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pacing about alone, and reading a report of the Mild-
may Conference for '77, when a Buddhist priest made his
appearance, having come out from a temple close by.
He bowed very respectfully, and kneeled, etc., before
me (which, however, I rebuked), then asked me to come
and sit down. As one or two other men made their



appearance from the temple, I went in, and having
exchanged salutary greetings and supped tea, I spoke
to them (three priests and one "plebeian") of the one
true God as the Father of mankind, telling them also
that He was displeased if we worshipped any other than
Himself.

Friday. — This afternoon I went to call on a native
artist, and passing through a busy Taoist temple
courtyard, I noticed one of our friends (an inquirer
here) surrounded by a crowd of people, to whom he was
reciting about ancient affairs (both historical aud tra-
ditional), by which means he gets his living. I am not
satisfied about the honesty and rectitude of the busi-
ness. I hope, if he turns to Christ, he may turn away
from this. However, seeing me, he bowed, and invited
me to come into his ring and sit down, which opportu-
nity I did not fail to take. The crowd immediately
swelled to double or treble the size, and were wondering
what I was going to do in such a ring. After having
sat a few minutes, whilst the man Cheng still chanted
his ancient tradition, I said, " Now you rest awhile,
and I'll speak." He very kindly allowed me to speak
in his ring, which was surrounded by 250 or 300 people.
Here I preached the Gospel for a good half-hour, bring-
ing in all the simple points of truth that I could think
of that should first impress the heathen mind. The
whole crowd, almost to a man, listened very attentively
all the time. Although it was on the adversary's
ground, being in a large temple courtyard, and imme-
diately in front of the temple itself, it was one of the
most successful meetings in the open air I have held,
and I only regretted I had not books with me to sell.

Saturday. — This afternoon preached higher up the
street, nearer the city wall, to a good congregation for
more than half an hour. The people seem more pre-
pared to receive the Gospel here than in any other place
in the province, and I am certain we are doing a good
work by pioneering and preaching in different cities
and towns, if even we see not a single convert foryears.
I trust the Lord will soon raise up a church in this city.
There is, of course, a little company of believers here
now, but what I mean is a large church working and
witnessing here for Christ.

Wu-hu, Sunday. — At this morning's believers'
meeting read and spoke upon a portion of Luke xi. ; also
explained why we did not worship the Virgin Mary, the
cross, and any "holy fathers," as the Catholics here
do. After I had taken dinner, I was sitting in the
back yard, in the cool and shade, looking over the letters
from home received yesterday, when I heard some
cracking, and seeing now smoke arise at a few hundred
yards distance, I went to learn the cause. Upon nearing
the spot I saw it was a fire. Several houses, each about
the size and appearance of a haystack, had already
caught fire, and people were hurrying with their
goods out of their houses in all directions. The
scene was one of confusion, ■ but pushing up to
the front, I saw a few foreigners at work with a
will. Conspicuous amongst them were the constable,
Mr. Perkins, and a customs officer named Lewis. The
former was directing a small engine worked by Chinese,
and the latter, armed with a small hatchet, was cutting
away anything liable to burn at a spot, which they
both worked upon to cut off the fire at that point, in



CHINA'S MILLIONS.



151



order to save the threatened houses beyond. Their
efforts were successful. They had secured the houses
beyond, and the fire could only go in the other direction
towards the hills, where were but a few houses. The
danger was now passed, and the poor people had only to
wait until the fire finished consuming the ruins. Some
thirty or more small straw houses were entirely burned
down. Returning to the house I examined the candidate
for baptism, the old man named Li, who has been a
vegetarian and Roman Catholic inquirer. I feel very
satisfied about him. Afterwards I went to a large space
of ground, upon which were some theatricals publicly
performed for the "benefit of the gods." I looked round
to see whether I could not get a spot to preach about
the true God ; but there was such a din and hubbub on
the place — just like a fair — and the wind being high, I
fear they would not have heard me, or, at least, I should
have had to strain my voice more than I was able, so I
did not attempt to preach there. Going on farther in
my walk, I had, however, a nice quiet talk to a few men
and to two women on the hillside. This evening we
had a good meeting. Spoke from Matthew iii. and xvii.

