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amount of time consumed in travelling has hitherto
repeatedly prevented the board from meeting. Much
valuable work has, however, been accomplished in the
direction of the adoption of a uniform mission polity that
w^ill help to remove causes of friction and promote helpful
fellowship. There being no single city in which two of the
larger missions have work, it has hitherto made co-operation
in evangelistic, educational or medical work difficult. The
Oberlin Memorial Schools at Taikuhsien are available for
3tudents from all the missioi^s. The Pingyangfu Winter



SHANSt 215

Bible School and the Hungtung Bible Institute welcome
suitable men from all the churches in Shansi or the
adjoining provinces.

The missions have also taken definite steps looking
towards the establishment of one Church of Christ in
Shansi by the recognition of each others' membership and
discipline. Christians can, therefore, pass freely from the
church of one mission to that of another mission, quite
independent of the mode of baptism.

The churches of the China Inland Mission and associate
missions are further linked up together by the adoption
of uniform church rules and a simple form of church
order and government.

Until better means of communication between north
and south of the province have been provided by the build-
ing of the proposed railway connecting Kweihwating with
the Honan-Sian line at Tungkuang the workers in these
distant parts of the province will not feel justified in giving
the time needed to attend the meetings of the Advisory
Board, and much of the work will necessarily have to be
done by correspondence.



CHAPTER XXII

SHANTUNG

H. W. Luce

*Afea. 55,984 sq. mi. tPoptilatfon. 29,600,000. 530 per sq. mi.
The most densely populated province in China. Density greatest in
^vest. Topography. Mountainous in E. and C. sections. Famous
Tai Shan the central mountain mass. West Shantimg a great plain.
Yellow river flows in N. E. direction through the province and is
constant menace through floods. Soil rich. No forests. Coast line
irregular. Climate healthful. People. Hardy, somewhat phlegmatic.
They have a certain sturdiness of character, which when touched by
Christianity, makes them strong men. Language. Northern Man-
darin. Cities. Above 250,000— Tsi nan. Above 100,000— Tsining,
Tsingtau, and Weihsien. Other large cities— Laichow^ Chefoo, Teng-
chowfu, Lintsingchow, Ichowfu and Yenchowfu. Waterways. Grand
Canal the chief highway for traffic. Yellow river navigable to small
junks through all its course in Shantung. W ei river also navigable for
entire length through Honan. Poads. Considerably used. Travel
by cart, wheel-barrow and mules. Connecting all market towns.
Railroads. Tientsin -Pukow. Prom Tsinan a branch line runs E. to
Tsingtau via Weihsien. Another branch line runs S. to Poshan.
Proposed lines are : — Weihsien-Chefoo and Kiaochow S. W. to Tien-
tsin-Pukow line. Post Olfices^ 102. Postal Agencies, 393. Telegraph
Stations, 81. ^Missionary Societies at work in the province, 7. §TotaI
missionaries, 226. Total Chinese workers, 625. Communicant mem-
bers, 6,353.

We write from the ancient Kingdom of Chi (^).
Here Confucius and Mencius, the greatest of China's sages,
were born, lived and taught; and here are their graves.
We think of the scores of decades — two hundred and more—
which have passed since and we ask, what is a decade that
we should be mindful of it. Y^et, of all the intervening
decades, perhaps not one has been crowded with so much of
potential meaning for the good of the people as this last
one. It is not alone the things which have actually been
begun in this decade that we should hold in mind, but also



^Richard. tMinchengpu Census, 1910. :tAll Missionary Statistics
1915. ^Including wives.



SHANTUNG 217

the many projects and ideals of an earlier time which in this
period have come to fruition.

R flfoads "^^^^ railroads serve the province. One

stretches from the beautiful port of Tsingtau
to Tsinan, the capital of the province. This was completed
just before the opening of this decade and it realized its
widest usefulness when the second railroad, the Tientsin-
Pukow line, was completed in 1912 and joined to it. Along
these arteries an ever increasing current of trade has passed ;
the common people as well as the scholars have gone forth
from their secluded villages, and the messengers of the
Gospel, by use of these railroads, have saved time and
strength for direct preaching and have secured opportunities
for conference and counsel with their colleagues hitherto
impossible. All this has issued, for the missionary, in
broader statesmanship, and for the people, in unprecedented
openness of mind.

