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Avith other Christian workers in the establishment of the living Church of
Jesus Christ as the centre of power and life and redemption for all meu."

5. A conference of seventy-five representatives of tweyity-eight North
American Hoards having ivorJc in China, held in New York, February
29, 1912, adopted the following resolutions as an expression of its
opinion ;

*' 1. This Conference desires to assure the missions in the strongest
possible manner of its unreserved approval of the effort to accomplish the
union of the Christian Church in China and promises the Missions that
they will have in such efforts the hearty support of the members of this
Conference.

** 2. The Conference approves of the fullest possible measure not only
of co-operation but of union in all forms of mission work, such as
education, preparation and publication of literature, hospitals and
philanthropic work.

'* 3 With deep satisfaction at the establishment and development of
the Church of Christ in China, and recognizing the supreme place which
the Chinese Church must occupy in the evangelization of the nation, this
Conference expresses its sympathy with every purpose of the Church itself
to unite in the interests of increased strength and economy and of the
effective propagation of the Gospel of Christ.' '

(From Unity and 3fissio7is, pp. 248-55.)

IIL Different Forms of Local Church

Organization Defined

(Federal Couacfl of Churches of Christ in America)

A Unioa Church is an organization for worship and the exercise
of ecclesiastical functions locally, the members of which sever connections
with other churches, and have membership in this alone. It is an
undenominational church.



560 APPENDICES

A Federated Chutch is a combination of two or more churches,
usually small and weak, each preserving its own ecclesiastical existence,
and connection with its own denomination, but as one local church,
employing one pastor, and usually maintaining all services in common.
(Within it benevolent influences for missionary enterprises are cultivated,
and gifts are sent to the several denominational headquarters as agreed
upon.)

In want of a better name, we would suggest the term Interdeno-
minational Church as applicable to a church composed of individuals who
do not sever connection with their several home churches, but unite for
local church purposes in a common organization, and thus maintain a
dual church relationship. ^



APPENDIX C
SOME ESTIMATES OF CHINA'S POPULATION



Anhwei

Chekiang

Chihli

Fukien

Honan

Hunan

Hnpeh

Kansu

Kiangsi

Kiangsii

Kwaugsi

Kwangtung

Kweichow

Shansi

Shantung

Shensi

Szechwan

Yunnan

Manchuria

Totals



A}-ea
.s'(/. miles
{Richard)


Minchengpti
Census, 7910


Pop.per
sq, mile


(JensKs

iss->


Customs

Estimate,

1910


54,826


17,300,000


315


20,600.000


36,000,000


36,680


37,000,000


463


11,700,000


11,800,000


115,830


32,571,000


281


17,900,000


29,400,000


46.332


13,100,000


282


23.500,000


20,000,000


67,954


25,600,000


376


22;i00,000




83,398


23,600,000


282


21,000,000


22,000,000


71,428


24,900,000


348


33,600,000


34,000,000


125,483


5,000,000


40


5,400,000




68,498


14,500,000


208


24,500,000


24,534,000


36,610


17,300,000


448


21,300,000


23,980,000


77,220


6,500.000


84


5,100,000


8,000,000


99,970


27,700,000


277


29,700,000


32,000,000


67,182


11.300,000


168


7,70:),000




81,830


10,000,000


122


10,800,000




55,984
75.290


29,600,000
8,800.000


530
116


36,500,090
3,300,000


38,000,000


218,533


23,000,000


273


71,000,000


78,711,000


146,718


8,500,000


o8


11,700,000


8,000,000


363,700


14,917,000


41







331,188,000



A 71



APPENDIX D

STATISTICS OF ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONS
IN CHINA, J9J6

Number of Roman Catholic Christians by Provinces *

Anhwei 59,1C0

Chekiang 47,058

Chihli . . 500,600

Fiikien 59,481

Honan 46,487

Hunan 20,412

Hupeh .' .. .. '91,298

Kansu 6,360

Kiangsi 71,886

Kiangsu 175,621

Kwangsi 4,700

Kwangtung 87,602

Kweichow . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 32,858

Shansi 56,849

Shantung 135,160

Shensi . . . . 46,180

Szechwan and Tibet . . 141,834

Yunnan 17,714

Manchuria . . . , . . . . . . . . , . 53,265

Mongolia 94,877

(Macao) (40,000)

