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went to the temple I visited, and found an idol some-
thing like his idea, and worshipped it. In process of
time others came and worshipped, and now it has become
well-known. Opium is freely used in worshipping it,
because they say, " He liked it when alive."

Suppose you follow me in thought on this visit. We
go through a large door, and enter a spacious court-yard.
Facing us is a large temple, where some priests are chant-
ing to the god of Hades. On three sides of this yard, are
many rooms, with a frontage of about ten feet each, with
red-painted bars, to protect the idols. Each room con-
tains large models of the punishments of hell. Most of
them are fearful enough to strike terror into the minds of
all ages and of both sexes. There are representations of
men and women being sawn asunder, some ground to
paste, others bound to a red-hot stove-pipe, or thrown on
knives ; others again are being boiled in pans, or pounded
in mortars ; some, decency forbids me to describe.

Let us ask a boy, where is the Fowl-foot god ? He con-
ducts us to the first room on the right-hand side. On
entering the yard there is a tall idol, dressed in dark
paper, with three servants, about four feet high, attend-
ing him. In the next room there is a god placed in a
shrine at the back of the room, with about ten servants ;
many have their mouths wide open, and are very ugly.

On their mouths opium is freely daubed ; those whose
mouths are open, have 'Ca.&m. filled till it runs down their
bodies on the ground. It is the most horrid and dirty
spectacle that I have ever seen in a temple.

Another strange thing that attracts our attention is a
number of pieces of red paper, pasted on the bars of this
room. Let us read some. " Mr.Lion the 8th of the
7th moon, 1880, had stolen a pipe and appurtenances."
" Mr. Wang lost a fan, with 560 characters written on it
on the 15th of the loth moon, 1880." Mr. Yang had so
much silver stolen (date, address, etc.) The people give
notice to this god, like we should at a police-station.
When a complaint is lodged, opium is smeared on the
mouth of the god; and if the lost or stolen things are
recovered, a token of thanks is given according to the
value of the articles. It may be a board, whereon is a
grateful inscription, or a day's theatrical performance,
performed in honour of and before the idol.

We pass to the next room, and here we see six
grotesquely arranged ; these all have their mouths
smeared with opium. This board of gods is supposed to
govern the pawnbrokers.

If any person has a difficulty at the pawnshop, he goes
and states the grievance, and puts a little opium upon
the mouth of these gods to induce them to help him.

We will next visit the first room on the left of the
courtyard. Here is a tall idol, about nine feet high,
dressed in white paper, and wearing a tall paper cap ; he
is attended by three servants. He is supposed to guard
the soul coming out of Hades. Some had tried to
throw opium up into his mouth, but it had fallen on to his
dress. His servants have their mouths daubed with

It seems rather strange that the nearest idols to the
door are thus worshipped, as if the anxious should have
no trouble to seek them. These offerings of opium are
not wasted ; because the priests scrape off the opium and
smoke it. The belief appears to be forming and spread-
ing, that opium for the use of the departed can be thus
sent to the spirit world.

If one studies the beliefs of this people, and sees their
practical effects, he is led to exclaim : " Who is sufficient
for these things ? " Every generation finds the heathen
farther away from God. The mind is especially weakened
by opium, and the will is more fully captivated by the
devil. To those at a distance these things may almost
provoke a smile ; but those only who come in daily con-
tact with the people, and see their bondage, can realise
their utter and all but hopeless ruin. Pray that the
Holy Spirit may work deliverance in multitudes of souls.



gi^pHrtmts im Cljiinr.

N August 20th, Rev. F. W. Bailer, Dr. Edwards, and Dr. Wilson left Marseilles, en route for China,
in the Messageries Maritimes steamer Anadyr. They will be due in Shanghai on September 30th.
They have been commended to the care and blessing of God for their voyage and work at
several meetings held as under : —

The Metropolitan Tabernacle

Guildford ...

Home of Industry (Miss Macpherson's)

Christian Conference, Southsea

Young Men's Christian Association, Aldersgate Street
Talbot Tabernacle...

Baptist Chapel, Luton

Hornsey Rise Baptist Chapel

The Young Men's Christian Association, Exeter Hall

Brook Street, Tottenham

Baptist Chapel, Dover

Rev. C. H. Spurgeon .,.
Rev. F. Paynter, M.A. ...