The political changes which have occurred
Chan"s ^^ China during this decade have had a

^°^^^ profound effect upon the thought and life of

the people. The effect has been most marked upon the
educated, although thousands, who can not tell what a
republic is, understand that changes have taken place,
which are making for greater liberty and a larger life. A
new atmosphere has been created, as though the Spirit of
God had breathed a new breath of life into men, and the
missionary is working under conditions, developed in a
single decade, which a few years earlier his greatest faith
had not imagined possible in this generation.

Everywhere the missionary reports that in
GoodFeelin? ^P^^® ^^ famine, epidemics and revolutions,
there has been a real forward movement, and
in nothing is it more marked than in the changed attitude
of all classes, an attitude which is now one of hospitality
and friendliness. It is easy to buy or rent property for
mission purposes. The struggles through which the country
is passing, and the partial failure morally of some of its
political leaders, are almost unconsciously leading the more
thoughtful to question whether Christianity is not the only
hope of a stable civilization. The attitude of government
A 28



218 A DECADE OF PROGRESS IN CHINA

officials seems everywhere to be " friendly and even cordial' ' ;
while the general testimony indicates a remarkable willing-
ness to listen to the Christian message. There are many
who are confident that we are soon to see a great movement
toward the Church.

Following the first Revolution the non-
Non-Chfistian Christian religions were neglected, and many
Religions temples were turned into schools. Since then,

the reaction has become less pronounced; some few temples
here and there have been repaired and devoted to their
original uses : but many of the people seem to have lost the
old-time confidence in their idols, and the worshippers in
the temples have decreased rather than increased.

In several centres there is a new willingness
Attitude of Qjj ^j^g p^j.^ Qf the Mohammedans to listen to the
Mohammedans q^^^^^ During a rebel-robber scare in one of
the cities last year the Mohammedans, hoping for immunity
from attack, ran up a large flag above their mosque bearing
the inscription : ' ' This is the true Jesus Church. " When
questioned about it they said they were not ashamed to own
their great prophet, Jesus. One of the Mohammedan
mullahs has placed his daughter in the Christian girls'
school of that city.

There is a community of thirty thousand Mohammedans
living in and near Tsinan . They are friendly and some are very
favourably disposed toward Christianity, and attend freely
meetings at the ''Institute." Last year one Mohammedan
was baptized. He had come into touch with Christianity
largely through the work of the University Hospital. This
year two others have applied for membership in the Church,
In the Tsingchowfu district there is also a large body
of Mohammedans. One missionary has visited in their
homes, spoken in their mosques and distributed a good deal
of literature; but, so far, the results have not been very
encouraging.

In one mission the most prosperous work is

Christianity j^j |^g county of Tsao, where Mencius was

StrSghowT born. In the Confucian city of Kiifow (ffl ^)

in which is the famous temple to Confucius

and near which is the grave of Confucius, mission property



SHANTUNG 219

has recently been secured, and the people are showing
themselves friendly in every way. The gentry presented
the missionary with a pien (congratulatory wooden tablet
or signboard) and at the feast given to the donors, even
Duke Kang, a direct descendant of Confucius in the seventy-
sixth generation, ofifered to loan anything the church might
require for the occasion.

The activity of the Roman Catholic Missions
CatT^Ik varies in different sections, but it seems clear

Missions "^^^t during the period under consideration

there has been far less friction between them
and the Protestants than in earlier years. In some places
both the foreign priests and the Chinese staff have shown
such a cordial spirit towards the Protestants that the points
of conflict have been reduced to a minimum.

The Continuation Committee Conference
oimi''''^ held in Tsinan in the spring of 1913 was

of the widest influence. It made possible a
broad discussion of the problems which were coming to
the front under the new conditions which had arisen
since 1900.