Total 1,789,297

Number of Roman Catholic Christians by Societies

Lazaristes 529,956

Jesuites 328,363

Miss. Etr. de Paris 318,973

Franciseains 241,595

Missions de Schent 101,247

Missions de Steyl 86,150

Dominicains . . . . . . . . . . . . 59,481

Missions de Milan 59,160

Missions de Rome 14,625

xAugustiniens . . . . . . . . • . . . . 7,529

Missions de Parme 6,427



Total 1,753,506



^ Taken from Les Mii<sfom cJe Chine et du Japon, 1917



PART XII
STATISTICS AND CHARTS

C. L. Boyiiton

Tlie statistics of Protestant Missions in
Statistics of China have been compiled for many years,
Cjjjna ^^^ the results have been recorded in Con-

ference records (1877, 1890, 1907), in the
China Mission Handbook (1896), in the Century of Missions
(1907), in the Survey of the Missionary Occupation of China
(1913) by Dr. Thomas Cochrane, in mission study textbooks
and volumes concerning China, and in the successive issues of
the China Mission Year Book (1910—). The favourite
methods have been to write to missionaries on the field or
to the administrative offices of the societies they serve, and
on securing the annual statistical returns required of the
missionaries ty the societies, to attempt to compile them into
a single uniform statistical framework. The great variety
of statistical schedules formerly (and still) in use by some
societies, and the complete lack of any system of records in
others, has rendered this a precarious and unsatisfactory
task. However, it has afforded the only general conspectus
of missionary work, so far as it can be presented
statistically, which has been available until the past three
years.

During the past three years another method

StatisScal ^^^ ^^^^ *^^^'^ ^^^^^^ increasing success. The

Forms formation of a special sub-committee on

statistics by the Continuation Committee of
the World Missionary Conference, resulted in the drafting
of a tentative uniform schedule which was published in 1913.
Among the earliest tasks to which the China Continuation
Committee set itself, at the request of the then editor
of the China Mission Year Book, was the collection for
the 1915 issue of that book of the statistics of the preceding
year's work. The venture was necessarily of so tentative a



56 i STATISTICS AND CHARTS

nature that the statistics as published were quite incomplete
and no totals were made of the figures collected, either by
denominational groups or as a whole. Definite progress
was marked, however, by the adoption, during the year
following, by many societies, of the tentative schedule used,
either as proposed or with modifications suggested by the
needs of the individual societies. The advantage of this
]3reliminary experiment was apparent as a preparation for
the work of the Statistical Secretary called by the China
Continuation Committee to begin work in the fall of 1913.
The statistics appearing with the present issue of the Year
Book are the result of these three years of experiment
with the new schedules. A considerable handica.p has been
felt in the delay in their adoption by some of the largest
societies (in spite of urgent appeals from their representatives
in China) , and a double burden is thus imposed upon those
responsible for the collection and compilation of the returns,
the statistical secretaries of the missions. In some cases
this postponement has been due to a desire to secure a
general agreement of American, British and continental
societies, which seems impossible before the termination of
the Great War.

Attention may properly be called to the
Livolved ^^^^ involved in the present compilation.

China is territorially and in population the
greatest of the missionary fields, and although the Christian
Church in China is not so numerous as that in India, the
stafi: of missionaries is greater, the educational work more
extensive and influential, and the number of societies whose
co-operation is necessary is larger. With over one hundred
and twenty societies at work, some of them divided in six
or eight great missions, about three hundred statistical
secretaries and scores of individual ''independent" or "un-
connected" missionaries must be asked for returns. These
secretaries must in their turn secure their data from over
six thousand missionaries, resident in over six hundred
stations, and related to the work of about twenty thousand
members of the Chinese staff, conducting work in more than
six thousand places. The local systems of record are usually
inaccurate or inadequate, their keeping is looked upon as a



STATISTICS AND CHARTS 565

burden, and the percentage of error that occurs is doubtless
fairly high. In many places the purging of church rolls is
as infrequent as a missionary's furlough. Many of those
responsible for records have a low opinion of their value and
a horror of keeping them (destroying the r*^ cords when the
report has been filled out and mailed). In spite of these
conditions, which are doubtless improving with the
development of the work, the records received may be
considered comparable year by year, and any tendency to
"pad'' or overstate is counterbalanced by the failure of
many to report excellent work w^hich actuall}- exists, and
by the conscientious understatement of others.

