Copyright
Chase S. (Chase Salmon) Osborn.

The Andean land (South America) online

. (page 1 of 23)
Online LibraryChase S. (Chase Salmon) OsbornThe Andean land (South America) → online text (page 1 of 23)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project
to make the world's books discoverable online.

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover.

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the
publisher to a library and finally to you.

Usage guidelines

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for
personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it.

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About Google Book Search

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web

at http : //books . google . com/|



Digitized by



Google



SA '\o/\,oic?-)



. .->




i$^sr//



PHILLIPS LIBRARY



or 1



OF



HABYABD OOLLEOE OBSEBTATOBT.



TRANSFERRED

TO

HARVARD COLLEGE
LIBRARY




Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



THE ANDEAN LAND



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



d

o

o a

O









Digitized by



Google



THE ANDEAN LAND

(SOUTH AMERICA)

BY

CHASE S. OSBORN

MEMBER OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS OP THE UNIVERSITY
OF MICHIGAN

WITH OVER FIFTY ILLUSTRATIONS AND FOUR MAPS

IN TWO VOLUMES
Vol. II.



CHICAGO
A. C. McCLURG & CO.

1909



Digitized by



Google



^.^ r.r,, , ,-«•-/ .Cg^



\'\z ,,:•'! is.-^/j



I''



Ast wntwie ti Ob t ervat t ry
of H i nwr d Co l l»f <



v.'..-;:-



Copyright

A. C. McClurg k Co.

1909



Published Mty 15, 1909



Entered tt Stmtionen* Hill, London, England



All rights nsiTH^id




THE UNIVERflTY PREM, CAMBRIDGE, U. 8. A.



Digitized by



Google



CONTENTS

Volume II

CHAPTER XII
Crossing the Andes

Across the Andes — Destructive Elxpress Companies
— ^The Transandine Railroad — Argentine Pampas
— Valley of the Rio Aconcagua — An American
Hack — Hotel Ingles, Los Andes — Typical
South American Railway Station — Transandine
Railway Time-table — Incomprehensible Maj-
esty of the Andes — Details of Crossing the
Andean Divide — Mountain Mules and Coches
— A Wild Ride — Lago del Inca — A Peace
Monument on the Roof of the World — Stories
of the Condor — The Rio Mendoza — Puente
del Inca — Mendoza, Old and New — Story of
the Destruction of Old Mendoza — The Argen-
tine Interventor — Domingo Tomba's Great
Vineyard and Winery

CHAPTER XIII

The Araucanians

Historical Sketch of the Brave Araucanians — Colonel
Saavedra's Policy — Lautaro, the Moses of his
People — A Pledge of Flesh and Blood — De-
struction of Valdivia — Defeat of Villagran —



Page



Digitized by



Google



vi CONTENTS

Pace
Death of Lautaro — Barbarities of the Span-
iards — Sacrificial Courage of Spanish Pioneers

— Sieges of Imperial and Villa Rica ... 50

CHAPTER XIV

Mines and Railroads

The Labor Question in South America — Mines and
Minerals — The War between Chile and Peru —
Talk of Union of Peru and Bolivia — Nitrate
Certificates — Mining Condition in Chile —
South America the Bay Window of the World —
Fuel Supply and Cost — Copper Mines of Copiapo

— Greater Chances in the United States —
Holidays Break up the Year — The Christian
Endeavor Founder and President Montt — In-
temperance a Common Curse — Chile and Ar-
gentina Watch Each Other — The Oroya
Railroad — Henry Meiggs — Oroya Indians
with Blue Eyes and Red Hair — Lake Junin the
Highest Navigated Water on Earth — Lake Titi-
caca — Lima and its Fine Museum — Dr. Max
Uhle, Director — Merino, Artist — Cerro de
Pasco Mines and Railroad — Route from Lima
to Iquitos — Mollendo a Wild Port — Raikoad
Antofagasta to Oruro — Fresh Water Scarce —
Bolivian Tin Mines — Rubber Operators —
Harvard Ethnological Expedition — The Natives

— The Llama — The Great Nitrate Industry —
Geologist Merriam, of the United States Steel
Companys^ 60



Digitized by



Google



CONTENTS vii



CHAPTER XV
Wist Coast Citiis



Paoi



The Chilean Coast — Island of Chiloe — German
Colonists in Chile — Valdivia — Lebu — Lota