Mo7iday. — Left to-day for Gan-k'ing.' After making
fifteen li, rested at a place called Lu-kan. This is a
somewhat busy place, which I have passed several times,
but not stopped at before. So now, as it was full early,
I went on shore. The town lies on both sides of the
creek, but the east side is the larger. The principal
street is more than half a mile in length. In this I took
my stand to preach ; but as the sun was strong, and
several of my congregation were exposed to its rays, I
only spoke ten or fifteen minutes and sold a few tracts ;
but towards sunset I had a very good congregation on
the river-bank. I was glad to find many of my hearers
had not only previously heard the Gospel, but really
understood a good deal of it. Some asked very impor-
tant questions, which it is always an encouragement to
hear coming from slightly enlightened heathen minds.
Afterwards we went over the river. The sun had already
set, and we saw on the opposite bank two or three
hundred people returning from the public theatricals.
As the two ferry-boats could not take more than fifty at
once, we had an opportunity of preaching Christ to the
remainder on the bank ; but seeing the ferrj'-boats
returning again ; I at once offered my books and tracts
for sale, that some might at least buy tracts before they
went over. Many were anxious to have them, and as time
was short, they clamouredfor them, almost helping them-
selves : they pressed so hard upon me that I had to give
one " general big push," and clear the ground a bit in
front of me. They bought more quietly afterwards, and
by the time a few remained, I was able to speak to
them again for a little while. We walked up the street on
the west side of the creek just to see the place, but it was
too late to preach again as it was nearly dark. Crossing
the river again I spoke a few words for Christ to twelve
or fifteen men on the same ferry-boat. We then
hurried back to our own boat and partook of our evening
meal. It has been very hot to-day, and fans have come
prominently into use. A good deal of lightning to-
night, occasionally accompanied by thunder.

Tuesday. — It was cooler this morning and we had
some rain. Starting at5 a.m. withasmall wind slightly
in our favour, we travelled some ten miles before noon,
when a very high contrary wind arose which compelled
us to stop at a small village called Pah-keh Chen. I went
out here for a walk and talked to the villagers. I entered
a tea-shop, where I spoke of the Gospel to many friendly
men who gathered round to see me. They said I was
the first foreigner that had visited that place, and many
of the wives and "big bairns " came out of their various



houses to look at me. One treated me to some tea, and
most bought books and tracts. This is probably the first
seed that has been sown here : may God water it and give
the increase to His glory ! Soon after 4 p.m. I pressed
the boatman to start again, even against the wind, for
Shan-kiah-keo (where Mr. Pearse and I had preached
before and were well received). When we arrived it was
nearly dark, still I went out for a short time, soon
gathered a crowd of boatmen and others, to whom I was
able to say something of the Gospel for about a quarter
of an hour. This was about a quarter of a mile from the
village. I was invited to go into it, but just then it
began to rain, so hastily bidding each other adieu, we
retired in different directions. The people here are
particularly friendly and kind.

Wednesday. — To-day we had a good wind, so starting
early we travelled on at a fine rate. At one time, how-
ever, the wind dropped, so I walked on ahead of the
boat until I came to a village called Hsu-kia-pa, where
I preached on the street until the boat came up. My
servant seeing me preaching, brought up a few books
and tracts, some of which I sold to the villagers. I was
pleased to learn that last year two foreigners visited this
place and preached the Gospel. Getting on board again
I stood on the deck and gave a parting word to the
villagers who lined the shore, for a few minutes, then we
put off and sailed away for Ta-t'ung, which we reached
about 7 p.m. Here I met Mr. James on his way to
Shanghai by native boat. He had been detained all day
by a head-wind, which same head-wind, however, had
enabled me to travel more than fifty miles. Cheng Sien-
seng, the Ta-t'ung evangelist, came on our boat, as he
was coming up to Gan-k'ing with us for a few days.

