of a university appointments bureau is chiefly
devoted to procuring places for young gradu-
ates as teachers, civil servants, journalists,
secretaries, or corporation officers; but in
America a wider range of employment for
graduates has been sought. At Oxford and
Cambridge, again, there are very few under-
graduates who need to earn their living while
in college ; whereas in American universities a
considerable proportion of all the undergrad-
uates must be self-supporting, or must earn a
part of their expenses. In the larger Ameri-
can universities the work of the secretary for
appointments is growing, and likely to grow,
as the managers of large producing or distrib-
uting industries realize more and more the
value of highly trained young men, and the
260 DIRECTORS OF LABORATORIES
extreme difficulty, in these days of applied
science and minute division of labor, of bring-
ing up competent managers from the ranks.
In a university in which are maintained
dormitories, dining-halls, and a cooperative
society for supplying the articles which stu-
dents inevitably need, such as clothing,
books, stationery, furniture, athletic supplies,
instruments, and sporting goods, two or
three administrative officers, presumably con-
nected with the treasurer's department, must
give attention to these matters, and particu-
larly must assist the students in their conduct
of cooperative undertakings, like dining-halls
and cooperative stores. Their work will be
partly administrative and partly accounting.
The directors of laboratories, libraries, and
museums have an important part in the ad-
ministrative work of a modern university. In
their accounting they need assistance from the
treasury department. Each director of a labo-
ratory, library, or scientific establishment can
employ to advantage one or more assistants in
the routine business of the establishment; but
LIBRARIANS AND MUSEUM DIRECTORS 251
"he ought to possess himself the usual admin-
istrative faculties. Every laboratory, observa-
tory, or museum is in some sense a workshop,
and the head of it ought to know how to con-
duct a workshop in an orderly, economical,
and efficient way. Inasmuch as students are to
be trained in laboratory work to the careful
and precise use of their senses, and to the
procuring of the most favorable conditions
for every experiment, every laboratory should
be tidy and clean. Every library and museum
should exhibit the most careful housekeeping,
being kept as free as possible from dust, in-
sects, crumbs, and accumulations of rubbish,
not only in the show-rooms, but in the work-
rooms and the receiving-rooms. Librarians and
museum directors should keep clearly in mind
definite policies concerning the relation of the
bulk of their collections to their working-
rooms, their exhibition-rooms, and their spaces
for storage. The collecting forces of a library
or scientific establishment are apt to outrun
the spaces for exhibition and the resources for
utilization. In such cases the director may be
252 OBJECT OF UNIVERSITY COLLECTIONS
working for some future generation, or avail-
ing himself of fleeting opportunities for col-
lecting ; but he is not doing his best for the
passing generation. In a university intended
for the instruction of each generation as it
passes, there are limits to the accumulation of
material which soon loses its interest for living
men and passes into the domain of history.
Collections of hand and machine tools and of
machinery, which for a few years may have
illustrated actual industries, soon lose all in-
terest except for students of the history of the
trades to which they belong ; yet they occupy
much space, and must be maintained in fair
condition. Thousands of books in every gener-
ation fall into a similar category. They have
been replaced by better books, and have no
interest except for students of the history of
an art or an idea.
A university which proposes to be an effec-
tive teaching implement for each new gen-
eration must be careful how it undertakes
to maintain great museums in many fields of
knowledge. It should prefer museums of mod-
COLLECTIONS SHOULD BE LIMITED 253
erate size which contain only a few specimens
of each type, and those often replaced. Its
collections should be always thought of as
teaching materials, partly for elementary stu-
dents, partly for advanced students, and partly
for the public at large. The buildings should
not be conceived of as indefinitely extensi-
ble ; but as having fixed limits, the contents
to be made choicer and more instructive by
exclusion and selection in each succeeding
This rule must be applied to books, if a
library is to be kept an effective treasure-house
for living men. The directors of collections,
whether of books, specimens, or records, need
to study constantly the relative expenditures
for collecting and for utilization. Utilization
should keep up with collection ; and due pro-
portion should be observed between the cost
of collection and the cost of utilization, else
the passing generation will not get its share
of the fruition. There is also danger that if
utilization lags behind collection, much of the
cost of collecting will be lost.