In addition great benefit came from meetings
Meet&gs for ^^^ government students held in connection
Students with this conference. Only two meetings

were held, yet they resulted in creating a most
favourable sentiment toward Christianity. The influence
of these meetings can hardly be over-estimated. These
students are now scattered throughout the province ; and
many have retained a marked friendliness for Christianity
and have succeeded in creating in others a receptive attitude
toward Christianity.
Revivals ^ series of revivals resulting from the

preaching of Pastor Ding Li-mei in 1910 has
had large results among Christian students and church
members. Unfortunately in a few places much of the value
from the meetings was lost through lack of workers or of
care in following up those reached in the meetings.

Nearly all parts of the field report an increasing
number of special meetings varying in length and in
character according to the purpose in view, whether for the



220 A DECADE OP PROGRESS IN CHINA

training of leaders or for inspirational, devotional, ed-
ucational or evangelistic ends. The general testimony is
that these meetings are a real element in strengthening the
work of the Church, contributing to a higher standard of
power and efficiency and materially quickening the spirit of
fellowship and mutual responsibility in service.

During the decade under survey one of the
Increase fn ^^^^ marked advances has been in the matter
Equfpment ^^ increase of plant and equipment, in nearly
all the mission stations and in many out-
stations. Old property has been thoroughly repaired and
many new buildings have been erected, including hospitals,
schools, churches, chapels and residences. There is an
increasing desire to build solidly and with taste. The
architect was never so much in demand in China as
to-day.

The American Board Mission has moved its Pangkia-
chwang station to Tehchow, on the Tientsin-Pukow Rail-
way, at a cost of G$78,500 and a further sum of
G$40,000 is still needed to complete the plant. The
Lintsinghsien station of the same mission has also been
rebuilt at a cost of G$30.000. Mex. 150,000 has been
spent by the Church of England Mission on the fine
new cathedral at Taianfu. This is one of the finest struc-
tures in the whole province. Large building operations
are taking place at Tsinan in connection with the medical
and arts departments of the Shantung Christian University,
and this institution will soon have one of the finest plants
in the countrJ^ So noticeable has this development in the
matter of securing better buildings been that this is one of
the noteworthy aspects of the work of the decade.

This increase in plant and equipment has been quite
marked in the out-stations as well. In the Weihsien field,
the years 1913 and 1914 saw ten ample church buildings
erected.

In connection with the Presbyterian ' ' City Evangeliza-
tion Plan" there has already been expended in plant,
entirely under the control of trained Chinese leaders, a very
considerable sura of money and the project has only begun.



SHANTUNG 221

While full statistics are not available, and
th^^Fo^^i the increase in the ten years varies with

Force ^ different missions, one cannot escape the con-

viction that the proportionate net increase in
the missionary force has been far less than in other items of
missionary progress. The need for an enlarged force seems
to be felt generally throughout the field, especially evangel-
istic workers.

In no missions is the number of Chinese
andF^^ei^n ordained workers equal to the number of
Force foreign ordained workers, except in one case

where the number of ordained missionaries is
exceptionally small. The call is urgent for more and
better trained Chinese pastors and evangelists, and there
are indications that our leaders are fully aware of the need
and are making every effort to meet it.

In the larger missions the general force of Chinese
workers is about live to seven times greater than the foreign
force, with an average for the province of about four and a
half times. Where it varies from this it seems to be due to
special conditions. This proportion is likely to change
gradually with the better training of Chinese workers and
their increasing ability to bear responsibility.

On an average there are eight foreign missionaries to a
central station, and all the larger missions have this ratio,
except the Presbyterian Mission, which has fourteen to a
station. Doubtless this is due in part to the large amount
of medical and educational work in the stations and to the
tendency to make each station large, complete and self-
contained, as the stations are widely separated.

o «_ . That the giving of the Church is increasing

is Clear, but not so rapidly as could be desired.
The average for the province is seventy-eight cents for each
communicant, but with a wide range of difference in the
different missions.

These are growing in favour, and by the use

Sch k ^^ ^^® improved literature, together with the

training conferences being held under the



222



A DECADE OF PROGRESS IN CHINA



auspices of the China Sunday School Union, this work is
growing in helpfulness and in power. The following
figures furnished by the societies to the China Continuation
Committee are significant.



