who stirred up ours to go with them on their unsuc-
cessftil Expedition, the Town was for the most part s'^at-
ter*d, and their Com spoyled.

The Teacher of this Place is named George: they have

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not much esteem for Religion, but I am hopefully perswaded
of sundry of them; I can go unto them but once in a year.

Panatuket is the upper part of Mmma^-Falls; so called,
because of the noise which the Waters make. Thither the
Penagwog-Indians are come, and have built a great Fort;
Their Sachems refused to pray to God, so signally and sin-
fully, that Captain Gookins and my self were very sensible
of it, and were not without some expectation of some inter-
posure of a Divine-Hand, which did eminently come to pass ;
for in the forenamed expedition they jojmed with the North-
ern Sachems, [lo] and were all of them cut off; even all that
had so signally refused to pray unto God were now as sig-
nally rejected by God, and cut off. I hear not that it was
ever known, that so many Sachems and Men of Note were
killed in one imprudent Expedition, and that by a few scat-
tered people; for the Mauquaogs were not Imbodied to re-
ceive them, nor prepared, and few at home, which did much
greaten the Overthrow of so many great Men, and shews a
divine over-ruling hand of God. But now, since the Pen -
aguog-Sachems are cut off, the People (sundry of them)
dwelling at Panatuket-Fort do bow the ear to hear, and sub-
mit to pray unto God; to whom Jethro, after he had confest
Christ and was baptized, was sent to preach Christ to them.

Magunkukquok is another of our Praying-Towns at the
remotest Westerly borders of Natick; these are gathering to-
gether of some Nipmuk Indians who left their own places,
and sit together in this place, and have given up themselves
to pray unto God. They have called Pomham to be their
Ruler, and Simon to be their Teacher. This latter is ac-
coimted a good and lively Christian; he is the second man
among the Indians that doth experience that afflicting disease
of the Stone. The Ruler hath made his Preparatory Con-
fession of Christ, and is approved of, and at the next oppor-
tunity is to be received and baptized.

I obtained of the General-Cburt a Grant of a Tract of
Land, for the settlement and encouragement of this People;
which though as yet It be by some obstructed, yet I hope we
shall find some way to accomplish the same.

Quanatusset is the last of our Praying-Towns, whose
beginnings have received too much discouragement; but yet

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the Seed is alive: they are frequently with me; the work
is at the birth, there doth only want strength to bring forth.
The care of this People is committed joyntly to Monatunk*
anit, and TuppunkkoowiUin, the Teachers of Hassunemesut,
as is abovesaid; and I hope if the Lord continue my life, 1
shall have a good account to give of that People.

Thus I have briefly touched some of the chiefest of our
present Affairs, and commit them to your Prudence, to do
[ii] with them what you please; committing your Selves,
and all your weighty Affairs unto the Guidance and Blessing
of the Lord, I rest,

Your Worships to serve you in the Service of our Lord

John Elliot.

Boxbury, this 20th of the 7th month, 1670.

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[On the passage of the Stamp Act t^ the British Parliament in
March* 1765, requiring that all legal instruments used in the Amer-
ican colonies should bear a government stamp in order to be valid,
delegates from nine colonies met in New York on October 7 of the
same year, to protest against this and other encroachments upon
their rights, and drew up this Declaration. The Stamp Act was
repealed in March, 1766.]

THE members of this congress, sincerely devoted, with
the warmest sentiments of affection and duty to his
majesty's person and government, inviolably attached
to the present happy establishment of the protestant succes-
sion, and with minds deeply impressed by a sense of the pres-
ent and impending misfortunes of the British colonies on this
continent; having considered as maturely as time will per-
mit, the circumstances of the said colonies, esteem it our
indispensable duty to make the following declarations of
our humble opinion, respecting the most essential rights
and liberties of the colonists, and of the grievances under
which they labour^ by reason of several late acts of parlia-,

1. That his majesty's subjects in these colonies, owe the '
same allegiance to the crown of Great Britain, that is
owing from his subjects bom within the realm, and all due
subordination to that august body the parliament of Great

2. That his majesty's Uege subjects in these colonies, are
entitled to all the inherent rights and liberties of his natural
bom subjects, within the kingdom of Great Britain.