254 BREADTH OF UNIVERSITY WORK
Any one who makes himself familiar with
all the branches of university administration
in its numerous departments of teaching, in
its financial and maintenance departments, its
museums, laboratories, and libraries, in its ex-
tensive grounds and numerous buildings for
very various purposes, and in its social organ-
ization, will realize that the institution is
properly named the university. It touches all
human interests, is concerned with the past,
the present, and the future, ranges through
the whole history of letters, sciences, arts, and
professions, and aspires to teach all system-
atized knowledge. More and more, as time
goes on, and individual and social wealth ac-
cumulates, it will find itself realizing its ideal
of yesterday, though still pursuing eagerly its
ideal for to-morrow.
A. B., degree of, significance of,
A. M., degree of, 41, 167.
Academic distinctions, 118.
Academic freedom, 27, 110.
Accounts, publication of, 18.
Address lists of Alumni, 70, 75.
Administrative boards under
Administrative officers, 228 ;
age, 103 ; duties, 30 ; salaries,
Admission requirements, 31,
Advanced study scanty before
Civil War, 152.
Advisers of students, 148.
Age of administrative officers
and professors, 13, 103.
Agriculture, faculty of, 81.
Alumni, address lists, 70 ; anni-
versary celebrations, 67 ; geo-
graphical distribution, 70 ; in-
fluence on undergraduates,
114; information distributed
among, 70 ; organizations, 65,
69 ; local clubs, 72 ; of profes-
sional schools, 69 ; secretary,
72 ; photograph albums of, 68 ;
publications, 77 ; as trustees,
27 ; representation in trustees,
45, 48, 49 ; their success in life,
235 ; vital statistics, 67.
Annual appointments, 93, 95,
Applied biology, 85.
Applied science, faculty of, 81,
85 ; relations with faculty of
arts and sciences, 85 ; private
practice of teachers, 86.
Appointments, 7 ; confirmation
of, 50 ; nominations for, 111;
president's relation to, 236 ; of
teachers, 90, 112.
Appointments offices, 76, 248.
Appropriations from legislature,
Architects, employment of, 24.
Arts and sciences, faculty of, 81,
82 ; relations with faculty of
Assistant professors as members
of faculty, 87 ; salary of, 13.
Assistants, training of, 185.
Associated Harvard Clubs, 74.
Associations of students, 220.
Athletics, fields for, 22.
Attendance at college exercises,
Bachelor of Arts, degree of, sig-
nificance of, 165.
Bachelor of Philosophy, degree
Bachelor of Science, degree of
Bachelor's degree for admission
to professional schools, 170.
Biology, applied, 85.
"Birds of a feather" in social
Board, 20. See also Dining-halls.
Board of Overseers. See Over-
Breeding in and in, danger of,
Brooks, Phillips, 62.
Brown University, corporation
Building plans for the future, 25.
Buildings, designs for, 23.
California, University of 19.
Cambridge, University of, 8,
Carnegie Foundation, 6, 16, 100,
Case method of teaching law,
178, 199; in subjects other
than law, 203.
Catalogue of graduates, 75.
Chapel, attendance at, 61.
Chicago, University of, publica-
Choice of studies, guidance in,
Class organization of Alumni, 65.
Clinical professorships, 96.
Clubs of Alumni in different lo-
Clubs, students', 220.
Collectivistic motives, 227.
College, its relation to profes-
sional schools, 40.
College records, 118.
" College spirit," 225.
Commencement, Alumni gather-
ings at, 71.
Committees of faculty, 109 ; of
governing boards, 6; named
by president, 230.
Competition of endowed with
State institutions, 16.
Conferences of teachers and ad-
vanced students, 212.
