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A Light to Lighten the Gentiles. Mrs. A. A. Gilman, Mrs. Hsu,
and Miss Koo.

||||5„. 104pp. M. Copy, O.Ofi

Bible Gems. Ed. G. A. Clayton.

tfc m & * m v* 16 pp- M - 100 > 2 - 5 °

The Home Training op Children. Mrs. M. M. Fitch.

3t£L$S£ .- 42 PP- M - Copy, 0.05

Harmony in the Home. Mrs. A. H. Smith.

W.J1&& ...112pp. M. Copy, 0.05

Power through Prayer. By Bound. Tr. F. J. Hopkins and Bao
D-juh-an.

& ££ RIJ g 5(5 pp. M. Copy, 0.08

Street Chapel Questions Answered. By Lui Min^-lih.

aStfc5pr«U. 4 P1>- M - 100,0.55

A Reading Ooubse for Enquirers.

J£& *+-**# 12 «PP k M - 100,2,50

Twelve Great Fact-', Ait. W. \\ t . I licks.



CHRISTIAN PUBLICATIONS IN CHINESE 1918-1919 243



A Believing Wipe Exhorts Her Husband.

&&#CA

Saved by His Death

gflH&g

Imaginary Origin of Ills.

IS ^ & &1

Direct Gospel Talks Wenli Series.



B ffl] 5*c Sffc ... 8 pp. M. 100, 1.40

By Wang Yu-tang.

Folder. M. 100, 0.70
Arr. Mrs. H. Fowler.

Folder. M. 100, 0.70

By 01 iiih Kan-chen,

Folder. W. 100, 0.40
By J. Vale and Tsai Lien-f u.

ft B 'M ^ Too Late.

f£ A ib a£ The Wrong Track.

$S ^ A W But There Is Fire.

%$ A £ vfk The Savant and the Boatman.

S£ <£ i£ ~h The Power of Love.

^ ^ R iH Not Up to the Mark.

Week of Evangelism Series, 1919. Folders. 100, 0.70



Wenli. Personal Service.


f® A fffi it Zia Fu-ya.


All Have Sinned.


A.-g # H HangHai.


Sin's Outcome.


Si^gl Y. K. Woo.


God's Love.


_h ifr ;£ S£ Chang Pao-chang.


r Redemption.


H fg £ v£ Ch'en Chin-yung.


The Spirit's Inflence. jg H *& Vc Hu Ting-chang.


Why Enter the Church. A # <£ H Me Mei-sheng.


Perseverance.


tf. ifr ^ it Chao Chih-chen.


Kuanhwa. Personal Service.


[email protected] A fffi it Chang Hsu-hsi.


All Have Sinned.


A it m m S. C. Hwang.


Sin's Outcome.


m Z'M Mi Ts'ai Lien-f uh.


God's Love.


_b fa 2. ft Shen Wen-ching.


Redemption.


H fg Z v£ Bao Djuh-an.


The Spirit's Influence. |g fg f& ft Hsu Fang-chen.


Why Enter the Church. A "§" Z. ® Sen Wen-ching.


Perseverance.


tl »fr 3= it K. C. Chuh.




Sheets. M. 100, 0.35


God's Way of Salvation. W. Gillan and Mr. Yu.


in m * id m 31


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&m ±IS^li


» *T » Sfc -ft & HI & « * » *



244 LITERATURE IN CHINA

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CHRISTIAN PUBLICATIONS IN CHINESE 1918-1919 245

J! fifr $ W. and M. Sheet. 1,000,7.00

Sheet Calendar, 1911). "The Four Seasons." P. J. Hopkins and
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Hygiene in the Home. By T. H. Lea.

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Heralds op the King. Compiled by R. F. Cottrell.

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World Struggles. By F. E. Stafford.

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Way op Life.

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Exposition op the Book op Eomans. By R. A. Jaffray.

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Exposition op Genesis, xi~xxv. By R. A. Jaffray.

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A Contrast — The True God and Idols. By R. A. Jaffray.