American Board Mission - -
English Baptist Mission - -
Methodist Episcopal Mission -
Presbyterian Mission, North -
Southern Baptist Convention -



Total in Province 32129 ' 17950



Communicants


ounaay sen
scholars


1662


330


5279


946


1459


1991


14549


8213


6893


4929



aty Evangel-
ization Project



This name has been given to the attempt to
reach cities in which there are no foreign
workers. Tliis plan is to secure a suitable
plant and to place in charge of it a tested, high-grade
Chinese, one who has had full college and theological
courses ; this superintendent to have from the beginning an
educated trained assistant, a Bible-woman and a gateman.

The first city evangelistic project was begun under the
superintendence of a Chinese who was formerly a professor
in the Shantung Christian University, and later a graduate
of its theological course. In a short time he has, with his
assistants, established a boys' academy of eighty students,
and a girls' normal school of forty students, both of them
self-supporting, a primary school for girls, night school of
about fifty boys, an English class of sixteen young men
from the business and government schools, and classes for
instructing inquirers and Christians in the Bible. Three
prayer meetings are conducted in three centres on Wednes-
day evenings. The students assist in preaching on market
days, and at the near-by country stations on the Sabbath.
Meetings of various kinds are constantly being held in the
main auditorium which seats about eight hundred. This
city work is really a countr}^ movement centring in the
city, and in the city just referred to they are planning
together for the systematic evangelization of the whole
country population. Three cities have been opened to



SHANTUNG 223

the Christian word in this way, and three more will be
opened as soon as those chosen for it have completed their
preparation.

The strong appeal both to givers and to the young
men invited to act as superintendents seems to be the fact
that it is work for the Chinese, by the Chinese, and stands
or falls with them. It measures a real advance in that it
places definite responsibility for a large and important
work.

New methods are being introduced. Instead
Country ^^ individuals going here and there, one by

one, or even two by two on an itinerating
trip" to preach unannounced in villages and market-towns,
the tendency is to go in larger groups, to special places,
on invitation. Certain specified conditions have to be
fulfilled by way of preparing the soil. Plans are made for
eight or ten days' consecutive meetings, holding services
daily in a large tent or mat shed, and care is given to
**the follow-up work". More and more the use of tents
is being found heli)ful. Of this more systematic way of
working one missionary writes: "The message grips men
better when it can be presented progressively day after day
to the same audience. There is the inspiration of numbers,
too, and bright chorus-singing; and the local Christians
gladly render help in advertising the meetings, bringing
in friends, lending benches and tables, etc. This forward
movement is as yet only in its infancy, but it has already
stirred the Christians to new evangelistic efforts, and it has
behind it the enthusiastic backing of all the missionary
body."

Tjj.. In many of the districts one of the most

pressing and, as yet, unsolved problems, is
found in the fact that the Christians are scattered and
illiterate. As a consequence it is not possible to give them
the Christian nurture needed for the up-building of a strong
Church. In one field the thousand baptized Christians
are scattered through two hundred and fifty villages. One
mission reports on the basis of careful investigation that
seventy per cent of their membership is illiterate, that is,



2^4 A DECADE OP PROGRESS IN CHINA

cannot read their Bibles. It is believed that these two items
in the problem are felt in every mission, and steins are now
being taken to grapple with this problem in some sections
by teaching a form of simplified writing of the Mandarin
character.

During the past decade in the Church As-
S?"^^ sociation connected with the Southern Baptist

Mission there has been organized a missionary
board, which has entered a large territory in western
Shantung and others in Manchuria and Shensi, heretofore
not worked by the mission. In this work of extension by
the Chinese Church a number of important centres have
been occupied by Chinese workers, appointed by, the Chinese
Association. Working under this society are twenty-three
Chinese missionaries who have established eleven churches
with 1,212 members. During the last year there have been
351 baptisms, and three churches have been established.

The Home Missionary Society of the Shantung
Presbyterian Church was organized by the Synod of North
China. Under its direction Chinese missionaries were sent
to Chihii province near Paotingfu, a part- of the field
rendered unusually difficult by the fact that during 1900
the Church of that section was to a large extent destroyed.
This work was given up later in favour of unevangelized
sections nearer home. During the last six years the
contributions of the society have gradually been turned
in to the Tsinan Independent Church.