The collection of statistics continues through-
C II tl ^^^^ ^^® year. A general inquiry is sent to

statistical correspondents early in September
explaining the procedure, asking for corrected addresses of
those who are to supply information, the number of forms
required, etc. Upon receipt of the necessary information, the
proper number of forms is mailed gratis, with sets of the
latest published statistics, to illustrate the uses made of
replies. Those whose statistical year has recently closed
are urged to supply figures for their Avork at onc& and
others are asked to communicate with those from whom
they secure facts and to obtain their replies at the earliest
possible date after December 31st. The supply of forms
is sufficient to enable the local (station) secretary to keep a
set and to post a set to the mission secretary. "Whenever
possible the mission statistical secretaries (in China) compile
the reports from the stations on a single set of forms and
forward a copy to the China Continuation Committee, with
additions for totals for the mission in each column. Some
secretaries fail to give the details by stations and make
checking and correction by the Statistical Secretary impos-
sible, and where a mission works in more than one province
also rendering territorial studies difScult. The reports re-
ceived are carefully checked through for errors in addition,
omissions of important facts, discrepancies with previous
reports, published or unpublished, or with the facts as
known to the office staff. Frequently ambiguities or
misunderstandings musi" be removed by correspondence.



566 STATISTICS AND CHARTS

This process continues through nearly nine months during
which the corrected results are being transferred to tabular
sheets in preparation for publication. No general totals can be
naade till it seems that no further information is likely to be
forthcoming. Then such blanks as can be are filled from the
reports of previous years (if no new report has been sent) ,
either as rendered to the China Continuation Committee, or
as printed in the published reports of the mission or society
concerned. These latter must be used with caution, owing
to the differences in definition and classification. The
general results thus obtained are then included in ' the
totals and a condensed summary of these statistics by
missions is prepared (in July) for publication with
the China Mission Year Book. All returns received
are classified both by denominations and, where possible,
geographically by provinces and stations. It has not yet
been possible to prepare for publication the details of either
set of facts, but the information as to work in any given
locality or by any society will eventuallj^ be made available
for those to whom it may prove of real value. This in-
formation will constitute also a part of the general survey
which is being undertaken.

The statistical sheets in the pocket at the
f*^^9X6^ end of this volume follow closely the form

adopted last year. The first three sheets
present the returns from missions, grouped denomina-
tionally as in the Directory of Protestant Missions for 1917.
It has been decided that none of the figures shall represent
any work later than December 31, 19] 6. It was hoped that
the selection of this date would make it possible to secure
full returns for compilation earlier than hitherto. Un-
fortunately this proved impossible, owing to circumstances
beyond our control. Unexpec^ted and repeated changes in
important statistical positions delayed the receipt of returns,
from one whole province, and certain important societies,
until July, and the difficulties of typesetting such extensive
tables has made it impossible to issue the sheets with the
Year Book upon its first publication without delaying it
unseasonably. Other arrangements have therefore been
made to supply early purchasers of the volume with the



STATISTICS AND CHARTS 567

statistical sheets as issued. The delay is in the interests of
completeness, consistency, accuracy and up-to-dateness.
Statistics once published are irrevocable and practically
impossible of correction. All attempts of editors or
reviewers to substitute corrected figures for those lirst
published prove futile. It is better to be right, or as near
right as possible, upon first publication.
Special Stadfcs '^^^ regret occasioned by this delay is
tempered by the wealth of statistical material
made available in chapters VI-XXVI, presenting a re-
analysis and interpretation of the returns published in
1916. It is hoped that similar studies may be possible
from year to year in connection with the reports of the
preceding j^ears.

Charts ^^^ reasons similar to those stated in con-

nection with the statistics, it has been necessary
to present charts dealing with the statistics of 1915 instead
of 1916. Two sheets of these charts are included with this
volume. (See pocket). The first of these illustrates in
detail the statistical tables included in Chapter VI, and
deals with the Geographical Distribution of the Christian
Community in China. The second sheet has two series of
charts, the first illustrating the progressive geographical
extension of missionary work as evidenced by the opening
of new resident stations in successive periods ; the second
with the distribution of the forces of the larger societies
working in China. These represent only a small selection
from over one hundred charts based on the statistics, which
have been prepared in the offices of the China Continuation
Committee, which are available to general use in China in
connection with conferences and council meetings. Corres-
pondence concerning these will be welcomed, in order that
they may render the widest possible service.



INDEX



Aborigines in YiiTinan, education-
al work among, 263; evangelistic
work amongst, 265-6.