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Trinity College Press, Ningpo
; W. 200

>. By Archdeacon W. S. Moule.
West China Religious Tract Society, Chungking



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Oracles op God. By Archdeacon W. S. Moule.



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Life of Jesus, School Readers, Vol. 1








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Children's Stories



246



LITERATURE IN CHINA



Istl^-.. M - 7 pp. 100, .30

The Excellence of the Gospel. By Lin I Tien



§1 A _L -* - . ....

Leading Men to Heaven. By Lin I Tien.

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Ploughman's Song

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Simplified Script Catechism, Dr. Lewis

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Gospel Poster Texts

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Published Privately

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How China Can Conquer the Alcohol Menace. By T. C. Li.

(Can be ordered through Mission Book Co., or Kwang Hsiieh

Publishing House.)

iff ! ft it H M. Special prices.

Nanchang Series. Written or edited by F. J. Hopkins and Bao
Djuh-an, Nanchang, Ki.

68. m

69. m

70. jR & * fft tfl

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73. ffi — M If

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CHAPTER XXVI

CHINA IN CONTEMPORANEOUS LITERATURE*
Frank Rawlinson

v . . Every one with a viewpoint is trying it

Viewpoints out on China : we have therefore a large erop
of opinions, with a much smaller crop of
reasoned conclusions thereon. Some of the best ideas come
from Chinese experts, which means an increasing influence
of Chinese leadership. In the midst of this uncharted
S irgossa Sea of opinions there emerges the need of a few
good books on China that might be of general use. Each
mission should have an available history of its work in
China ; these together would form the basis for a
comprehensive history of the Christian movement in China.
In Chinese a start along these liDes has already been made
by K. Y. Chun of Nanking University : in English Dr. K. S.
Latourette has commenced "A History of Missions in China.''
These general histories should show something of other
phases of Western expansion in China so as to develop a
true perspective. It seems possible to prove almost anything
about China if care is taken in selecting data. For radical
propagandists, either commercial, diplomatic, or religious,
China is a rich mine. Much said about China is based on
fleeting personal experiences, or second-hand material
treated in the light of exotic interpretations. The truth
about China gleams in most of what is written, though
one needs to be an expert assayist of fact to distinguish
the gold from much that is simply the pyrites of propa-
ganda imagination. Especially encouraging is the public
attention being given to the problem of justice to China —
though it seems to be a reversal of the psychological
order of act first, idea second.



* The Bibliography is found in Appendix A,



248 LITERATURE IN CHINA

Sundry Sources That the world's interest in China is still

growing, the wide range of the Bibliography,
even though incomplete, will show. There is no way of
telling where a publication on things Chinese will appear.
There is no organization as far as we know which keeps up
a contemporaneous bibliography on China.. Such organiza-
tions at the "home base" as attempt a bibliography on
China do not share their information with the public.
There is a quarterly list of carefully selected articles and
books in the International Review of Missions. There has
been a comprehensive list of books and articles on China,
past and present, appearing monthly in the Chinese Students'
Monthly. Magazines in China have difficulty in securing
books on China for review; this is more true of British
than American publications. There is not in China any
library center where a complete display of literature deal-
ing with China is available.

t t „ Interest in things Chinese is deepening

Ideas 1 an( ^ widening rapidly. Many fascinating

lines of sinological study are in the focus of
attention, among which the study of China's material
resources is prominent. The outstanding problem is the
relation of China and Japan, a problem in which the world-
public has vital interests. Western sympathy with China
is outspoken in very many directions though, it appears,
still impotent. The commercial and industrial possibilities
of China stand next in order of emphasis: it is recognized
that China has both a need to be filled and a contribution
to make in this respect. In internal matters education
receives the most attention. This is in accord with the
genius of the Chinese people, and the increasing importance
of pedagogy in national uplift. More attention should
be given to the spiritual achievements and resources of
the Chinese. There is need, also, of more careful study of the
effect of Chinese social solidarity on all enterprises initiated
in China by Westerners or originating in the West. At-
tention should also be given to the growing interest in trade
and industry with a view of promoting preparation there-
for. An encouraging determination to understand China's
real self is in evidence.