Thursday. — The wind was decidedly in our favour, so
reached Chi-chau Fuby 9.30 a.m., a distance of twenty
miles, whilst Mr. James, I should think, would not travel
at all. Our two brethren, Cheng and Tai, went into the
city for Hsii, the evangelist. They all returned in about
two hours ; then we started again, but as the wind was so
high we strake sail and were driveii. After travelling
forty li we arrived at a village called U-shan-kiah. It
was now about 5 p.m., so I got off the boat with a few
books, soon gathered a congregation, and preached to
them for about half an hour. Ijumpedonthe boat again
and asked for a native evangelist to come out and
preach. Hsii came ; I advised him to stand on the boat
and the congregation on the shore. He preached, while
about 100 listened ; then Cheng, a more able man, took
his turn and spoke well. I and my servant were selling
books and tracts while these were speaking. I noticed
our boatman standing at the extremity of the crowd
talking to some five or six men. I came close behind
him to listen, and to my joy heard him telling them
" that there was only one great God in heaven and all
Buddhas were false." We, first one and then another,
spoke like this for the space of two hours, until dark.
Many bought books, and the testimony of two or three
natives seemed especially advantageous. I trust God
may bless the word spoken and the seed sown.

Gan-K" mg, July iZth. — I have lately returned from
the south of this province. At Hwuy-chau Fu we have
rented a larger and more suitable house than the former,
though the rent is smaller. It is situated in a busy
street leading to the North Gate. I spent a month at
that city, and cured four opium-smokers, which brought
many to hear the Gospel, and has, I think, given a good
impression to a larger number. The two inquirers are
not promising, but one or two of the cured opium-
smokers are. May the Lord save them. The Si-chuen
man, Yii, who accompanied me, is a most valuable
helper and evangelist.



152



CHINA'S MILLIONS.




THE OPIUM SMOKER.— NO. 8.

Not much better than the shed in which he Hves by day, is the shelter in which he now spends the night.
Somewhat screened by the garden fence, his bed, supported at one end on a pile of bricks, at the other on his
only remaining stool, is still covered by his curtains, and his opium-lamp is sufficiently sheltered to burn. Most
of his clothes have gone to the pa^vn-shop ; ere long his curtains will follow them. His wife and child, the
picture of misery, can only look with hopeless sorrow on the living and half-naked skeleton of the once portly
and well-dressed gentleman. Wealth and property have gone, clothes and respectability have gone, home and
health have gone, and what remains ? Ah, what indeed ! There is a ruined soul in that poor, heartless, wrecked
body, almost beyond the possibility of salvation — thus degraded to keep up our Indian opium revenue.



CHINAS MILLIONS.



153



BY MR. S. S. MAWDEB,

The following letter by Mr. Mander is of great importance, showing as it does that the apparent
gain to England by the ungodly opium traffic is illusory and unreal. Not more surely are we ruining
China morally, physically, and pecuniarily, than we are eating away the roots of a commerce which
might have been of the utmost importance nationally to Great Britain. The correspondence between
Mr. Edmonds and Kuo Sung-tao, the Chinese ambassador to England, which follows this letter, also
deserves very serious attention.



LETTER VIII.

ENGLAND A LOSER BY THE TRADfe.

Sir, — The withdrawal of Great Britain from the
position of responsibility and dishonour she now sustains
in regard to the opium trafEc must be acknowledged by
every statesman, not to say every Englishman, as a thing
greatly to be desired. But the one great difficulty con-
fessed on all sides is just this — how is India to dispense
with the revenue she derives from the trafEc ? And I
feel, Sir, that it is useless to bring this subject before
your readers, and endeavour to produce a conviction of
the wickedness of our policy towards China, if it is
indeed impossible to reverse it and to give up this
revenue. One thing, however, is certain — itmust always
be possible to do right. And if I can show that the
opium revenue is illusory and unreal, being attended by
such and so many drawbacks that we lose much more
than we gain (and there is no difficulty in proving this)
then all possible motives will conspire, those spring-
ing- from self-interest with those dictated by a sense of
shame and by the national conscience, to demand that
we shall without delay withdraw from the traffic, and set
ourselves right with China and the world.

The Empire of India was gained to us by a company
of merchants. Let us then look at the question from a
merchant's point of view.

