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able, and their remorse fearful.

Again, the Christian pubhc of Shanghai and of the other
sea-ports in China, together with the Christian public in
England, have always been strenuously opposed to the
carrying on of this trade ever since they saw its evil and
deleterious results ; while the body of merchants, especi-
ally those for whose pecuniary interests, partly this trade
is carried on, have as valiantly and as loudly endeavoured
to maintain it. Now the doctrines of Christianity incul-
cate on its followers the principles of justice and a certain
regard for the welfare of others ; while, on the other hand,
the doctrine of merchants is that of Expediency, which is,
that whatever is profitable is also honourable — a doctrine
practised by a certain set of heathen philosophers of old.

But when the followers of Christian doctrines unani-
mously and stoutly condemn the opium trade as wrong,
then it is evident that in the light of Christian truth, at
least, the trade is unholy and unsanctioned.

The Opium Traffic is condemned by the Laws of
Nations, because, according to the principles of inter-
national laws, every State or nation has the right to im-
pose protective tariffs, or prohibit the importation of any
article of commerce. But when, at the discretion and
judgment of the party concerned, any article is prohibited,
and yet, in the face of this prohibition, another nation
forces the article into the territory of the interdicting
power, that nation is guilty ofviolating the recognised law
of nations, and commits an act of flagitious injustice. But
that is the exact position in which England stands in
relation to the opium traffic.

However, I seem to hear some Englishmen soliloquise :
— " Might is right, and as long as we can bully you to
take our opium, and get in return the no inconsiderable
sum of six million dollars annually to maintain our army
in India, we will not worry ourselves much about inter-
national laws or injustice." Be it so : then let England
recall her missionaries, abrogate her treaties, renounce her
claims to Christianity and civilization, and erase from the
list of her virtuous attributes the words, " honour and
justice," and write in their stead the words, " avarice and
greed." Then will England act consistently, and not

The Opium Traffic is condemned by the Voice of Con-
science because it serves to render the strong man a weak-
ling, to convert the thrifty and hard-working man into a
drone and a spendthrift, to make a dishonest man still
more dishonest, to chase away truth where it existed
before, to bring grim faced poverty and destitution into
happy homes, and finally, to send down myriads of souls
to the abyss of eternal misery and woe.

It is not true, as has been alleged, that the official
authorities of China both connive at and encourage the
cultivation and importation of opium. There might have
been subordinate local officials who, out of avarice and
greed, filled their coffers at the expense of the good of
their countrymen. But the intelligent and high-minded
rulers, who serve their country rather than themselves,
do sincerely and earnestly wish that there was not
an ounce of opium to be found within the hmits of the

But granting a false premise to be true — to wit, that the
Chinese Government do really and sincerely wish for the
continuation of the opium trade, and that they cannot get
along without the revenues annually accrued therefrom —
does it then follow that the Englishman's act is justified ?
Because a man is so foolish as to wish to take poison, will
an Englishman put it in his hands ? Because a man is
so reckless as to be willing to stab himself, will an English-
man sharpen his dagger for him .? Because a man is so
blind as to be walking toward a fatal precipice, will an
Englishman encourage him on 'i Nay, the practice of
curing a blind man with hot irons will never do ; and as
long as England continues this unlawful and dishonour-
able trade, so long will she brand a scar on her fair fore-
head. — Yours truly, "Justitia."

Shanghai, 9th September, 1882.


^Ijc PHnufatturc nf #pium \i\i mx |utinux (iabcrixmcnt.


" From the mixing room tlie crude opium is conveyed to the balhng room, where it is made into balls. Each
ball-maker is furnished with a small table, a stool, and a brass cup to shape the ball in, a certain quantity of opium and
water called ' Lewa,' and an allowance of poppy petals, in which the opium balls are rolled. Every man is required to
make a certain number of balls, all weighing alike. An expert workman will turn out upwards of a hundred balls
a day." — The Graphic.

A Doubtful Business for Governiment Servants.

" The Government godowns at Patna are most interesting, but those who watch the process
by which the drug is made into cakes for India and balls for China, may fairly doubt if this is a
business which should be performed by Government servants. An opium auction is one of the
sights of Calcutta ; it is seldom that one can see property worth a million sterhng change hands in
half an hour, at rates which rise and fall even during the sale itself in a manner which awakens the
keenest spirit of gambling ; but is it quite consistent with our ideas that a Government secretary
should preside once a month at such an auction of such an article on the account of the State }
The retail sale of the drug at Government treasuries, a cake at a time, will to many seem still more
anomalous. Government will not sell a bottle of gin or brandy, why, then, a cake of opium 1" —
The Friend of India and Statesman.


d^. gippblei) 0n: tlje ^apulaticrir 0f Cbina.