Conferences to test and help
students' work, 143, 183.
Connecticut, Collegiate School
Consenting bodies, 44; see In-
specting bodies ; Overseers.
Constitutional law, 84.
Cooperative societies, 20, 250.
Cooptation of trustees, 47.
Cost of living, for students, 20.
Culture, changed ideals of, 43.
Dartmouth College, charter of,
Deans, 30, 105, 241 ; " one-man
power "of, 121,238.
Degrees, 118 ; requirements for,
Democracy in social life, 224.
functions of president in, 232.
Denominational instruction, 84.
Denominations, control by, 47.
Departmental buildings, 129.
Departmental organization of
instruction, 58, 82, 101, 108,
110, 124, 125, 126.
Departments, relation of fac-
ulty to, 128 ; nomination of
annual appointments by, 128.
Differences among colleges, 226.
DiHing-halls, 20, 219.
Directors of laboratories, libra-
ries, and museums, 250.
Discipline, 105, 114, 144.
Divinity, faculty of, relations
with faculty of arts and sci-
Doctor of Philosophy, degree of,
Doctor of Science, degree of,
Dormitories, 20, 217.
Easy courses, 136, 159.
Elective system, 131 ; object of,
134; in Harvard College
started by Board of Overseers,
58 ; a system, not a " bazaar, "
131 ; order and sequence of
courses, 132 ; limitations of
choice, 133, 147 ; time-table of
courses, 133; unwise combina-
tions of courses, 133 ; easy,
"soft," or "snap" courses,
136, 159 ; avoidance of early
morning and late afternoon
courses, 136 ; as used by idle
students, 136 ; value of, for
lowest students, 137 ; value
of, for late-developing minds,
138 ; graduate study pro-
moted by, 140 ; in Harvard
College, 140 ; mixture of older
and younger students, 139,
141 ; social effects of, 142 ;
responsibility of individual
student promoted by, 142 ;
examinations, 143 ; idleness
not induced by, 143 ; induce-
ments to strenuons study, 144 ;
minimum of work larger than
under prescribed system, 144 ;
moral objects, of, 144 ; free-
dom of election consistent
with strictness of require-
ments of study, 145 ; com-
pared with prescribed course,
145 ; in professional schools,
147 ; advisers of students, 148 ;
honors requirements, 149 ;
grouping of courses, 149;
group system, 161, 227; spe-
cialization forced by group
system, 164 ; stimulating to
scholarship of teachers, 150;
teaching profession affected
by, 150 ; works well under
proper administrative meth-
ods, 153 ; in Harvard Uni-
versity, 153 ; concentration
of work in the direction of
highest capacity, 154 ; con-
centration not carried too
far by undergraduates, 155 ;
actual choices of courses are
usually wise, 155 ; coherence
of studies chosen, 156; pro-
fessional career, courses lead-
ing toward, 159 ; length of
elective course, 167 ; Fresh-
man and Sophomore years,
prescribed courses in, 167 ;
two years of free election not
enough, 168 ; courses open to
Freshmen, 168 ; professional
studies, foundation for, 170;
pecuniary resources affect de-
velopment of, 171 ; liberal
study under, 165 ; promotion
of intercourse between teach-
ers and students, 164.
Employment bureaus, 76, 248.
Endowed institutions, advantage
of, 1 ; dependent on gifts, 17 ;
function of president in, 232 ;
competition with State insti-
Engineering, faculty of, 81.
Enrolment of students, 79.
Etiquette of relations between
trustees and faculties, 107.
Examinations, inspection of, 52,
63 ; oral, 189 ; use of, in lec-
ture courses, 182 ; written,
Exemption from, taxation, 19,
Expense of instruction, ques-
tions affecting, properly re-
ferred to trustees, 107.
Expenses of students, 20.