C. B. Ker, Esq

The Earl of Cavan
M. H. Hodder, Esq.

Rev. F. White

Rev. L. Edwards

Rev. F. Smith

R. C. Morgan, Esq.

J. E. Howard, Esq., F.R.S.

Rev. J. Edwards...


We trust that the interest aroused in the minds of many Christians by these meetings may lead to much
earnest prayer for our friends, and also for all missionaries, and mission work, in China.


Miss KINGSBURY writes from T'ai-yuen Fu^ on
March 14th : " We are very pleased to be able to tell you of
the baptism of our dear girls ; only two were baptized, for one
was married about six weeks ago, and has gone to P'ing-yang
Fu. Another, of whom we formerly had hopes, I am grieved to
say, has left us ; and to all appearance has been turned quite
against us. Now that she has gone some distance from us, all
we can do is to pray for her, that the Lord will draw her again
to Himself. These poor girls have much to contend with from
their heathen friends and relatives. They need so much grace
to withstand the trials and temptations that beset their path.
Lately my time has been taken up a good deal with visiting the
sick. One poor woman, who has been ill ever since her baby
was born, eight months, ago, can now stand and walk a few
steps. She told me the other day she hoped soon to be able to
get out, for she wanted to come to our house to the meetings ;
sothat looks a little hopeful, does it not? . . . . What a joy
it is, when we are parted from those who are dearest to us on
earth, to know that our loving Saviour is ever with us, and
that nothing can ever take Him from us ! I wonder what we in
Chiria should do if it were otherwise. There are times, I
suppose, when every one feels a little lonely, but then it is that
we can more fully appreciate the love and sympathy of the
Lord Jesus. We know He can satisfy all the longings and
desires of our hearts."

Mr. PIGOTT writes from T'ai-yuen Fu on the same date :
" Mr. Drake has been spending a couple of weeks here, after a
long spell of hard work among the villages around P'ing-yang
Fu. He throws himself into the work heartily, and is getting
on -well in every way. Here things go on much as usual. The
medical work is making the people more friendly, as well
as drawing them around us. Two American missionaries are
visiting the province, and we may perhaps have the party from
Oberlin settlmg among us."

Mr. J. J. TURNER writes from P'ing-yang Fu on March
25th : " Upon arriving in T'ai-yuen Fu last December, I found
my wife's health much improved ; and as I was much better
myself, we judged that the Lord would have us return to P'ing-
yang Fu, and do some more woik before going home. We found

the work here going on, but quietly. At our last quarterly
meeting four persons were proposed for baptism ; and it is
probable that they will be baptized in the third moon, "

Mr. SAMBROOK writes from Fan-ch'eng, Hu-peh, on
his return from a three months' tour in the south and west of
Ho-nan: "April 5th, 1SS2.— We spent a much longer time on
this journey than I expected when we left, being much delayed
by snow and rain storms, and also by the New Year's holidays.
At that time, however, I had the good fortune to be in Ju-ning
Fu ; so had the pleasure of a short stay with Mr. and Mrs.

" Soon after I left my assistant fell ill, and I had to let him
return home. The day he left a man came to my inn, and after
some talk with me, asked if he might accompany me on my
journey. He had been connected with the Romanists at Nan-
yang Fu, but did not altogether like their ways, and had left
them because he was kept so closely confined to the premises.
A native in the same city gave him a Gospel and a tract, and
told him that he thought our doctrine was purer than that of
the Romanists. He tells me he now believes the Gospel, and
has put his idols out of his house, and spoken of it to his
relatives and the people of his village. He says they all more
or less believe, and half of them have put away the gods, and
ceased to worship them. I decided to take him with me, and
he has since proved a great help. We sold over 8,000 books,
I cannot write of the fruits of our work, for as you know it is a
work of sowing. At times I was lonely and discouraged by the
difficulty of making myself understood, but on the whole I was
very happy, and since feel that it has refreshed me much. I was
treated very well. In a few instances there was slight hostility
shown, but I always found that a quiet remark, and gradually
entering into conversation, telling them of GOD and His love,
brought them round to friendliness. It is wonderful to notice
how many are changing their opinion of foreigners even in the
interior. They wonder at and admire so much the skill and
intelligence of Europeans, I had many invitations to drink tea
and rest — one man, a stranger, insisted on paying for my tea
at a tea-shop ; and I think it is not always that these acts of
courtesy and kindness spring from a selfish motive."