R. A. E. HIPPISLEY, Acting Commissioner of
Customs, in his Wun-chau trade report for i88r,
goes out of the usual routine of statistics, and
comments thereon, and gives the following interesting
narrative on the population of China : —

Mr. Rhys Davids, in his v^'ork on " Buddhism," states
on the authority of Schopenhauer (" Parerga et Parali-
pomena ") that, " according to the Moniteur de la Flotte,
May, 1857, the allied armies found, on taking Nanking,
1842, returns which gave the population of China at
396,000.000, and that ih^ Post Zeitung oi 1858 contains
a report from the Russian Mission at Peking giving the
numbers, on authority of state papers, at 414,687,000." I
have not seen Schopenhauer's work, and know not,
therefore, whether detailed statistics for each province
are given in these returns. The latest census of which I
am aware containing this information is that of 1812,
which gives the population as 362,447,183 souls. The
areas of the several provinces are given by Dr. Williams
in his " Middle Kingdom," but there is reason to think
his estimate is, in some cases at least, an excessive one,
for Baron von Richthofen computes the area of the
Cheh-kiang province at 36,000 square miles, while Dr.
Williams gives it as 39,150 square miles. Accepting,
however. Dr. Williams's statement, the population re-
turned in the census of 1812 for the provinces of Kiang-su,
Gan-hwuy, and Cheh-kiang would give an average to the
square mile in them of 850,705 and 671 respectively. In
Belgium, the most densely-populated country in Europe,
the present average is 469 ; and in Oudh, the most
densely-populated portion of India, the average is, ac-
cording to the census of 1881, but 476. It seems almost
incredible that any portion of CHINA could at any time
have possessed a population 50 to 75 per cent, denser
than these countries. But, however that may be, I have
long been of opinion that the present population of
China falls far short of the number given by the census
of 1812. In the T'aip'ing rebellion, which was charac-
terised by ruthless destruction and slaughter, si.xteen
provinces were desolated. It was followed by the
Nienfei and Mussulman rebellions, and by the terrible

famine of 1876-78. In these successive calamities vast
tracts of country were depopulated, and as is evidenced
by the memorials regarding the grain tribute published
in the Peking Gazette, no small portion of them remains
to this day unreclaimed. For these reasons I have
considered that the population of China at the present
day does not exceed 250,000,000. This estimate has,
I am aware, been generally considered too small. It
was, therefore, with no slight interest that I read in the
Peking Gazette of the 17th March, 18S0, a postscript
memorial from the Governor of this province reporting
the result of a general census held in the autumn of the
fifth year of the present reign (1879). The population
of Cheh-kiang, which I had estimated as slightly over
15,000,000, is given according to this census as
11,541,054. This census of 1812 having stated the then
population as 26,256,784, the present returns show a re-
duction of 14,700,000 souls, or nearly 60 per cent., and an
average to the square mile of 295, instead of 671.

Through the courtesy of the Taotai, I am able to give
particulars of the population of this prefecture. The
returns forwarded from Ping-yang Hsien are less detailed
than those from some of the other districts, and those
from Tai-shun Hsien give only the number of habita-
tions, omitting the number of inhabitants. But to have
obtained further particulars might have delayed the
despatch of this report beyond the date fixed by you,
and I have calculated the population of the last-named
district by estimating five persons to each habitation, a
number slightly below the average of the other districts.
The area of this prefecture is about 3,380 geographical
square miles, or 4,500 statute square miles. The average
population would therefore seem to be about 409 to the
square mile in this prefecture, and thus largely in excess
of the general average of the province. The adjoining
prefecture of Ch'u-chau, to the west, is, however, nearly
twice as large as this prefecture, with a population of
probably scarcely more than half the above number
The average of the two prefectures would thus be con-
siderably below that of the whole province. — The Shanghai

kin 110,

EKING, the capital of the Chinese Empire, is
situated in a fertile plain, about fifty miles from
_ the Great Wall, in the province of Chih-li, and on
the Yu-ho, a tributaryto the Pei-ho, about fifteen miles east-
ward of the city. Its form is that of a rectangle or right-
angled parallelogram, having an area of about fifteen
square miles, exclusive of extensive suburbs, divided into
totally distinct and separate sections.

Of these, the northern, which is a perfect square, was
founded by the Man-chus, is inhabited by Tartars ex-
clusively, and includes the Imperial palace ; while the
southern, in the form of a parallelogram, is occupied
solely by Chinese. Each city is enclosed in its respective
walls, the enceinte of one series covering nine square miles ;

of the other, the imperial, or Tartar, occupying five. The
mural defences, like those of other cities of the first
class, consist of walls about thirty feet in height and
twenty in thickness, constructed in the manner common,
in the early age of architecture, to all countries. Two
retaining walls, the bases of stone the upper part of brick,
having a considerable slope on the exterior, but perpen-
dicular within, were first raised, and the interval after-
wards filled up with earth. The summit between the
parapets is levelled, floored with tiles, and access to it
afforded by inclined planes enclosed within the thickness
of the walls. This is the plan according to which the great
national rampart is erected ; this is also the mode in which
our great feudal castles of old were built, except that


rubble-stone, instead of earth, was thrown between the
retaining walls, and mortar poured in amongst them to
form a lasting concrete.

The south wall is pierced by three gates of entrance
the others by two each. A moat, filled with water, en-

the peculiar merchandise sold in each establishment
being exhibited in front of the house. Above the low
projecting eaves are seen banners waving from a staff, or
boards secured to a tall pillar, inscribed in letters of gold
on grounds of green or vermilion with the name of the


circled the whole city at an early period, but the increase
of the suburbs rendering this defence simply a separation
between the inhabitants, the authorities permitted its
waters to evaporate.