CHINA IN CONTEMPORANEOUS LITERATURE 249

Outstanding As ^ ar as our i u f° rmat ion goes the promi-

Books nen t works on China are less iii number

than last year. Sinological research seems to
have sustained a setback; there has been much literary
surface-digging but comparatively little deep plowing of
thought. Three publications, however, deserve special
mention. The first is China in 1918, a special anniversary
supplement of the Peking Leader. Here Chinese and
Westerners, Christian and non-Christian, have put to-
gether facts of present-day China which are illuminating,
informing, and stimulating. Many of the articles give
evidence of careful thought. It is the best collection of
utterances on present tendencies, problems, and motives
in China we have seen. It is a cooperative product of
great value.

Next, are the second and third volumes of H. M.
Morse's The International Relations of the Chinese Empire.
An enormous mass of historical material has been culled
over for these volumes which constitute an impressive and
dispassionate display of facts on the Western — commercial
mainly— penetration of China. Nibblers at the bizarre will
find them heavy reading, but earnest students of China
will deeply appreciate their permanent value. They are
source books of the origins of many present-day situations
and feelings in China. On the side of the philanthropic
penetration of China we have the China Mission Year Book
for 1918. Therein are treated both the background of
conditions in China as well as special phases of the
Christian movement. There are shadings of opinions in
re, Christian activities, but taken altogether this volume
shows that mission forces are interested in every phase of
the social and spiritual development of China. This
inspiring publication fixes attention on both present
problems and merging plans. We have listed elsewhere its
outstanding articles. How a missionary can hope to
understand the Christian movement in China without
reading this book we fail to see. To read these three books
together is to get an intelligent view of the impact of
the Christian and commercial world on China, and of the
resulting influence of the solid characteristics of the Chinese



250 Literature in china

upon the West, which makes it clear China has something to
(jive as well as to gel. China is not an international beggar.

Boo k s i Of special importance and use are the

Reference Directory of Protestant Missions and a special

edition of The Map of China. Most of the
reference books have to do with various problems of
language study. This is treated from the Moslem, Spanish,
and Greek viewpoints. The New Dictionary of the Com-
mercial Press, gives evidence of being hastily done and
is thus unsatisfactory. An index to the old China, Review
furnishes a key to a thesaurus of things Chinese.
Pioneers There are a number of interesting,

biographical sketches of pioneers. In Robert
Dollar, a business man of unspendable energy, we have
one who believed in God as well as business. In A. J. Little
we have a merchant and student of good faith and
substantial morals who did much to promote interest in
China. Edouard Chavannes was a stupendous worker and
outstanding sinologue. The story of Dr. Jeme Tien-zu,
China's railway pioneer, introduces us to one who blazed
the trail for China's transportation problems. In Chang
Chien we have a pioneer reformer. He made his own home
town, Nantungchow on the Yangtze, a model town in
which it is said poverty and idleness are not known.
Although a Hanlin scholar, he was disinterested and will-
ing enough to work for the community. His life is a good
study for pessimistic critics of the Chinese. Of ancient
enterprise the "modern" irrigation system of the Chengtu
plains is an exhibit. One Li Ping is given credit in one
article, while Kai Ming in Origin of the Kuanhsien Water
Works, a native minister is called the real "Moses" of the
system, but not being a Chinese the public credit is given
to the former man. It is a story of how wits got the better
of superstition in starting a public enterprise.

Missionary Of missionary pioneers two stories are

Pioneers' given. In a voluminous volume, we have

Hudson Taylor's Relations to the China Inland
Mission. In the early days his was a case of " going over
the top"; he saw possibilities where others saw hindrances.



