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accommodation for Mohammedan patients. It is hoped
that eventually a hospital will be opened at Hochow, for
Mohammedans. This will doubtless prove one of the most
suitable means for the winning of them to Christ.

In Siningfu the work is carried on amongst a very
varied population consistiog of Chinese, Mohammedans,
Tibetans, Mongols, and others.

J, , 2. The Scandinavian Alliance Mission open-

AUiance^^^^" ^^ ^^P work from Sianfu, and has stations in
Mission the east of the province at Pingliaog, Kingchow,



KANSU 155

Tsungsin and Clienyiianlisien, with six out stations. There
is a staff of nine missionaries and twenty Chinese workers.

Since the commencement of the work one hundred and
eleven persons have been baptized, and of these ninety-seven
were in fellowship at the end of 1916.

At Pingliang one special work is the distribution of
Scriptures to pilgrims on their way to the sacred mountain
Kongtong. Another feature • is the orphanage work. A
large amount of medical work has been done, and last year
a new hospital was opened by Mr. D. Tornvall.

At Kiugchow a girls' boarding school has twelve
scholars.

3. The CJirlstlan and Mmionary Alliance.
Oiristfan and tyyiq workers of this mission in entering this
Alliance ^ province, aimed to make it the starting point

for work in Tibet. With this in view they
opened stations in the south-west of Kansu, at Taoehow,
Minchow, and Choni, the last being on Tibetan ground.
The mission maintains also seven out-stations- The mission-
aries number eighteen and the Chinese workers seventeen.
Opening stations in Chinese cities, the work among the
Chinese has grown. Journeys into Tibet have been taken,
sometimes at great risk. Some of the workers have studied
Tibetan, and it is their desire to carry on work amongst
that people in their own land, wherever they can.

Since the commencement of the work in 1895, 510
persons have been baptized, and of these 388 were in
fellowship at the end of 1916. The gifts for the year
amounted to G$215.67.

Five schools are open with sixty-five scholars.

At Titaochow there is a Bible school for the training
of evangelists, etc., with seven students. Students from
other missions are allovred to attend.

4. The Tib tan Mission. This has been
Nation established lately. There is one station at

Payenjungko, with two missionaries who are
at present on furlough. No baptisms yet.

The Pentecostal ^Mission which had one station at
Kweitehting, has retired from the province.



156 A DECADE OF PROGRESS IN CHINA

IV. The Need

The province is a large one, and the stations are distant
from each other.

Taking Lanchowfu as the centre, we go west six days'
journey to Siningfn, our next station ; north-west, seven
days to Liangchowfu, north-east, thirteen days to Ningsiafu,
south-east, ten days to Pingliang, and south, two and a
half days to Titaochow.

From Liangchowfu, north-west to the next station is
forty-seven days' journey. Beyond Liangchowfu, and in
Kansu, there is a large district with eight cities, besides
many towns and villages, very seldom visited. ,

In the east of the province there is another large
district, north of Chenylianhsien, with eleven cities needing
workers.

And in the south, there is ample room for workers in
five cities in Kansu.

There is also need for well-ecxuipped workers to evangel-
ize the three million or more Mohammedans in this province.

And on beyond the western border of Kansu there i&
room for more workers among the Tibetans and Mongols,
in their dense, dense darkness.



CHAPTER XVI

KIANGSI

"Win, Taylor

*Afea. 08,498 sq. mi. fPopuIation. 14,500,000. 208 per sq. mi.
•Greatest density aromid the Lake and in the Kan valley. Topogra-
phy. Monntainous except for the Poyang Lake basin. Sandstone
and kaolin abnndant. Large porcelain industries. Country around
Poyang Lake niarsiiy. Kan river drains greater part of province.
Much coal and timber. Estimated that Pingsiang Coal mines will
last for 500 years, placing the annual output at a million tons.
Climate humid and malarious. People. Agriculturists. Rice, grain,
tea, peanuts and fruit, chief products. Language. jNlandarin general-
ly spoken. In E. dialect resembles Fukienese and in extreme S. the
■dialect shows traces of Hakka. Cities. Over 100,000 — Nanchang,
Kanchowfu, Kianfu and Kingtehchen. There are about six other
-cities over 25.000. "Waterways. Steamer traflftc on Poyang Lake and
the Kan river as far as Nanchang. Kan river and its tributaries
navigable to junks for entire length. Roads. Most of the traffic by
water. Some 70 of the 80-odd walled cities can be reached by boats
during the greater part of the year. Railroads. Kiukiang-Nanchang ;
Pingsiang-Chuchow. The line from Kuikiang to Nanchang is project-
ed on to Swatow. Post Offices^ 77. Postal Agenciest 352. Telegraph
Staiionst 24. i^Missionary Societies at work ia the province, 10.
§TotaI Missionaries, 209. Total Chinese workers, 544. Communi-
cant members 4,785.