China's Millions

AA. Cri(de opium exuding from the qicen poppy-licad. B. Knife of four double-pointed blades for scratching the green capsule.
C. One of the blades of the hnife "B. D. Iron spoon for collecting the drops of opium.

N.B.— The drawings of the poppy-head and the knife are of the natural size. The fpoon is half the natural s^ze.

''(TIjc feitb nboui ^')pium-$mohin0/**

'NDER the above title a pamphlet has been recently published which contains information
of the highest value on the opium question. It owes its origin to the course recently
taken by those who have attempted to justify our opium trade with China.

Writers in The Times and elsewhere, who were supposed to have a competent
knowledge of the subject upon which they wrote, have, with a boldness worthy of a better
cause, made statements in defence of the opium trade as a source of revenue. The evils of opium-
smoking they have boldly denied, or so minimised as to make the statements of missionaries and
others as to the dreadful results of opium-smoking appear as gross exaggerations.

Many who had not at hand evidence to meet the assertions so positively made were per-
plexed, and left in much uncertainty as to what the truth on the subject really was.

Under these circumstances it was thought desirable that some gentlemen then in England,
who had lived long in China, should be invited to state the truth of the matter as they knew it, and

* "The Truth about Opium- Smoking." Twelve Illustrations. Second Edition, Sixth Thousand. Price Sixpence.
London : Hodder and Stoughton, 27, Paternoster Row.
NO. 88. — OCT.jBER, 1882.


accordingly it was arranged that meetings should be held in Exeter Hall. The missionaries invited,
and who readily responded to the invitation to state the results of their observation and experience,
were as under : —

Church Missionary Society.

Rev. W. H. Collins, M.R.C.S., 1857.
Rev. A. E. MouLE, B.D., 1857.
J. Galt, Esq., F.R.C.S.Ed., 1871.

Presbyterian Missionary Society.
W. Gauld, Esq., M.D., 1863.
James L. Maxwell, Esq., M.A., M.D., 1863.

London Missionary Society.
Rev. James Sadler, 1866.

Wesleyan Missionary Society.
Rev. David Hill, 1865,

China Inland Mission.
Rev. J. McCarthy, 1867.
Rev. F. W. Baller, 1873.

The date following the names shows the ^year of their appointment, or arrival in China.
One of these had travelled in thirteen provinces ; another had travelled right across China from
east to west ; four of them had had special experience as medical men ; and all of them were
exceptionally well qualified to speak with authority upon the question.

The pamphlet contains their testimonies, and the testimony of many others, and also a
careful selection of the most conclusive evidence upon the question from official papers. It has
been prepared and edited by Mr. B. Broomhall, Secretary of the China Inland Mission. The intro-
duction gives a view of the present aspects of the controversy, and indicates the scope of the pam-
phlet. It has been suggested that this might with advantage be printed in China's Millions. It
is accordingly now given, and considering how seriously the opium trade hinders missionary effort,
anything which spreads the truth on this subject is not out of place in a missionary publication.


HE following pages [this, and other references,
refer to the pages of the pamphlet] will, it is
believed, prove valuable to those who desire to
sound judgment on some disputed points in the
controversy on the opium question.

That controversy is rapidly becoming one of the
foremost questions of the day, and the nature and
magnitude of the interests involved, both moral and
materia], will, now that the issues have been fairly raised,
secure for it henceforth a continually increasing measure
of public attention until it is satisfactorily settled.

Twenty, thirty, forty and more years ago, there were
those who earnestly protested against England's con-
nection with the opium trade as then carried on with
China. Their efforts to arouse public attention seemed
unavailing. Few apparently gave heed.

It is otherwise now. Motions in Parliament, resolutions
adopted in Convocation, in Church Congresses, Wesleyan
Conferences, Congregational and Baptist Unions, and in
public meetings all over the country, condemnatory of
England's connection with the opium trade, are so many
indications of the awakening of the public conscience to
the national sin committed by England in forcing the
Government of China to admit our Indian opium.

The meeting at the Mansion House, presided over by
the Lord Mayor, and at which the Archbishop of Can-
terbury, Cardinal Manning, Rev. E. E. Jenkins, ex-
President of the Wesleyan Conference, and the Earl of
Shaftesbury were among the speakers, was a notable
evidence of public feeling upon the question.