3* That it is inseparably essential to the freedom of a
people, and the undoubted right of Englishmen, that no
taxes be imposed on them but with their own consent, given
personally, or by their representatives.

4. That the people of these colonies are not, and, from

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their local circumstances, cannot be, represented in the
House of Commons in Great Britaiiu

5. That the only representatives of the people of these
colonies, are persons chosen therein by themselves ; and that
no taxes ever have been, or can be constitutionally imposed
on them, but by their respective legislatures.

6. That all supplies to the crown being free gifts of the
people, it is unreasonable and inconsistent with the prin-
ciples and spirit of the British constitution, for the people
of Great Britain to grant to his majesty the property of
the colonists.

7. That trial by jury. Is the inherent and invaluable right
of every British subject In these colonies.

8. That the late act of parliament, entitled, an act for
granting and applying certain stamp duties, and other
duties, in the British colonies and fdantations in America,
&C., by imposing taxes on the inhabitants of these colonies,
and the said act, and several other acts, by extending the
jurisdiction of the courts of admiralty beyond its ancient
limits, have a manifest tendency to subvert the rights and
liberties of the colonists.

9. That the duties imposed by several late acts of parlia-
ment, from the peculiar circumstances of these colonies,
will be extremely burdensome and grievous; and from the
scarcity of specie, the payment of tfiem absolutdy imprac-

10. That as the profits of the trade of these colonies ulti-
mately center in Great Britain, to pay for the manufactures

' which they are obliged to take from thence, they eventually
contribute very largely to all supplies granted there to the

11. That the restrictions imposed by several late acts of
parliament on the trade of these colonies, will render them
unable to purchase the manufactures of Great Britain.

12. That the increase, prosperity and happiness of these
colonies, depend on the full and free enjoyments of their
rights and liberties, and an interoonrse with Great Britain
mutually affectionate and advantageous.

13. That it is the right of the British subjects in these
colonies, to petition the king, or either house of parliament

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Lastly, That it is the indispensable duty of these colonies,
to the best of sovereigns, to the mother country, and to
themselves, to endeavour by a loyal and dutiful address to
his majesty, and humble applications to both houses of par-
liament, to proc^re the repeal of the act for granting and
applying certain stamp duties, of all clauses of any other
acts of parliament, whereby the jurisdiction of the admiralty
is extended as aforesaid, and of the other late acts for the
restriction of American commerce.

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[In the third sessioii of the second continental congress, Richard
Henry Lee of Virginia proposed, and John Adams of Massachusetts
seconded, a resolution declaring the United Colonies free and in-
dependent states; and Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Roger Sher-
man, and Robert Liyingstone were appointed a committee to draw up
a declaration of independence. This famous document, composed
almost entirely by Jefferson, was adopted unanimously on July 4,

WHEN in the Course of human events, it becomes nec-
essary for one people to dissolve the political bands
which have connected them with another, and to
assume among the Powers of the earth, the separate and
equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's
God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind
requires that they should declare the causes which impel
them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are
created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with
certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life,
Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure
these rights. Governments are instituted among Men, deriv-
ing their just powers from the consent of the governed,
That whenever any Form of Government becomes destruc-
tive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or
to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its
foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in
such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their
Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that
Governments long established should not be changed for
light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience
hath shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while
evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing


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the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long
train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same
Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Des-
potism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such
Government, and to provide new Guards for their future
security. — Such has been the patient sufferance of these Col-
onies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them
to alter their former Systems of Government The history
of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated
injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the
establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To
prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome
and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of imme-
diate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their
operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so
suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommoda-
tion of large districts of people, unless those people would
relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a
right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unu-
sual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of
their Public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing
them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for
opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of
the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions,
to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative
Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the
People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in
the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from
without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these
States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws of Natural-
ization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage
their migration hither, and raising the conditions of new
Appropriations of Lands.

ac ZLm (6)

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He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by re-
fusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for
the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of

Online LibraryCharles William EliotAmerican historical documents 1000-1904, with introductions, notes and illustrations → online text (page 14 of 48)