Kiangsi has been considered by Western
Work*^^ ^* business men an anti-foreign province, and
in earlier years (up till the China-Japan War,
1894-95) it was generally difficult to rent or purchase
property in the interior of the province, for settled
Christian work. The Roman Catholics have, it is said, had
work in Kiangsi for over two hundred years, and now
xuumber their converts by thousands. Settled Protestant
work was begun some fifty years ago by the American
Methodist Episcopal Mission (North), the late Dr. V. C.
Hart being one of the leading workers. At the present
time Protestant work is carried on by the followiDg



*Richanl. t^indiengpu Census, 1910. :^ A 11 Missionary Statistics,
1915. § Including wives.



158 A DECADE OF PROGRESS IN CHINA

missions: American Baptist (North), Protestant Episcopal,
Basel, Berlin, Brethren, China Inland Mission, including^
Associate Missions from Finland, Germany and Switzer-
land, Methodist Episcopal (North), English Presbyterian,
and Seventh Day Adventist. In addition to these are the
Bible Societies, the Young Men's Christian Associations
and some few independent workers. The Brethren, China
Inland, and Methodist Episcopal missions, have the more
extensive work. The American Baptist, Basel, Berlin and
English Presbyterian missions have only small work in the
extreme south of the province. The total number of
communicants in all these Protestant missions is about
five thousand, with as many more persons under Christian
instruction.

The chain of stations of the China Inland Mission on
the Kwangsin Biver (Northeast Kiangsi) is somewhat
unique. These have no male foreigners resident in them,
but are w^orked by unmarried foreign ladies, with Chinese
of both sexes associated with them. The churches here
have been signally blessed of God, and about one-half of
the total membership is found in them.

^ . During the last decade the more important

eve opmen s ^gygiQpj^g^ts affecting missionary work have
been: —

The growdng friendliness both of the educated class
and of the masses, especially since the Revolution. Over
against this, there has been a marked reviving of idolatry
in some districts, since 1914. This has been accompanied
by not a few cases of persecution of Chinese Christians
(generally in country places) owdng to their refusal to
contribute to idolatrous festivals, etc.

Friction between the Roman Catholic and Protestant
adherents has lessened. (The w^ord "adherents" is here
used advisedly, as full members of the respective churches
have seldom had difficulty.)

The extension of the educational work of the Methodist
Episcopal Mission in Nanchang and Kiukiang, especially
among girls in the latter place.

The opening of a Bible Training Institute, in Nan-
chang, by the China Inland Mission.



KIANGSI 159

Special series of meetings led by the Rev. J. Goforth,
D.D., (of Ilouau) in February and March, 1916. These
were held in four centres, and touelied the Christian
leaders in the larger half of the province.

Quite recently work has been begun by the Seventh
Day Adventists and the Young Men's Christian Association.
It is much hoped that the work of the former of these two
will be so controlled that it will not disturb the existing
churches.

The opening of the railway from Kiukiang to Nan-
chang, obviates the common delays and discomforts of
crossing Lake Poyang, makes the holding of representative
gatherings easier, and opens up to fuller working the
district between the two cities. There is talk of extending
this railway south through Kianfu and Kanchow (Ki) to
join the Canton-Hankow line in north-west Kwangtung,
and south-east through Fuchow (Ki) and Kienchangfu to
Swatow. The proposed Ling-Siang Railway (Nanking-
Nanchang-Changsha), already surveyed, is to pass through
populous parts of the province, and a line is also talked
of from Hangchow, through Yushan, Hohow (Ki), etc.,
to Nanchang.