CHINA IN CONTEMPORANEOUS LITERATURE 251

An insight into his spiritual life is given as a guide to
the general trend of the China Inland Mission missionaries.
In spite of faith the strain upon him was often incalculable.
It is a story that some one with the art of story-telling
could take and repeat, making subordinate the elements of
propaganda, in an appeal to the adventurous and romantic
in youth: more attention should also be given to his part in
opening up China. Of the significance of the man, Eugene
Stock speaks interestingly. With friendly hands he pried
open rusty doors ; to some it seemed he attempted
impossible things with doubtful methods. Yet he helped
to make an "open door" for Christianity. While his
theological views were in the opinion of many limited, yet
he was a powerful religious force. Of his coadjutor, John
Stevenson, One of God's Stalwarts there is an altogether too
condensed sto^. Here again there is a background of
adventurous exploits which could be told as fascinatingly as
those of Robinson Crusoe, thus, helping to open minds to
the human significance of missionary work. John Stevenson
was ever a stimulant to the hesitant, an inspiration to the
determined.

p . < 170 Chinese Poems while revealing the

Verse real Chinese heart shows also that poetical

ideas in China grow more out of friendship
than love for women. The author says no Chinese epic
exists. In Notes on Chinese Poetry some interesting
observations are given on the relation of tone to poetry ;
until the sixth century tones not being considered important.
A further attempt is made in Poetry — A Magazine of Verse
to make known the strivings of the Chinese heart as seen in
the beauties of Chinese poetry. In Chinese Lyrics we
have a cluster of notes from the Chinese soul. The Chinese
System of Versification will help one to determine whether
Chinese or foreign poetical form should prevail in Chinese
hymnology. This whole problem is again treated in
Chinese Music, a careful and suggestive study. Chinese
music originally had twelve notes, six masculine and six
feminine; the pentatonic scale, the author shows, is due to
foreign influence. The article concludes with an appeal for
new standards. These two articles will help Westerners



252 LITERATURE IN CHINA

who aspire to be poetical in Chinese form, as a hint of the
real basis of Chinese poetry and music is given therein.
Studies of China Light on unknown phases, and new light

on known phases of life in China are here put
together. In Camps and Trails in China we look through
the eyes of a scientist at things rugged and wild and share
with him vivid impressions of sidetracked/ peoples and
places. A Naturalist's Journey ~ Across Liitle Known
Yunnan reveals rugged phas.s of China's native beauty,
it hints also at China's boundless interest to the scientist.
Travelling in Tibet gives a missionary's impression of
Tibetan life and customs, sometimes weird, often hard, and
always pathetic. West China is now almost a Mecca for
hunters of facts. North Western Szechwan is a story of
hair-raising experiences met in a study of conditions of life
in this region.

The History of Szechwan shows the rise and fall of political
influences between 618-960 A.D. Some of the causes for
the truculent Szechwanese spirit are disclosed. One can
also see how China did for Szechwan what the Westerners
have done for her in the east. A List of Jfio of the Most
Common Proverbs of Szechwan gives an insight into the wit
of this region. In the way of technical knowledge we have
the Hydrography of the Yunnan-Tibet frontier, and a list
of Trees and Shrubs of West China. There are several
articles on biology, zoology, flora, and fauna. Chinas
Mineral Enterprise treats of much besides mining. Prob-
lems arising out of superstition and political intrigue
with special reference to Japan, are frankly discussed. It
is a work that many besides mining engineers will appre-
ciate. China Inside Out is a running account of fleeting
impressions of China which are interesting though a little
misleading. Some Aspects of Chinese Life and Thougiit is a
series of studies of Chinese life seen from personal angles.
The Land Tax in China is a thesis of considerable merit
by a Chinese. The passing of land from common to private
ownership is shown, and the position of agriculture as the
basis of national economy is brought out. The fact that
small land holdings in China and the absence of a landed
aristocracy have not prevented poverty would make an