With such signs of progress multiplying on every hand,
it was becoming manifest that the opium revenue was
doomed ; when almost simultaneously, and not without
indications that they were acting in concert, a number of

gentlemen came forward to justify the use of opium, and to
vindicate the morality of the opium revenue. Their appear-
ance was as unexpected as their arguments were strange.

Foremost among these was Sir Rutherford Alcock,
the man who, of all others, had done most to furnish
material for the anti-opium agitation.

A few days later Sir George Birdwood, in a letter which
appeared in the Times QiiV)e.c. 6th, iS8i, made the start-
hng announcement that opium-smoking was " absolutely
harmless," " almost as harmless an indulgence as twiddling
the thumbs." The following are his own words : —

"As regards opium-smoking, I can from experience testify
that it is of itself absolutely harmless."

• • • "I repeat that, of itself, opium-smoking is almost as
harmless an indulgence as twiddling the thumbs and other siUy-
looking methods for concentrating the jaded mind.

• • ■ "All! insist on is the down?-ight innoccncy, in itself, of
opiuin-smolcing ; and that, therefore, so far as we are concerned
in its morality, whether judged by a standard based on a deduc-
tion from preconceived religious ideas, or an induction from
national practices, we are as free to introduce opium into China,
and to raise a revenue from it in India, as to export our cotton,
iron, and woollen manufactures to France.

"I am not approving the use of stimulants — I have long ceased
to do so. I am only protesting that there is no more harm in
smoking opium than in smoking tobacco in the form of the mildest
cigarettes, and that its narcotic effect can be but infinitesimal —
if, indeed, anything measurable ; and I feel bound to pubUcly
express these convictions, which can easily be put to the test of
experiment, at a moment when all the stupendous machinery
available in this country of crotchet-mongers and ignorant if
well-meaning agitators, is being set in movement against the
Indian opium revenue on the express ground of its falsely im-
puted immoraUty."

Such statements, coming though they did from one
who in some subjects had a well-earned reputation, were
looked upon as too absurd to do any harm, and as not


worthy of serious reply. It soon became apparent, how-
ever, that their circulation in the Times had given them
an adventitious importance, and in various parts of the
country many who had read them were greatly perplexed.
It seemed to them improbable that a man who had any
professional reputation to lose, would so trifle with it as
to make, with such iteration, statements so definite and
positive, unless he had some foundation in fact for his

Deputy-Surgeon-General Moore was another who came
forward, "actuated," he said, "by the firm impression
that the British public were being misled by probably
well-meaning but certainly mistaken persons." He
thought it unlikely that the people of England would con-
sent to all that the loss of the opium revenue would
involve ;

"especially when they would be doing so for the purpose of
preventing a comparatively few Chinamen suffering from the
abuse of an agent which many more Chinamen find to be a source
of enjoymeut, of comfort, a necessity, and even a blessing."

These views Dr. Moore sought to justify.

Another apologist for opium-smoking appeared in the
person of a Mr. Brereton, a solicitor from Hong-kong.
In a public lecture he said :

" I had daily intercourse mth the people from whom the best
and truest information on the subject of opium can be obtained,
and my experience is, that opium-smoking, as practised in China,
is perfectly innocuous."

And he asserted that of all the British residents in China
not one per cent, could be found

" who wiU not declare that opium-smoking in China is a hann-
less, if not an absolutely beneficial practice ; that it produces no
decadence in mind or body ; and that the allegations as to its
demoralizing efl-ects are simply ridiculous."

He even said :

"I have tried to find the victims of the dreadful drug, but I
have never yet succeeded."

Sir George Birdwood, Dr. Moore, and Mr. Brereton
were thus agreed in the bold attempt to persuade the
people of England that opium-smoking is not injurious.
Sir Rutherford Alcock, though more careful in his lan-
guage, sought, in his article in the Nineteenth Ccnfmy, and
also in his paper read at the Society of Arts, to minimize
the evils resulting from the use of opium.