— Coronel — Talcahuano — Penco — Concep-
cion — Santiago — Woollen Ponchos of Talca

— Quillota, the Ancient Capital — Limache —
Coquimbo — La Serena — Guayacan — Ovalle

— Guano Islands — The Rainless Coast — Tan-
talus Clouds float over the Desert — Huasco and
Other Towns — Caldera and Copiapo — Inca
Mining Methods — Taltal — Difficulties of Pro-
curing Fresh Water Supplies — Antofagasta —
Murderous Fleteros — Sea Lions in Port — Min-
erals of All Kinds — Borate of Lime — Tocopilla

— Iquique — Greatest Nitrate Deposits in the
World — Pisagua — Arica and Tacna — A Prob-
lem of Chile and Peru — Coca Leaves and Their
Marvellous Toxic Properties — Chuno — Cus-
toms of Andean Natives — Sea Birds Feeding at
Arica ii6

CHAPTER XVI

Up the West Coast

Along the Peruvian Coast — Dancing the Cueca —
A Home-made Little German Band — Cruel
Handling of Animals in Shipment — Arequipa —
Moving Sand Crescents of Islay Desert — Pisco
and lea — Chincha Islands — Proposed Chilean
Coastwise Railroad — Callao — Lima — Pizarro's



Digitized by



Google



viu CONTENTS



Pagb



Bones — Pachacamac — Rio Rimac — ^Thc Callao
Doctor — H umboldt Current — Trujillo — An-
cient City of Chan Chan — Pacasmayo — Eten —
Lobos de Afuera — Chiclayo — Lambayeque —
Payta and Piura — Matacaballo Desert — Cab-
bage Wood Balsas — South America the Cradle
of Mankind from whence the Earth was Peopled

— A Plea for Atlantis and a Theory of the Bibli-
cal Deluge — Peruvian Money Law Prohibiting
Silver and Copper — Monetary Units . • • • 147

CHAPTER XVII

The Incas and Cuzco

Incas Agrarian and Communal — Origin of Word
" Andes " — Terraces like the Japanese —
Pizarro's Operations — Fratricidal Strife between
Huascar and Atahualpa — Cuzco — Caxamarca

— Rich Huacas of the Chimus — Atahualpa*s
False Ransom — Murder of Pizarro — Toledo,
the Grateful — Time Tables and Routes to
Cuzco and La Paz — The City of Peace —
Trade Routes 174

CHAPTER XVIII

Ecuador

Neurasthenic Ecuador — The Royal Cordillera —
Volcanic Centre of the Earth — Undetermined
Boundaries — Uncertain Tenure of Presidents —
The Guayas River — Floating Islands — An
Embarrassing Incident — The Cacao Industry —
Tropical Huts — Persistence of Guayaquil —



Digitized by



Google



CONTENTS ix

Page
Quito, the Beautiful — Settling of the Andes

— An Ancient Mountain Road — Railroad to
Quito — Santa Elena — Mama and Montecristi

— How Panama Hats are Made — Ruins of a
Cara Town — Tagua — Esmeraldas — Galapagos
Islands — Darwin's Two Thousand Craters —
Cacos Islands — A Mysterious Ocean Shoal • 190

CHAPTER XIX

Colombia and Venezuela

Colombia — Unexplored Rivers and Forests —
Bogota — Barranquilla — Venezuela — Caracas

— La Guaira — Puerto Cabello — Ciudad Bolivar
and Maracaibo — Story of the Venezuela As-
phalt Trouble — Castro in the Right — Bajo and
Alto Lianas — Lakes Maracaibo and Tacarigua

— Great Floral Range in South America . . . 214

CHAPTER XX
The Guianas

Royalty in South America confined to the Guianas

— Great Contrast to the Royal Domain in North
America — Georgetown, British Guiana — Granite
Sea Wall — Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana — Cayenne,
French Guiana — Natural Canals 228

CHAPTER XXI
Bolivar

Yoke of Spain Thrown Off — The Bolivarian Wars

— Bolivar Freed Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador,
Bolivia, and Peru — A World's Hero — Bio-



Digitized by



Google



X CONTENTS

Paoi
graphical Sketch of Bolivar — Trouble with
Miranda — EfFect of the Earthquake of 1812
upon the People — Holstein't Inconsistent Criti-
cisms — Victoiy and Defeat — Ribos Beats
Monteverde — Marino — Boves' Infernal L^on