It was a legitimate expectation, cherished from the
beginning of our intercourse with China, that an immense
trade would ultimately spring up between that country
on the one hand and England and India on the other.
But, after a hundred years of this intercourse, what are
the facts ? In 1874, with twenty-one seaports open to
us, in addition to the possession of Hong Kong, England
sent to China, with its 400 millions of inhabitants (one-
third of the human race), less than eight millions worth
of goods out of a total export to all countries of
;^250,ooo,ooo — that is, less than fourpence per head
per annum of its population — while the Australian
Colonies, with only four millions of people (one-hundredth
part of the population of China), took fourteen millions
worth of our goods, or just £t^ los. per head per annum.
But in 1872-73 the exports from India to China were
worth twelve millions sterling, of which, however, opium
(85,000 chests) counted for ten and a half millions, leav-
ing one and a half millions only for legitimate trade.

Why was this ? Why should England export to China
so little — so much less even than India did ? The
answer is clear ; the nature of the Indian exports accounts
for the smallness of the British. It is an exceedingly
simple operation. " The demand for useful British and
American manufactures is kept at its present low figure
in China by the impoverishing and enervating effects of
opium alone." So wrote in 1875 the sixteen English,
American, and German missionaries from Canton, and
so says to-day the Chinese ambassador Kuo, now in



London. His words are, " The impoverishment of the
people by opium is the sole cause of the accumulation of
unsold goods."

This means that, having introduced ourselves to a
market surpassing all others, with import and export
dues more liberal than any Western State can boast of,
we use our advantages to drain the resources of China
for an Indian production, and prevent the possibility of
its purchasing our own. The folly of this is simply
inconceivable. During the last decade of years the
practical result has been that all the tea and silk
annually exported by China to England has just about
paid for the opium imported from India, " one
of the most disastrous exchanges," says Dr. Wells
Williams, of the United States, " ever made by any
people;" and surely very disastrous to the English
merchant and manufacturer, whose productions are thus
practically displaced by opium, for both China certainly
cannot take.

Dr. Dudgeon, of Pekin (medical missionary), in a
speech delivered in Glasgow in January, 1876, said,
" China is a magnificent country, and the grandest
mart in the world for our commerce ; and yet our
merchants pursue the shortsighted, suicidal policy of
selling a drug which spoils the market for manufactured
goods."

Dr. Dudgeon elsewhere says, "Indian finance is
benefited by the opium trade to the extent of seven or
eight millions a year, and China is being ruined. The
commerce and manufactures of our own country are so
seriously affected by the trade that in one sense, we may
say. Great Britain pays over eight millions annually to
India." And this gives me my first argument, that
since England and India are parts of the same Empire,
if England loses as India gains, between them there is
no gain to the Empire at all. It is in this sense, as
counterbalanced by losses in England, I wish, in this
particular letter, the statement to be understood
that the Indian opium revenue is a thing altogether
unreal and illusory. ^

This conclusion is so serious that it naturally calls for
further substantiation.

Sir Rutherford Alcock, writing tohis Government on the
prospects of the development of the China trade, re-
ported as follows : — " It is a trade with a constant
tendency to increase, and as the delegates of the
Chamber of Commerce (of Shanghai) clearly show, at
the average annual rate of three and a half millions in
British manufactured goods alone. As a market for the
produce of our looms and manufacturing industry, China
at present ranks very low. Its people are poor con-
sumers ; but under other auspices and more favourable
conditions the Chinese Empire might within the next
twenty years offer a vast field for commercial activity,
and would soon lead to a consumption of manufactured
goods ten times as large as any at present existing."



154



CHINA'S MILLIONS.



" Under other auspices and more favourable condi-
tions," Sir Rutherford significantly says. Let me illus-
trate this. It is under American "auspices" that
Japan has made such astonishing- progress, and under
the " more favourable conditions " of the rigid e.xclusion
of opium. Japan made a determined stand against its
introduction. It was accordingly prohibited in the
Treaty with America, which fortunately was negotiated
just before our own ; and in the Treaty with England
this prohibition had to be confirmed. " The Japanese
ambassadors," says Dr. Dudgeon, "once told me that
it was this trade (in opium) that made the great differ-
ence between Japan and China."

Just a century ago, in the earliest days of the opium
trade, Sir Philip Francis, writing from Fort WilUam in
1776, said, " The monopoly of this article is highly pre-
judicial to the trade of Bengal, nor have we a right to
reckon the whole revenue arising from it as clearly gained
to the Company."