Ifthese gentlemen could only prove that opium-smoking
is not injurious, the very foundations of the movement
now becoming so powerful for the suppression of the
opium trade would be swept away ; but unfortunately for
the success of their enterprise, at the very moment when
they were thus seeking to prove that opium-smoking " is
a harmless, if not an absolutely beneficial practice," there
were in England a number of men who, by their long
residence in China, and personal contact with the people,
and some of them by extensive travel in that country,
were qualified to speak upon the effects of opium-smoking
in China with an authority, and a fulness of knowledge,
compared with which the opinions of these apologists
for opium-smoking were but as the small dust in the

That an opportunity might be afforded these gentlemen
to state " the truth about opium-smoking," it was resolved
that meetings should be held in Exeter Hall, at which
they should be invited to give the results of their experi-
ence. Nine of them (four of whom were medical men)
accepted the invitation.

Mr. George Williams (Treasurer of the Young Men's
Christian Association), ]\Ir. James E. Mathieson (Hon.
Secretary of the English Presbyterian Missionary Society),
Mr. T. B. Smithies (Editor of the British Workman),
and Mr. T, A. Denny, united in an invitation to a large

number of members of Parliament, and other persons of
influence, to meet these gentlemen at a conversazione and
conference preliminary to the public meeting.

The following pages contain the report of the proceed-
ings, both at the conference and at the public meeting ;
and in view of the desperate efforts now being put forth
to bolster up an infamous revenue, the testimony here
given is of the utmost value.

On the one point, viz., the injurious effects of opium-
smoking, the testimony will be found overwhelming. Let
this be weighed in comparison with what has been said on
the other side, and there can be no doubt what the con-
clusion will be.

Sir George Birdwood, Dr. Moore, and Mr. Brereton
have each shown large faith in the credulity and ignor-
ance of the British public. Never did the advocates of
a losing cause display less wisdom in their methods of
dealing with their opponents than did these gentlemen.
Their utterances, to quote the words of a distinguished
man, have been " almost inconceivably foolish."

Sir George Bird wood's letters have obtained for him a
distinction which few of his professional brethren will
envy. To say nothing of answers elsewhere, he is more
than sufficiently answered in the following pages, and
henceforth should speak tenderly of " ignorant if well-
meaning" persons.

Dr. Moore's method of justifying the opium trade is
much more objectionable. Not content with attempting
to show that " opium is especially suited to the Chinese
constitution, habits," etc., he goes out of his way to paint
the character of the Chinese in the blackest colours, and
even to ridicule Christian missions to people in distant
lands, with much more equally irrelevant. He has brought
upon himself the well-deserved rebuke of the Lancet,
which says : — ■

"Into Mr. Moore's diatribes against the exaggerated state-
ments which have been made regarding the extent of the opium
evil, and against a philanthropy which embraces distant parts of
the world in its endeavours, we are not concerned to follow him.
Exaggeration there has doubtless been, and needless exaggera-
tion, for the facts are sufficiently coaclusive without it. Nor is
this the place for a discussion of the political and moral aspects
of the Chinese opium trade. Mr. Moore's statements, whicli Sir
George Birdwood anticipated ' would furnish a complete vindi-
cation of the perfect morality of the revenue derived from the
sale of opium to the Chinese,' will seem to every unprejudiced
reader to darken rather than vindicate the moraUty of the pro-
ceeding. The vindication consists of a violent tirade against the
Chinese as the most drunken, debauched, and dissolute people
on the face of the earth, and we are therefore justified in forcing
upon them an additional intoxicant."

A further extract from the Lancet is given in the Ap-
pendix, p. 74.

Anything more ludicrous than Mr. Brereton's line of ar-
gument could not well be. The people of England were
being misled" by hearsay evidence," "and that of the worst
and most unreliable kind." He had beheld with concern
the delusions now so common in England on the opium
question, and he had come to dispel them, and he
modestly entertained a confident hope that his efforts
" will prove in a humble way instrumental towards break-
ing up the anti-opium confederacy." He had seen from
afar the rising tide of public opinion, and he had come,
Mrs. Partington like, with his mop to stem its progress !
He had learned the truth about opium, and he desired to
make it known.

But how had he learned " the truth about opium " .?
Here is the secret in his own words : —

"I have been the professional adviser of the opium farmer
(who, he says, pays the Government of Hong-kong ^40,000 a
year for the exclusive privilege of selling opium in the colony),
and from him and his assistants I have had excellent opportuni-
ties of learning the tiiith about opium. I have thus been able to


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