A flourishing Home Missionary Society was organized
in the Temple Hill Presbyterian Church in Chefoo in 1913.
It now supports a city Bible-woman, a country school a
few miles from the city, provides funds for the annual
inquirers' class for women, and does so much personal
work that a large proportion of converts in that Chefoo
church are women.

In this connection we should mention the Korean
missionaries sent in 1913 by the Korean Foreign Missionary
Society to Laiyang in eastern Shantung. This mission
comes with the cordial approval of the Shantung
Presbyterian church, and the Presbyterian Mission has



SHANTUNG 225

turned over to it the chapel in Laiyang and the work both
in the city and in the surrounding country. These Korean
missionaries have acquired sufficient knowledge of the
Chinese language to undertake active work.

In 1907 the Presbyterian and Baptist
Churches in churches in Tsinan combined to form a Union
Church, which is, we think, the only one of its
kind in China. It has now a membership of 415, has two
church buildings in the city and baptizes members both by
immersion and by sprinkling. One Baptist and one Pres-
byterian missionary act as counsellors to the governing body
of Chinese pastors and elders.

There is also in Tsinan an Independent Church which
was formed in 1912 as an outgrowth of activity on the part of
the missionary society connected with the Presbyterian work
in Shantung. Most of the initial fund of Mex. $10,000
was given by two Presbyterian elders resident in Tsingtau.
The church has secured a very valuable site of over three
acres (20 mow), the gift of the Governor of Shantung in
1912, Chou Tsi-chi (^ g ^). On this site there has been
built at a cost of Mex. $11,000 a small church, a school for
boys (sixty pupils) and one for girls (twenty-five pupils)
and a building for a small industrial school, and a dispens-
ary is in charge of Chinese physicians who give their time
and serve only at stated hours.

The church council or governing board resembles a
Presbyterian session, and is elected by the church members
(now numbering seventy), though the members of the council
are not all necessarily members of the Independent Church,
but may be chosen from among other leading Christians in
the city.

There are two city Associations in the
cSan ^ province, one at Chefoo, organized in 1903,
Association with a present membership of 740, and one in
Tsinan, organized in 1913, with a present mem-
bership of 400. Three foreign and three Chinese secretaries
are in charge of the work in Tsinan, one foreign secretary,
the representative of the Presbyterian Mission, giving all
his time to the work among students in government schools.
A 29



226 A bfiCADE OF PROGRESS IN CHINA

The work in Ihe capital is new, but the foundations are
solidly laid, ready for the new building which ought to be
erected at an early date.

In the schools of the province there are twenty Associa-
tions, with a total membership of 1045. The Shantuug
Students' Summer Conference is held annually at Tsinan.

Edwcatfonal Work

. The backbone of the educational work of

Schods^ Shantung is the system of country schools.

Often small in numbers and inadequately
housed in a building or even one room of a house such as the
little group of Christians is able to furnish, they have been
centres of light for the Gospel, as well as starting points in
the long years of preparation from which some of the
best men have issued as leaders in the Christian work of the
province and of the nation.

While apparently it is the policy of the missions to
conform to government regulations as to curricula and
terminology, the lower schools have not as yet been stand-
ardized in any thorough way. It is not possible, therefore,
to give accurate statistics under the heads of lower primary
and higher primary schools. There are nearly fifteen
thousand pupils in these schools, which is probably double
the number of a decade ago. It is the policy of most
missions to induce each group of Christians to establish its
own school, furnish its own building and pay the teacher's
salary. Mission rules differ as to the maximum help given
toward the teacher's salary, but it ranges from one-half to
two-thirds. A gratif^dngly large number of schools have
gradually become entirely self-supporting. Larger empha-
sis is being placed on the work and value of the elementary
schools, and far more attention is being paid to the securing
of good teachers, to subjects taught, and to careful super-
vision. In some fields no teachers are used in elementary
schools who have not themselves cempleted the middle school
course. College graduates are being used with noteworthy



Online LibraryChina Continuation CommitteeThe China mission year book (Volume v.8) → online text (page 20 of 50)