Sir Philip was right. In 1876 I was told that every
China merchant complained bitterly that the trade had
become almost worthless.

So far back indeed as July, 1842, a memorial was
presented to Sir Robert Peel, signed by 235 mer-
chants and manufacturers of the highest standing and
respectability, in which the obstacles which the trade
in opium interposed to the increased demand for British
goods by the Chinese were shown. They stated that in
their opinion ^'/^e opium trade, in whatever form, would
inevitably undermine the commerce of Great Britain
a/id China. They showed that " the products of British
industry purchased by the Chinese were less by
;^i5o,ooo in 1834-39 than they had been for woollens
alone in 1803-8 ; whilst during that interval the opium
trade had been multiplied tenfold, rising from 3,000 to
30,000 chests." In 1859, too, Captain Elliott, Her Ma-
jesty's superintendent of trade in China, wrote to Lord
Palmerston : — "After the most deliberate reconsidera-
tion of this course of traffic, 1 declare my own opinion
that in its general effects it is intensely mischievous to
every bra?2ch of trade."

Cobden once said : — " There is not a country on the
face of the earth where trade is carried on with greater
facility than in China."

And yet China has repeatedly suspended her general
trade in order to compel the withdrawal of the opium
vessels. She has done more. She has, with the same
object, attempted to cut off the English for ever from
trade with China, on which the Friend of India,
once observed: — "The edict of perpetual exclusion
which Lin has prevailed on the Emperor to issue is, when
considered in connection with the sacrifice it involves
(that of her magnificent foreign trade), one of the most
extraordinary acts which any Government, in ancient or
modern times, civilised or uncivilised, has ever per-
formed."

Now what is it that England is sacrificing for the sake
of her opium trade ? The Shanghai Chamber of Com-



merce says our trade ought to increase at an average
rate of three and a half millions a year, according to
which in the last twenty years our trade should have in-
creased by seventy millions ! No one who reflects on
the almost countless population of China will regard
this calculation as extravagant. But to reckon the ex-
ports from Great Britain to China at only fifty millions
(2s. 6d. per head of the population per annum), the pro-
fits of such a trade would probably be several times as
great as the entire ;profits of the opiwn trade.

Should this be questioned, let it be considered that the
profits would not be merely those of the British mer-
chant, but those of the manufacturer also ; while far
greater than either of these would be the expenditure
on labour, which would go to enrich the masses of the
people.

That England should surrender willingly in favour of
India, and for her good, the magnificent market for
trade that China presents, would indeed be magnani-
mous; but to do it when the result is not only ruinous to
China, but most injurious — as I shall show in my ne.Kt .
letter-:-to India herself, is a folly almost without parallel,
and is the result of that ignorance and moral blindness
which always accompany and avenge the continued per-
petration of wrong.

Surely a general committee should be appointed by
the various Chambers of Commerce in this country to
inquire into a matter that so deeply concerns its trade
and manufactures, and through them the interests of
the entire community.

There can be no doubt that the bitter hostility which
exists in the Chinese mind towards the English, and
which is so unfavourable to trade, is largely due to the
opium traffic ; and this leads them to reject every effort
on our part to introduce Western civilisation and its
scientific improvements, as railways and telegraphs, and
to regard with the utmost suspicion the advance of the
English into the interior. What we regard as symbols
of civilisation and great practical benefits, are to them
symbols of conquest, and of the progress of the most
terrible nation their history has known.

It is impossible that China can tolerate its position
(of subjection to England) an hour longer than she can
help. She is accordingly known to be straining every
nerve, and using Western scientific improvements to
strengthen herself against her enemy ; and it is certain
that this entails upon England the cost of maintaining
sufficient forces in Chinese seas to meet emergencies.

The late Mr. Cobden used to say that he had not the
smallest doubt that if we were to compute the profits that
we have received from our export trade to China for the
last forty years, and set against it all that it has cost in
wars occasioned by the trade, and in the naval, and
military, and consular services thought necessary to pro-
tect and promote it, the nation could be shown to bo
largely a loser by the transaction. Such was Mr.
Cobden's opinion ; and I shall have written to little



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