Out of over eighty w^alled cities all but
Present about a dozen haA^e settled work going on in

Occupatioa rented, purchased, or specially built premises.
of Kiangsi In addition to these walled cities settled work
is carried on in about one hundred and fifty
other places, making the total number of stations and
out-stations over two hundred and twenty. While most
of these are occupied by Chinese workers only, it should
be noted that all the thirteen former Fa cities, and
some thirty other of the larger centres, have resident
foreign Avorkers. It is necessary to add, however, that
fully half of these are undermanned. On the other hand,
the tendency, perhaps, to over-centralization, in some of
the more easily reached centres, needs to be guarded
against, as also the opening of places that are near,
convenient, and, comparatively speaking, unimportant,
rather than the distant, difficult, and strategic. The
various missions should together plan to give the Christian



160 A DECADE OP PROGRESS IN CHINA

message more evenly and equally, as well as more thoroughly
and quickly, to all the people of the province.

The increase in the missionary force and in
Missionary ^j^g Chinese Christian community, as con-
trasted with ten years ago, is probably at least
seventy-five per cent. (The difficulty of collating reliable
data, especially of past years, necessitates the use of the word
^'probably," but the writer has every reason to believe that
the increase is at least as great as this) .

It may be instructive to state here that the Laymen's
Missionary Movement published, some years ago, an
estimate of the need of one station to each 25,000 persons,
with a staff of a married foreign worker and ten Chinese
workers, to each station. This when applied to a concrete
part of the foreign field often works out in a startling way,
and is perhaps somewhat crude and mechanical. But it
may not be as far from the real need as at first appears, if
thorough work is to be done. Applying this estimate to
the present missionary problem of Kiangsi, and reckoning
the population at about 25,000,000, it would require over
four times the number of mission centres (or, if out-stations
are deducted, twenty-five times), fifteen times the number
of Chinese workers, and ten times the number of foreign
missionaries (including wives).

p. w Q The question was raised by the Continuation

Committee Conferences in China in 1913,
as to the desirability of a field survey and a general review
of the missionary situation, every ten years. Some such
work would doubtless help to a truer view of existing needs,
if done by a committee of two, or four, workers of ex-
perience and men of judicial mind, who should be entirely
set free from other things for six months or a year, for
this special work. An unhurried visit to each district, and
mission centre, would be necessary, as for men to attempt
this by correspondence, or in addition to regular duties,
would probably be largely waste of time. To make this
work effective would also require a special fund sufficient
to meet all clerical and travelling expenses, and to include
the cost of publishing their report. As is known, the Bible



KIANGSI 161

Societies have fouud such a plan essential in the new
translation of the Bible into Chinese.

As to education, economic condition,
The Christian religious life and missionary spirit, this has
ommuni y improved- This is evidenced by a greater
sale of complete Bibles, by a larger demand for Christian
books and papers, by the average Sunday congregation
being better dressed, by lighter and more commodious
church and school buildings, and by increase in self-support.
The introduction of the Christian Endeavour, in some
districts, has led to more voluntary Chinese effort to reach
"the regions beyond" in open air preaching, and in the
giving of days at a time, to evangelizing in markets and
villages. Adult Sunday schools have been organized in
some stations, with helpful results. The writer has been
impressed with the real growth manifested in church prayer-
meetings, not only in numbers, but even more in intelligent
thanksgiving and intercession. The increase of private
daily devotion and family worship is apparent in some
parts, and has already borne fruit in a greater reality,
intensity and eagerness in Christian life and service.

The state of development of the Chinese
Chinese leadership is not yet, it is to be feared, what

Leadership ^^ desired and prayed for. The number of

Chinese workers has increased and among
them are some truly noble and capable persons. But the
majority seem still followers or imitators, rather than
leaders. The splendid and devoted work of Drs. May Stone
and Ida Kahn (Chinese lady doctors of the Methodist
Episcopal Mission, trained m the United States) shows the
result of discerning selection and help, and what may be
expected from it. The men and means— perhaps, especially,
the men— for training leaders seem one of the greater needs
of this province. The men for this should be those who
will ever view the spiritual equipment and spiritual fitness
of tHe worker as of paramount importance.

, , There has been growth in the number and

Educfat'^^ efficiency of the mission schools during the

last years, though the government educational
A 21



162 A DECADE OF PROGRESS IN CHINA

l^olicy of free schools, or low fees, with high-salaried
teachers, has been a complication in some centres. The re-
lations between government and mission schools seem general-
ly to be decidedly friendly. The supply of primary and
middle schools is still inadequate for the present growing
Christian community, and consecrated, gifted teachers —
Chinese and foreign— are required. The Methodist Episco-
pal Mission is erecting new and larger school buildings for
both boys and girls, on their new compound in Nanchang,
as well as increasing primary day schools in the north of
the province. The educational work needs to be developed
according to the growth of the Church, earlier in some
places and later in others. Should China work out a
satisfactory system of secular education, it is a question
whether the missioi^ary educational iorce might not be
largely dispensed with. But this looks hardly probable for
some years anyway.