Faculty, the, 81 ; functions of,
104, 119; age of members, 87,
88, 89, 101 ; committees, how
constituted, 123 ; committee
on instruction, 109 ; deans,
30, 105, 241; delegation of
functions by, 105 ; delegation
of functions to, 31 ; depart-
mental subdivision of, 58, 82,
108, 124, 125, 126; depart-
ments, function of, in selecting
teachers, 101 ; in-breeding,
90; interference with teach-
ers' methods, 110 ; meetings,
frequency of , 119; meetings,
value of, 121 ; meetings, presi-
dent to preside at, 237 ; mem-
bership in, 87 ; membership
in more than one, 85 ; mem-
bership of, changes rapidly,
100 ; minority in, their proper
behavior toward trustees, 32,
107 ; nomination of teachers
by, 111 ; pecuniary bearing of
questions considered by, 106 ;
powers of, defined by trustees,
30, 31 ; recruiting, ways of,
93 ; relations with the public,
117 ; secretary, 105, 246 ; size
of, 124 ; trustees, relations to,
107 ; vitality, inventiveness,
and enterprise essential, 121 ;
young men in, 87, 88, 89.
Faculty, of agriculture, 81 ; ap-
plied science, 81, 85; applied
science, relations with fac-
ulty of arts and sciences, 8"> ;
arts and sciences, 81, 82 ; di-
vinity, 81, 84; engineering,
81, 85; fine arts, 81; law,
81, 83 ; medicine, 81, 84 ; how
recruited, 96 : nomination of
teachers, 113; theology, 81,
Fees. See Tuition fees.
Finance, deficits, 30 ; surpluses,
29 ; president's concern with,
Finance committee, 7.
Financial matters affected by
faculty action, 106.
Fine arts, faculty of, 81.
Freedom of teachers. See Aca-
Freshman year, prescribed
courses in, 167.
Freshmen, courses open to,
Funds, care of, 60 ; investment
in specific securities undesira-
ble, 10 ; see Investments.
" General " investments, 10, 60.
Geographical distribution of
Gifts, 17 ; acceptance of, 27 ;
from Alumni classes, 66 ; soli-
citation of, 233.
Gordon, George A., 62.
Governing boards, concurrent
powers of, 48 ; matters prop-
erly referred to the, by fac-
ulties, 106 ; see Trustees ;
Governor a trustee, 45 ; appoint-
ment of regents by, 46.
Graduate Schools of Arts and
Graduate study, scanty in Amer-
ica before Civil War, 152 ; re-
lation of elective system to,
Graduates. See Alumni.
Grounds and buildings, care of,
23 ; open to public, 22.
Group system, 161, 164, 227.
Grouping of courses, 149.
Hale, Edward Everett, 62.
Harvard Bulletin, 77.
Harvard Clubs, 74.
Harvard Graduates' Magazine,
Harvard Law School, case meth-
Harvard Medical School, 179.
Harvard Union, 220.
Harvard University, Alumni as-
sociation, 71 ; Alumni repre-
sentation, 49 ; appointments,
50 ; Appointments Office, 76 ;
Chapel, attendance at, 61 ;
charter, 6 ; deans, 241 ; de-
gree of A. B., its significance,
166 ; examinations, 206 ; Fac-
ulty, functions of, 104 ; gifts
from Alumni, 66; governing
board, 5 ; Graduate School of
Arts and Sciences, 140 ; hon-
orary scholarships, 215; hon-
ors, requirements in, 149
Overseers, 49 ; Overseers, gifts
from or promoted by, 53;
Overseers' influence on Corpo-
ration, 50 ; Overseers' meet-
ings, 51 ; Overseers, restric-
tion of residence within the
State removed, 51 ; Overseers,
usefulness of, 64 ; preachers to
the University, 62 ; President
and Fellows, 5 ; President's
functions, 236, 239 ; religious
exercises, attendance at, 61 ;
visiting committees, number
of, 55 ; voluntary attendance
at Chapel, 61.
Health of students, 22.
Heating and ventilating, 22.
Honorary scholarships, 215.