— Bolivar's Fearful Retaliation — A Black Year

— Cruelty a Disease of the Times — Brion and
Bolivar — Accessions at Angostura — Tricked
by Morillo — Memorable March over the Andes

— Victoiy of Boyaca — The Story of Dofia
Policapia — Victoiy of Carabobo — Final Fall
of Caracas — On to Peru — Battle of the
Plains of Junin — Decisive Victory at Ayacucho
and Peru Free — The Brave Sucre — Bolivar's
Desire to Free Cuba Thwarted — Bolivar Dies
an Exile — General San Martin's Great March
over the Andes — Lord Cochrane, Admiral —
General Social Conditions in South America —
Greater Union of Governments and Purpose
Proposed 232

APPENDIX

Spanish Proverbs 259

Table of Distances 268



Ind£x 269



Digitized by



Google



ILLUSTRATIONS







General View of Maiii Flaxa at Cuioo, Peru, thawing

Cathedral and Jesuit Chnreh Frontispitet

FAODMpAaa
Fencing a Railroad Right-of-Waj ** according to Law " in

the Heart of the Andes 4

A Transandine Railroad Station 8

Changing Post Horses while Crossing the Andes .... 22

Caravan Going op the Andes 26

Christo Redentor — the Prince of Peace. In the Andes

atCumbre 80

Puente del Inca, Natural Bridge over the Rio Mendosa in

the Andes. Altitude 10,000 feet 88

Earthquake Ruins in Mendosa 42

i^tatue of General San Martin in Mendosa Plasa .... 46

Domingo Tomba Wine Presses, Mendosa 48

The Best Street in Conoepeion, Chile 54

Ox Team at Concepcion, Chile 68

Coronel, (%ile 68

Scene on the Oroya (Meiggs) Railroad, Pern 76

Puente InfemiDo 82

fhe Coast at Mollendo, Peru 98

llamas at Casa P^oa 108

Taloahuano^ Chile 118

doquimbo, Chile 122

Trahajadores, Iquique, Chile 132

Iquique, Chile 186



Digitized by



Google



ILLUSTRATIONS

^ TAoam Pam

Ho, Pern 14S

Third-CUss Fassengen as they Lived on Deck among tlie

Oxen, on the Theben, a Pacific Coait Steamer . . . 150

Unloading Live Stock, Pacific Coast Survey 168

fnca Foundation Wallin Cuaco 178

J^anoramic View of Quito, the Capital of Ecuador . . . 204
Indian Water Carrier and Female Brushwood Carrier of

Quito. From a Woodcut made in Seventeenth Century

for Stevenson 808

Simon Bolivar. From a Woodcut made during Bolivar^s

Lifetime 284

MAP

did Map of South America 44



Digitized by



Google



THE ANDEAN LAND



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



THE ANDEAN LAND



CHAPTER XII

CROSSING THE ANDES

Across the Andes — Destructive Express Companies

— The Transandine Railroad — Argentine Pam-
pas — Valley of the Rio Aconcagua — An Ameri-
can Hack — Hotel Ingles^ Los Andes — Typical
South American Railway Station — Transandine
Railway Time-table — Incomprehensible Majesty
of the Andes — Details of Crossing the An-
dean Divide — Mountain Mules and Coches —
A Wild Ride — Lago del Inca — A Peace Monu-
ment on the Roof of the World — Stories of the
Condor — The Rio Mendoza — Puente del Inca

— Mendoza^ Old and New — Story of the De-
struction of Old Mendoza — The Argentine In-
terventor — Domingo Tombacs Great Vineyard
and Winery.

TO the world at large the Himalayas are
better known than the Andes. Offhand,
everybody knows the highest of the Himalayas,
and, very many know of the glories of the Kin-
chinjunga, while not one in a hundred, or maybe
a thousand, or even fewer, know the name of the
majestic Aconcagua, though it is the ruling
pinnacle of not only the Andes, but the Western
Hemisphere, unless it shall be determined, as

VOL. n. — I I



Digitized by



Google



2 THE ANDEAN LAND

claimed, that some of the Peruvian peaks arc
slightly higher, and almost two miles higher than
Shasta and Rainier, the loftiest mountains in
the United States, and a mile higher than the
highest peak in North America. The journey
across the continent of North America has come
to be almost a commonplace, and its consuming
interest is diminished to some and increased to
others by the simplicity and comfort attending it,
while the great cities interspersed make it diffi-
cult to realize how very briefly the fertile plains
and mountain defiles have been wrested from the
red man and the desperado.