Good work has been done in the hospitals
Work ^^ Kiukiang, Nanchang and Jaochow, but all

have been handicapped by the furloughs of
workers, and by an insufficient staff to Qieet this contingenc3^
In Kiukiang Dr. Stone has some forty Chinese lady nurses
in training, and is planning a home and hospital for tuber-
cular Chinese patients on Kuling. Dr. Ida Kahn has been
compelled, owing to lack of support, to relinctuish, pro tern,
her hospital for Chinese women in Nanchang, but it is
hoped that this will not be for long. The existing medical
work has been a helpful evangelistic agency, and not a few
converts date their first interest from a visit to one of the
hospitals. Dispensary and " Samaritan" work, is carried
on in a number of other stations. Chinese medical grad-
uates are doing good, and partly missionary w^ork in some
centres. The need of well-equipped mission hospitals in
Kianfu, Kanchow (Ki), Yuanchow (Ki), Iningchow and
Kwangsinfu seems pressing.

Literature Scriptures, Christian books, tracts, posters?

newspapers and magazines are having a larger
circulation. Two foreign workers have been giving part of
their time to literary work



KIANGSI 163

A friendly feeliDg exists between the differ-
^o-^petatton ^^^ societies, but there has been, so far, no
organized union or federation. The few
centres where several missions are w^orking doubtless
accounts partly for this. But as the present forces more
on aggressively, some arrangement will be necessary if
comity is to be preserved, and friction and waste avoided.
It seems a matter for regret that in four fairly small centres
near Kiukiang, two, or in one case three, missions are work-
ing, and that the duplication has taken place within the last
decade. A union monthly missionary prayer meeting is
fairly well attended at Nanchang, but a similar gathering
in Kiukiang ceased some years ago. Regular united
meetings for j)rayer and for evangelistic effort, would
probably ensure better and stronger work, and lead up to-
increasing unity in other ways. The word 'Sprayer" in
this last sentence, should be emphasized. Special efforts at
special times are good, but a poor, weak and easy substitute
for regular monthly or yearly gatherings. It may be
added that the present time in Kiangsi appears ripe for
placing the chief emphasis upon united local and itinerant
evangelistic work — persistent, insistent and intense — and
carried on by the stronger Chinese and foreign workers,
and not deputed to the less gifted, and weaker, brethren.



CHAPTER XVII

KIANGSU

Lac7 I. Moffett

''^Area. 36,610 sq. mi. tPopalation. 17,300,000. 448 per sq. mi.
Density greatest on the Haimen piomontory and on Tsungming
island. Topcgraphy. Great alluvial plain. Land very low with
many swamps and lagoons. Chief lakes are Tasung and Paoyang
lakes. Land very fertile. Coast low, bordered by immense sand
banks. Grain, fruit and cotton chief products. People. More robust
in the N. of the province. Language. Shanghai dialect and
Mandarin. Cities. Over 1,000,000— Shanghai ; over 100,000— Nan-
king, Soochow, Wusih, Chinkiang, Yangchow. "Waterways. All
tlie rivers are navigable, and the whole province is interlaced with
canals. Roads. These are poorly kept up because of the ease of water
communications. Railroads. Shanghai- Nanking; Shanghai-Hang-
chow-Ningpo ; Shanghai- Woosun«-. Post Officest 154. Postal Agencies,
390. Telegraph Stations, 62. ;Missionary Societies at work in the
province, 48. §TotaI Missionaries, 752. Total Chinese workers, 1,646.
Communicant members, 14,113.

The greatest single factor affecting missionary work
in Kiangsu Province, as probably in most of China, during
the last decade has been the Revolution. While it has not
realized the hopes of those who organized the first provi-
sional government, it has profoundly touched the life of
the province. Three elements in the change have had a
distinct bearing on the work of missions.