Honors, requirements for, a
guide in choice of studies,
Hospitals, 22 ; relation to medi-
cal faculty, 96.
Hours per week of university
Illinois, University of, 19.
In-breeding in faculties, 90.
Income, insurance of, by " gen-
eral " investments, 10; should
be spent, 29 ; distribution of,
Individual instruction, 172.
Individualistic motives, 226.
Industries, service rendered to,
Inspecting bodies, 44, 48 ; bene-
ficial influence on trustees,
50 ; checking and stimulating
influence of, 64 ; constructive
influence of, 57; needs of
university inquired into, 54;
publication of reports, 52 ;
residence of members, 51 ;
meetings, 51 ; qualification of
members, 63 ; visiting com-
mittees, 52, 53.
Instruction, committee on, 109;
departmental organization of,
58; inspection of, 52, 53;
methods of, 174.
Instructors, qualifications of, 90,
93, 112 ; members of faculty,
87 ; responsibility of, 1 10 ;
salary, 12 ; selection of, 90,
93, 112 ; tenure, 13, 32 ; their
work open to criticisms of
International law, 84.
Investigation, as a qualification
for teachers, 93.
Investments, 7, 8 ; care of, 60 ;
funds should not be limited
to specific investments, 10 ;
"general," 10, 60; mort-
gages, 8 ; public utilities com-
panies, 8 ; railroad securities,
9 , " special," 10 ; variety de-
sirable, 8, 9.
Johns Hopkins University, pub-
Kansas, University of, 19.
Laboratories, directors of, 250.
Laboratory manuals, 189, 191.
Laboratory notes, 190.
Laboratory principles in sub-
jects not scientific, 194.
Laboratory work, 186; danger
of, 191 ; problems, 193.
Langdell, C. C., 199.
Lantern-slide illustrations, 175.
Law as a field of arts and sci-
ences, 84 ; case method of
Law, faculty of, 81, 83 ; in
Europe, 83 ; lecture method
of teaching, 178 ; private
practice of teachers of, 86.
Learned societies, 92, 151.
Lecture courses, as method of in-
struction, 174, 178 ; use of ex-
aminations in, 183 ; use of
section work and conferences
Lectures, public, 21, 118 ; by
invited experts, 128.
Legislature, appropriations from,
Liberal study, 165 ; definition
Libraries, administration of, 36.
Lieutenant-Governor a trustee,
" Line of least resistance " as
applied to elective system,
Living, cost of, for students, 20.
Luxurious living, 223.
McKenzie, Alexander, 62.
Maintenance, relative cost of, 11.
Marriage of teachers, 13, 102.
Master of Arts, degree of, 41,
Master of Science, degree of,
Medical education, 84.
Medical examination, 22.
Medical inspection, 22.
Medicine, case method of teach-
ing, 204; lecture method in
teaching, 179 ; observation
work in study of, 179 ; private
practice of teachers of, 86.
Medicine, faculty of, 81, 84;
clinical professors, 96 ; a de-
partment of applied biology,
85 ; nominations of teachers,
113 ; relations with faculty of
arts and sciences, 85 ; rela-
tions with hospitals, 96 ; how
Methodist denomination, ap-
pointment of trustees by, 47.
Methods of instruction, 174;
lectures, 174, 178; object of,
176 ; recitations, 174, 176.
Michigan, University of, 19 ; re-
gents, 45 ; constitutional pro-
vision for, 45.
Minnesota, University of, 19.
Missouri, University of, 19.
Money questions affected by
faculty action, 106.
Montague, Richard, 62.
Municipality, relation to, 19, 21.
Museums, 21, 36, 251.
Needs of the University, in-
quiry into by Overseers, 54.
Note-taking, 189, 190.
Number of students, 79.
" One-man power " undesirable
in universities or faculties, 121,
Oral examination, 189.
Original investigation as a quali-
fication for teachers, 93.