Administration of missions, self-
support, 170; 201-2; 287-8;
Chinese receive larger share in
administration, 67; intensive
work, 250-1, 313; evangelistic
policies inKiangsii, 172; means of
increasing self-support in Kwang-
tung, 191-2; city evangelization;
project in Shantung, 222-3; with-
drawal of Baptist Missionary
Society from Suitehchow, Shensi,
242 ; reasons for abandonment of
out-stations in Szechwan, 251;
where present methods fall
short of the highest standards
of efficiency., 311-2; lack of
proper co-ordination between the
home base and the field, 311;
failure to make the most effective
use of the forces on the field,
312-3; extensive versus intensive
work, 313; the Central China
Mission of the American Pres-
byterian Church, North, holds
two technical conferences preced-
ing annual assembly of entire
mission, 322-3; recommendations
on administration of union insti-
tutions adopted by C.C.C.,_ 323-4;
supervision and inspection of
schools, 396-7; methods used in
opening new churches, 361-2 ;
four distinct lines along which
co-operation and union efforts are
developing, 479 90; closer relation
between the home base and the
field, 486; division of authority
between the board and missions,
4S6; inler-mission committees on
the field, 487; larger Chinese
participation in mission adminis-



tration, 488-9; administration of
charitable institutions in Shang-
hai;, 507-9. (See also under Co-
operation, and Mission Policies).

Advisory Board of Missions in
Shansi, 214.

Advisory Board of West China
Missions, 255.

Advisory Council of the Churches,
West China, 255.

American Bible Society, 255; Cen-
tenary of, 329-33; early days of
the Society, 329-30; first foreign
work. 330; change in the
Society's policies regarding dis-
tribution, 330-1; Agency in China,
331 ; statistics regarding circula-
tion, 331-2; effect of political
changes on Bible distribution,
332-3; status of Society to-day_,
333.

American Board Mission in Fukien,
Seventieth anniversary of, with
history of the work and present
field of activity, 335-6.

Ancestor worship, attitude of the
Chinese Church toward, and
report of the C.C.C. regarding,
296-7.

Ancestral temples^ used for
services, 362.

Andrew, G., 149-56.

Anhwei, 73-84; physical features
73-5; important cities^ 75; sacred
places, 75 ; government education,
76; missionary occupation, 76-8,
the Church in, 78-80; educational
developments, 80-3, mission
educational need, 82-4 ; hospitals,
82 ; new stations needed, 84.

Anniversaries, 329-36 ; Centenary
of the American Bible Society,
329-33; twenty-fifth anniversary
of the Hauge Synod Mission,



570



INDEX



333-5; seveutieth anniversary of
the Amerir-an Board 3Iission in
Fukien, 335-6.

Arnold, Julean, 15-22.

Associated Missions' Treasurers in
China^ 491-3: treasurers partici-
pating, 491 ; the plan of the union,
491; resuUs of the lirst six
months, 491-2 ; lines of probable
development; 492; attitude of
officials at home base, 493.

Authorship) of Christian books,
extent of Chinese, -150; advan-
tages of joint, 450.

Autumn Evangelistic Movement,
characteristics of. 341.

Baptism in connection with poly-
gamy and ancestral worship,
295-297.

Baptist College in Shantung, 229.

Benevolence halls, 509-15.

Bevan, L. E. 0.. 1-14.

Bible, F. W., 85-97.

Bible circulation, statistics on,
331-3

''Bible Class" method, 56.

Bible Institute of Los Angeles
353-7; work of, in Hunan, 134-5.

Bible Institutes for church mem-
bers, financing of^ by the Milton
Stewart Evangelistic Funds,
369.

Bible magazines^ Chinese ])i-month-
ly, 177.

Bible schools in Yunnan, 263-4 ;
on house-boats in Hunan, 354;
Hunan autumn Bible schools,
355 7.

Bible societies in Kwangtung, 195.

Bible study, correspondence school
for, 538-9.

Bible training schools, 354-6; aid
to, from Milton Stewart Evan-
gelistic Funds, 367-8.

Bibliography on China, recent. 552-
6.

Biaekstone, J. H., 366-71.

Blind, school for, in Hupeh, 142.



Board Seerelaries' Conferences,
Great Britain, 486-7.

Bondfield, G. H., 279-83.

Books, paucity of religious, 447-8;
classification of, 448; reasons
for small sale of. 451 : list of re-
cent books on Cbma. 552-6.

Booiie University, 144-5.

Borst- Smith, Ernest F., 238-46.

Boynton, C. L., 307-10, 563-7 ; work
of, as Statistical Secretary of
the C.C.C, 471.

Boy Scout Movement, 404, 502,

Boys' work_, Shanghai Y.M.C.A.,
497-502; emphasis on individual,
497; work under direction of
Chinese, 497; club 'work. 498; a
standard programme, 498-500 ;
equipment of Association. 501;
work of boys in Municipal Re-
formatory and other activities,
501-2; Boy Scouts, 502.