1 . The distinct break with the old regime,
Old^Re^me ^'^^^^ many of its traditions and prejudices,
and the open recognition of the value of
things new, and even things foreign. The old officials
were for a time, at least, without employment, and have
come back into office on new terms. The development of
education along modern lines has been hastened, and the
old style literati find themselves largely pushed aside. In
many cases they have even turned to Christianity for help.



'■'Kichard. tMincliengpu Census, 1910. ;A11 :Missionary Statistics,
1915. § Including wives.



KIANGSU 165-

In Cliinkiang the leading Mancliu scholar of the cit^-
applied to, and received employment from, a mission high
school. In Nanking, for a time, several classes were
organized among the old style scholars for Bible study, and
some of them have openlj^ professed Christianity. This
has meant a distinct opening among a class that has^
heretofore, been almost unapproachable.

2. The declaration of religious liberty and
R^co°nmonof ^^^ failure of the subsequent agitation to-
Chfistianity establish Confucianism as a state religion,.

has given Christianity a national recognition
it has never known before. Government school students
and others have been willing to come forward openly and
study Christianity, and numbers have accepted it. A
large part of some missionaries' time is now given ta
conducting such classes, and in two of the larger cities men
have been specially set apart for definite work among
students. The desire to improve their English may be the
motive which brings many students out to such classes, but
it serves to give the needed point of contact.

3. A complete change in the estimate of
Changed ^.j^^ missionary and his work bv the majority
Estimate of the „,,,,., .*^ y '^
Missionary ^f the thinking people. He is no longer a

despised foreigner, the object of hatred and
scorn, nor is he simply the feared foreigner, with gunboat
and consul behind him, of post-Boxer days. He has come
to be recognized as a valuable member of the community,,
whose work, while complicated with many strange and
foreign ideas is none the less chiefly unselfish and for the
13ublic good.

The causes for these radical changes of attitude lie
deeper than the actual Kevolution of 1911-12, but it was
that upheaval which brought them to the surface, and led
the people to realize and acknowledge that the change had
come.

In the northern part of the province the
Famfne"^ famine relief work has also been a factor in

Relief breaking down the hostile attitude of the

people. The results in bringing individuals
to accept Christianily, have, in most cases, fallen far



166 A DECADE OP PROGRESS IN" CHINA

short of what the missionaries hoped for, but an atmosphere
of friendliness has been created, which makes both the man
and his message far more acceptable than a decade ago.

The missionary force of the province has

^crease in increased OA^er thirty per cent within the past

Fofce°"^^^ decade. Man^^ mission stations have been

strengthened, but the increase has not been

evenly distributed over the province.

The largest increase has been in Shanghai,
Largest which is tending more each year to become

in^Shaa^hai ^^^ great administrative centre of the mission-
ary work for the whole country. Most of the
mission boards having work in eastern central , China have
offices there, as well as the Bible and tract societies, and
such national organizations as the Young Men's, and Young
Women's Christian Associations, China Sunday School
Union, Christian Endeavour, and others, whose work covers
the country at large, rather than Kiangsu province in
I)articular. These organizations have collected many of the
experienced missionaries from all parts of China, and have
in addition brought out numbers of new and specially
trained workers for their force.

The three larger cities of the province have

^^^^j, . also become centres of higher education, and

Institutions many of the new recruits have come out

specifically for this work.

^, , , Shanghai is the centre of both the collegiate

ang ai ^^^ theological work of the American Church

Mission, and of the American Baptists. The higher

educational work of the American Methodists, South, is also

found there. The China Medical Board is planning a

medical school in Shanghai into which will be merged most

of the medical educational work of this part of China.

These, besides numerous special schools and schools of

lower grade carried on by other missionary bodies, make it

probably the greatest missionary educational centre in the

country.

J g , Soochow University is the head of the educa-

ooc ow "tional system for males, of the American South-
ern Methodists, and all five of the missions working in Soochow



KIANGSU 167

liave middle schools or academies, for boys, or girls, or both.

More thau forty of the missionaries in the city are giving

their time in whole or in part to the work of these

institutions.

In Nanking "^^^ educational work in Nanking is largely

centred iu Nanking University and its various
affiliated schools. Perhaps there is no missionary educa-
tional institution in any field in which the plans of
co-operation and union of the work of different missions
have been carried further, or made more efficient. The
government recognition and co-operation in the development



Online LibraryChina Continuation CommitteeThe China mission year book (Volume v.8) → online text (page 15 of 50)