Outside work by university
Dverseers, Board of, 48, 49;
checking and stimulating in-
fluence of, 51, 64 ; number of
meetings, 51 ; publication of
committee reports, 52 ; quali-
fications of members, 63;
visiting committees, 52, 53.
Oxford, University of, 8, 249.
Pensions. See Retiring allow-
Periodicals published by Alum-
Ph B., degree of, 166.
Ph. D., degree of, 41, 167.
Photograph albums of Alumni,
Poor men in college, 33, 76,
Popular lectures, 118.
Preachers to the University,
Prescribed course, compared
with elective, 145; in Fresh-
man and Sophomore years,
Prescribed reading, 180.
President, the presiding officer
of each faculty, 123, 237 ; an-
nual report of, 58; appoint-
ments and promotions weighed
by, 236 ; functions of, 30, 228 ;
a member of Board of Over-
seers, 49; "One-man power,"
121, 238 ; autocratic power not
desirable in, 238 ; the presid-
ing officer of trustees and facul-
ties, 229, 237 ; tenure of, 238.
Preventive medicine, 23, 84.
Private employment of univer-
sity teachers, 83.
Probationary tenure, 93, 95, 102.
Profession, courses in college as
foundation for, 147, 159.
Professional schools, admission
to, 40, 41, 42, 170 ; Alumni
organizations, 09 ; Bachelor's
degree for admission to, 170 ;
elective system limited in, 146.
Professional studies not less cul-
tivating than college studies,
43 ; relation of college studies
Professors, age of, 13, 103; as
members of faculty, 87 ; nom-
inated by faculty, 111 ; qual-
ifications of, 90, 93, 112;
recruited from other institu-
tions, 95 ; responsibility of,
110; salary, 13; selection of ,
90, 93, 112; tenure, 13, 32;
work open to criticism of fac-
Property, management of, 7.
Prudential committees, 6.
Public lectures, 21, 118.
Public opinion, representation
of, in inspecting body, 48.
Public service rendered by uni-
versity teachers, 117.
Publication of reports, 59.
Publications, 77, 129, 247; en-
dowment for, 78 ; of Alumni,
Publicity, need of, 18 ; of ac-
counts, 18, 234; in corporate
Quiz, the, 177, 183, 189, 193.
Railroad securities for invest-
Beading, prescribed, 180.
Real estate investments, 8.
Recitation courses, limit of size,
Recitations, 174, 176.
Records of student work, 118 ;
their preservation, 119.
Regents, ex-officio members, 3 ;
president of university a mem-
ber ex-officio, 46; secretary,
47 ; number, 1, 3 ; tenure, 1,
5, 46 ; see also Trustees.
Religious denominations, con-
trol by, 47.
Religious exercises, attendance
Religions toleration, 27.
Reports, annual, of president
and treasurer, 59.
Research courses, 210.
" Reserved books " for refer-
ence in college courses, 181.
Retiring allowances, 7, 15, 33,
Rich men in college, 214, 215.
Roads, contribution toward cost
Roman law, 84.
S. B., degree of, 166.
S. D., degree of, 167.
S. M., degree of, 167.
Salaries, 99 ; fixed by trustees,
7; of administrative officers,
15 ; relative appropriation for,
compared with other expenses,
11 ; scale of, 12.
Science. See Applied science.
Scientific collections, 251.
Secretary of faculty, 105 ; of
regents or trustees, 47.
Sectarian instruction, 84.
Section work in lecture courses,
Senators as trustees, 45.
Seniority as the basis of se-
lecting department chairmen,
Sewers, contribution toward
cost of, 22.
Sickness, loss of time from study
through, 23; provisions for,
Smithsonian Institution trus-
"Snap" courses, 136,159.
Social conditions, 219.
Social effects of elective system,
Socratic method, 201.
"Soft "courses, 136, 159.
Sophomore year, prescribed
courses in, 167.
" Special " investments, 10.
Specialists, societies of, 151.
Specialization compelled by
group system, 164.