British and Foreign Bible Society,
255. in Mongolia, 282; in Yun-
nan, 259 ; 265.

Brow'n, William Adams, 311-4.

Buddhism in Kwangsi, 182-3.

Business Agents, 308.

Canton Christian College 387, 481.

Canton Chinese Theological Semi-
nary, 193.

Catechisms, large number of, 447.

Centenary Conference, 49.

Central China Christian Educational
Association, 143.

Central Government, relation of, to
Provincial Government, 8-9.

Charities of Shanghai, native,
503-519; ancient Poor Law
503; legal incorporation of
charitable institutions, 504;
classification of charities, 504-5;
indoor and outdoor methods of
relief, 505-7 ; administration and
finances of charitable institutions,
507-9 ; typical charitable institu-
tions of the old type, 510-3;
institutions of the modern type,



INDEX



571



513-0 ; findings of the survey,
515; legislative supervision, 51(> ;
study of sociology, 517; relation
of Chureli to charities carried on
by non-OhrJstians, 517-8; volume
of eo-operation, 518; need of
( hrisiian social service bureau,
519.

Charities of Soochow, 52(5-9; origin
of Chinese non-Christian charities,
526-7; causes that ha,\e made
charitable institutions necessary_,
527; constructive social service
work unknown, 527-8; individual
element in social service small,
527; encouragements. 529.

Charts, statistical, (See inside
po'^ket).

Chefoo Convention and results in
Yunnan, 258-9; Chefoo Museum,
230,, School for Deaf, 236-1.

Chekiang, 85 97; characteristics of
the people, 85-7; recent missionary
advances, 87; non-Christian re-
ligions, 87-8; growth of the
missionary body, 89 90 : of the
Chinese staff, 90; growth of the
Church, 91; developments in
self-support, 91-2; union move-
ments, 92-3; educational devel-
opments, 94-5 ; medical -work,
95-6; general characteristics of
Christian Chinese, 96-7,

Cheng. C. Y., 284-303.

Chihli, 98-109: position of the
Church, • 98-9 ; struggle for
religious liberty, 99-100; mission
advances, 100-1 ; developments in
self-support, 101-2 ; friendly
attitude towards Christianity^
102; relation with Roman
Catholics, 152 3; evangelism,
103-4; education, 104-7; economic
conditions, 105; medical work,
107-S; Christian literature, 108;
mission comity, 108; inadequacy
of missionary occupation, 109.

China Christian Educational As-
sociation, 33; 292; ;]78.82; resolu-



tion regarding thoroughgoing
invest! ation of elementary
education, 320-1; • work and
strengtliening of office, 380-1 ;
co-oi>eration of different societies
in, 482.

China Continuation Committee, in-
fluence of, in Chihli, 103; im-
|>ressions of Annual Meeting,
293; recommendations regarding
general missionary survey, 317-8;
recommendations regarding
evangelism adopted by, 342;
fourth j'ear of, 468-77; purpose
of organization, 467; growth
during past four >ears, 468-9;
recommendations of the National
Conference of 1913, 469; work
of the Special Committees, 470 ;
the collection and classification
by the central office, 471 ;
prominence of evangelism in
the Coinmittee's work, 471-2;
church union, 472; subjects dealt
with by the Committee, 473; the
committee as a means of united
expression, 474; as a co-ordinat-
ing agency, 474-5; as u Board
of Reference, 475 ; as a link be-
tween the home base and the
field, 476; between the field and
similar committees in Asia, 476.

China Inland Mission, in Kansu,
153-4; in Kweichow, 199-200.

China Medical Board, 33, 166, 385;
416-8, 419-420, 428, 430-437;
activities of the Board, 430; in-
terdependence of medical schools
and hospitals, 430-1; capable
staff, the first need; 431; Peking
Union Medical College, 431 2 ;
Board of Trustees, 432 : prepara-
tory department at Shantung
Christian University, 432-3;
gyna'cology and obstetrics, 433;
women students, 433-4; Shanghai
medical school under Eockefeller
Foundation, 434; assistance to
St. John's and Nanking, 434-5;



572



INDEX



relation of Board to Fed Cross
Hospital. Shanghai,. 435; Shan-
tung Christian University Medi-
cal School, 435; Hunan-Yale
Medical College, 435 ; no educa-
tional project at Canton, 435-6;
fellowships and aids, 436-7;
reason for conditional grants-in-
aid, 437.

China Medical Missionary Associa-
tion, 33, 38, 43-4; 61-2: 194;
292; 416 ; 427 8; survey of the
schools by, 318; resolutions fol-



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