CHINA IN CONTEMPORANEOUS LITERATURE

interesting study for the advocates of the single-tax
theory in the West. For socialists the Chinese belief that
land should be held for the benefit of the community is
significant; no one indeed is expected to hold more than he
can turn to account. The whole thesis is a careful dis-
cussion based on modern viewpoints with a view to reform.
Ma Mission en Chine is a book of experience, observations, and
impressions given political interpretation in part. The
Origin of the Chinese Language is shown in a study of six
different classes of characters in an ancient dictionary, the
relation of which is shown in an interesting way. The
Divorce Lavs of China is an article of considerable interest
in view of recent moral movements in China. The origin
of some designs are given in Where the Chinese Got Their
Rug, Pottery and Art Designs ; in addition this article gives
an insight into Chinese symbolism. A careful study of
the Architecture of China indicates the classes and motive
of Chinese architecture. The Punishment of Criminals in
China shows the philosophy underlying legal punishment.
Mercy and justice meet together, says the author, in Chinese
laws and punishment. There is a technical account illus-
trated by plates and explained by comments on Ancient
Chinese Paper Money. One moves in another world while lead-
ing Translations from the Chinese World Map of Father Ricci.
A book of Sayings of the Mongols is also given in Chinese Ro-
manized and French with enlightening comments through-
out. Of two articles on Buddhism, one deals with the
influence of Buddhism as a foreign religion in the time of
the predominance of foreign influences — the T'ang dynasty.
It is an excellent resume of the causes of the rise and fall of
Buddhism in China which " in its great day was an
overpowering, intellectual, emotional and aesthetic force.""
The other article deals with the recondite subject of the
origin of "the female and child" in Buddhistic and Tao-
istic circles. The author says it came from the female
vampire Harite— a monster who ate children because her
last one died. This is still however a subject for study.
Recent Books by Chinese Scholars is a list of books dealing
with little-known erudite subjects of Chinese research.
Studies in Chinese Psychology is interesting, though it



254 LITERATURE IN CHINA

gives one the feeling of being strained. The Confucian
Taoist and Buddhibt ideas of the fixation of the soul are
analyzed. In connection with f< fate and fortune " we read,
is the whole system of ancestor worship, feng-shui, and
spiritism, implies that after Heaven, Earth, and the Superior
Man, the Dead play the most important part. If we sub-
stitute for these four the Solar energy, Earthly Substance,
Cultural Environment and Heredity it is obvious that the
Chinese are not so far from the truth." There is also a short
note on sex in Chinese philosophy, which shows that Chinese
ideas on this subject are those of medieval Christianity, sex
impulse in China having been diverted into mental activities.
In a Note on Head Flattening we read that in the twenty-third
century B. C. the Chinese practiced this strange custom,
hence the strange head shapes in pictures of ancient wor-
thies, the most desirable of which was that of a pyramid.
A Short Lived Republic is an interesting account of the
mushroom republic of Formosa; though gallantly conceived
and defended it was brief and futile. In Notes ou Chinese
Drama and Ancient Choral Dances the rise of the drama in
China is shown. The first serious stage play was given in
279 A.D. to perpetuate the abhorrence of a tyrant. The
only one of the deified heroes of China who appears in
person in a play is Kwan Yii, the Chinese Mars. No Buddhist
appears in any stage play. There are five short and inter-
esting articles on Chinese ideas of a future life, which
reveal a charm of imagination hard to equal. In the
above studies we are transported into China's past — a past
that has flowed steadily and ceaselessly. Some of the
subjects treated have to do with things most difficult to
change. Do we, as a matter of fact, need to change all of
them?

R , China is stirring more than ever the

F act imagination of the novelist, who has a tend-

ency to see facts surrounded with an irides-
cent gleam of fancy, and often confuses the two. For
unknown reasons, a short sojourn in China seems to be
more productive from a literary viewpoint than a long one.
In Peking Dust we have a flitting novelist trying to be a
diplomat in attempts to weave interesting chats out of flying



• CHINA IN CONTEMPORANEOUS LITERATURE 255

glimpses of Chinese life ! Hence the book contains snatches of
fact put together in a way that is more entertaining than in-
forming. The strain of sincere philosophy that runs through
the book is almost lost, though it indicates a healthy reaction
against the bulldozing of China. A Wanderer on a Thousand
Hills is vivid and interesting and illustrates the difficulty
of giving correct impressions of Chinese customs. A Wind
from the Wilderness has been said to be irritating to one
who knows Kansu, the scene of exploits of White Wolf
and the party of missionaries concerned. It is hard on
missionaries but perhaps the story is held to be more im-
portant than facts. The heroine gives one the impression of
a nervous organism that expresses itself in frequent ex-
plosions. As a story the vivid scenes, weird experiences,



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