All is different in South America, although it
possesses a white civilization more than a century
older than that of New England or Virginia, and
the distance across at the point where the first
transcontinental road is being built, from Val-
paraiso to Buenos Ayres, is only a quarter of that
between New York and San Francisco, or, in
exact figures, eight hundred and eighty-eight
miles. This Transandine Railroad will not be
completed for five years, and perhaps longer.
One tunnel, forty-five kilometres long, or ten
miles longer than the great Simplon Tunnel in the
Alps, remains yet to be built, with nine ventilat-
ing shafts, and only five kilometres of the work
is finished. But it will be completed some day,
and the optimistic management declares its
hope to be diat it will be finished in three years.



Digitized by



Google



CROSSING THE ANDES 3

even though the obstacles are many and both
confusing and confounding.

The journey from Valparaiso to Buenos Ayres
at present is advertised to be one of forty hours,
but if one accomplishes it in two days he will be
doing the average or better, and even though he
does not stop and rest at Mendoza, he will find
it trying and wearisome, no matter how young
and strong he is, not to lay too much stress upon
dirt and danger, both in many forms, with bad
food worse prepared, as the lesser evils of a trip
that would be positively killing if it were less fas-
cinating and not doubly worth doing. The fare
is twelve pounds, and a pound is flat five dollars
of our money in South America. There is an
allowance of one hundred pounds of baggage.
Two express companies, so called, which seem
to be equally bad and unreliable, engage to
move your baggage from your hotel in one termi-
nus to a hotel at the other, and carry you and
your hand parcels over the summit of the moun-
tain pass, 12,796 feet above the sea, either in
coach or on burro, or mulay or machoy as you
may elect. We patronized the Compania Na-
cional Transportes Expreso Villalonga, com-
monly referred to as ** Villalonga,*' as being the
older company and consequently with more
experience and a longer record in losing and
breaking things. The new Compania Trans-
portes Unidos is fast becoming as proficient in



Digitized by



Google



4 THE ANDEAN LAND

carelessness as the old one, and only needs a
short time longer in which to graduate as an
expert in slackness and general inefficiency.
The excellent Transandine Railroad officials
fully realize the intensely human shortcomings
of these strange "expresos/* and have about
come to admit that the only remedy is the com-
pletion of the railroad and their extinction in
present form, whereupon they will probably
become bandits and train robbers, with opera-
tions more stealthy than at present, but the re-
sult much the same.

One who has much baggage should burn it,
or store it, or ship it by steamer via the Straits
of Magellan. We cached our trunks at Santi-
ago and only carried a bundle of rugs, for the
cold of the mountains, long, light dust coats for
the flying sands of the pampas and the inde-
scribable grime attending the mountain caravans,
and a small satchel with night garments and
toilet articles. By watching these fiercely and
unremittingly, not from thieves, but from the
Villalonga, and being ready to fight for them
at every or any turn, we got them through safely
enough. But we saw others who had much more
to start with and landed with nothing. One
man had two suit cases, both of which were
swallowed by the mountains; one went over a
precipice and the other was run over by some-
thing like ten coaches and was then trampled



Digitized by



Google



<

c

H

O

3
pj

o
o



pi ^

2 ^

S :2

o






o

(X4



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



CROSSING THE ANDES 5

upon by a cavalcade of pack mules, until scarce
a shred of case or contents could be found. An-
other man we saw at Valparaiso who had just
come over. He had started with trunks and
bags, but landed in worse shape than a ship-
wrecked sailor with all he had on his back and
that ground full of the grit of the Andes, which
is worse than the dry, cork-like loess dust of the
valley of the Hoangho in China. He told us he
not only could not find his effects, but could get
no satisfaction ; the Villalonga people actually pre-
suming to intimate that he was as much of a tramp
as he looked and had never an outfit to start with.
These things are only the amusements of the
journey, which may be guarded against by a
temporary abatement of the vanity of dress and
the leaving behind of every unnecessary article.
Then, too, one can help the case wonderfully in
the food line by carrying an ample lunch basket,
with bottles of water and wine or beer. It is
important to eat sparingly, but often, while as-
cending the divide, which will enable one to
stand the altitude better and may save him from
mountain sickness, which may be bad here, but
not so dreadful as the awful sorroche or puna
that attacks new mountaineers in Peru and
Bolivia. Persons of very low vitality, or hearts
that are organically weak, should not essay the
Andes crossing, at least without consulting a
physician.



Digitized by



Google



6 THE ANDEAN LAND

The transandine journey on the Atlantic side
begins at Buenos Ayres, and the trains run as far
as Mendoza daily, there connecting across the
mountains three days in the week, so that one
may either go through without stop-over at
Mendoza by selecting a train that makes direct
connection, or may go as far as Mendoza on an
earlier train and spend a couple of very interest-
ing days there. The ride between Buenos Ayres
and Mendoza is half by day and half by night,
the latter serving to cure a monotony that at-
tacks most travellers. Dining and sleeping car ac-
commodations on the through train to Mendoza,
operated over the Buenos Ayres & Pacific and
Argentine Great Western broad-gauge railways,
are average and entirely bearable. The train
has no suggestion of the palatial appointments
of the transcontinental trains in the United
States, but it is far from being bad in South
America.

One soon gets into the plains country similar
to our huge Western stretches in all but area, and
toward night into the pampas proper, quite re-
sembling the Arizona and New Mexico deserts
traversed by the Southern Pacific. Wherever
anything will grow without water one may see
grain fields of wheat and corn, and in the wilder
portions great estanchios or ranches like the
old-time Western American ranch of the hal-
cyon cow days of fenceless, limitless pasturage.



Digitized by



Google



CROSSING THE ANDES 7

Even in the deserts one may see fine sights of
tilth where water has been introduced. In the
low places and along streams the sinuous and
graceful pampa grass, ten to twenty feet high,
waves its whitish-gray and grayish-yellow plumes
in the breeze as if bidding defiance to drought
and locusts, for this has been a terrible year in
the Argentine, with rainless months and clouds
of devastating insects that blacken the sun while
passing over and blockade the railroad for hours
if they chance to stay their flight upon it, as they
often do. No matter how powerful the loco-
motive, or how much headway is used, or how
much sand is sprinkled on the track, no train
can run through a resting army of locusts six
inches or more deep. The driving wheels
crunch into them a little distance and then slip
and whirl, and slip and whirl again in a way
that is as impotent as it is sickening.

One sees no scampering herds of fleet and
agile antelopes as in the earlier days of our West,
and few birds; in fact, the impression is of a
ride through a desert, not as desolate as the
Sahara, to be sure, or as the Gobi in Mongolia,
but still enough of a desert to make one think
twice before settling down in its midst unless he
had not seen it before and had burned all bridges
behind. Do not get the idea that the Argentine
is all desert, or by any means all garden, as the
colonizing oflices and agents would depict.



Digitized by



Google



8 THE ANDEAN LAND

There is good land and bad land, with more of
the latter, and with no such proportion of the
former as in our own Western country. I am
of the opinion that Iowa has a greater producing
and sustaining power than all of Argentina;
add Illinois, and there remams no doubt what-
ever.

The journey across the Andes from the Pacific
side may be undertaken from either Valparaiso
or Santiago, with trams three times a week. The
Valparaiso train leaves at 5.15 p. m., and runs
to Los Andes. The Santiago train leaves at
6.15 p. M., and passengers catch the Valparaiso
train at Llai Llai (pronounced Yi Yi, with long
1) junction, to which they transfer across an
adjoining platform at the same station and pro-
ceed to Los Andes, which is the end of the
Chilean State Railway in that direction and the
beginning of the Chilean Transandine Railway,
upon which one continues in the morning after
a night spent at Los Andes. The ride to Los
Andes is through the beautiful and fertile valley
of the Rio Aconcagua, one of the centres of heart
and life in agricultural Chile, with fields of corn,
wheat, cotton, tobacco, vines, orchards, herds,
fowls, and pretentious haciendas, tile-roofed,
and more lowly ranches, quite light and tropical
in construction, and thatched with reeds and
grass ; all a picture to please the eye and gladden
the heart. The further we rode away from the



Digitized by



Google



5Z5
O

H

i

<

o

03
03

Q

2



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



CROSSING THE ANDES 9

coast the more we noticed an improvement in the
countenances of the people and in their general
demeanor, and when the limits pf the terrible
earthquake zone were reached it could be told
by the laughing eyes, happy faces, and smiling
countenances of a people who are naturally


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Online LibraryChase S. (Chase Salmon) OsbornThe Andean land (South America) → online text (page 1 of 23)