Each of the high streets of the city is lined with shops
and warehouses, places of entertainment, specimens of

ware and the established reputation of the vendor. To
enhance this record, and attract attention, each motto is
generally discovered through the flappings and flauntings
of streamers, and flags, and ribbons of the most gaudy
colouring, and most profuse employment. — " China, its
Scenery, Architecture, Social Habits, etc."


C0lp0rta0^ W^mk m €\^-\yvm^.


|UR WORK, undertaken at the instance of the
British and Foreign Bible Society, commenced

on October 24th, in Ning-po. In the city, for

tliree or four days, our sales were very small indeed.
We then visited the towns and villages of the neighbour-
hood, starting on the 2Sth and returning from Ning-hai
Hien on November 14th. During these eighteen days we
sold 1,019 single gospels and five New Testaments. The
colporteur also sold 510 tracts.

From November 14th to 30th we sold 451 gospels and
four New Testaments around Ning-po, and the colporteur
sold 279 tracts. At one village, named Zin-zi, but a little
way from Ning-po, we found the people very curious
indeed to see the foreigner. We sold a few books, and
tried to explain something of the doctrine, which appeared
to them new and strange. One woman seemed particu-
larly interested, and wished to know how to pray to the
great and only true GoD. Among the great crowd of
little boys that followed us, I overheard one telling his
fellows what he had heard us say. Pointing to an ugly
old idol, he said, " We must not worship this : it is sin
to do so. We are to worship the good and great God
who lives above."

Shao-liing I- 11, .aniiary 31 J'/, 18S2. — I send herewith a
short account of our journeyings and sales during the
last two months. You will see that our journeys have
extended from the city of Ning-po to Si-hing, near Hang-
chau, and that our sales have been moderately good. We
have also met with a good reception, on the whole ; and
though unable to record any cases of very special interest,
there is cause for encouragement. God's own Word has
been circulated and preached in very many places, and
we cannot but believe that fruit will appear in due time ;
and although we ourselves may not be permitted to see
it, what matters this ? If the Lord of the Vineyard calls
us to sow the seed, and gives the joy of reaping the fruit
to others, have we cause to complain ? Be it ours to
"sow beside all waters," and however much we may desire
to see the fruit (who would not like to reap ? ), may we
remember that our one business is to please Him, our
Master — that the consciousness of doing so is in itself a
reward, and also that the time will soon come when both
he that soweth and he that reapeth will rejoice together.
Let us not be weary in well-doing, for in due season we
shall reap if we faint not.

My native helpers sometimes have fo bear reproach
from their countrymen for selling foreign books — " for eat-
ing Chinese rice and doing foreign work," as it is some-
times put. These brethren need the prayers and sym-
pathy of God's people, and I crave yours for them, as
well as for myself, that we may have grace to persevere,
to be steadfast, unmovable, always abounding in the work
of the Lord. During these two months I and our col-
porteur sold 2,047 single gospels, 36 New Testaments, and
the other colporteur sold 1,486 tracts.

Ning-po, March l2,th, 1882. — I am sending you what
I have in the way of a diary of work done (in the pre-
fectures of Shao-hing and Ning-po chiefly), though it is
little more than a list of names of places and of the
numbers of books sold. I wish I had something more
interesting to tell you, but somehow those cases do not
often come under my notice, I mean nothing particularly
striking. We visited many places, sold quite a number
of books, as you will perceive ; we talked and preached,
and always got plenty of listeners, but few manifested any
real thirst or desire for the Word of life. We sold about
297 gospels and three or four New Testaments, besides 537
tracts, from February 3rd to March 13th.

The next journey was from Ning-po to T'ai-cbau and
back, via Ning-hai, starting on March 15th and returning
by the 25th of April. During the journey we sold about
974 gospels and 17 New Testaments, whilst a colporteur
sold 539 tracts. The people round about T'ai-chau
seemed not to be a reading people, and we found it
difficult to dispose of our books in some places.

The next journey was up the Ts'ien-t'ang river, from
May i6th'to June24th. We visited the cities of Hang-chau,
Lan-k'i, Kin-hwa, Kiu-chau, and Chang-shan, and the
neighbouring villages, and sold in the 39 days 1,234
portions of Scripture, 21 New Testaments, while 600
tracts were disposed of by the tract colporteur. We
were prevented doing much in the Kiu-chau district on
account of the very heavy and continuous rains which
flooded the country, carrying away bridges, dwelUng-
houses, domestic animals, and in some instances human
beings. Our little chapel outside the city of Chang-shan,
at which we were staying, was soon flooded. We re-
mained as long as it was safe to do so — till the forms,
tables, etc., began to float about — and then escaped by
boat. We had to scramble over a tumbled-down place in
the wall, as the city gateway was quite filled with water.
Boats were being taken up and down the streets, by means
of which the people escaped from their flooded houses
through the windows or from the roof, upon which they had
climbed for safety.


(From the Manual of the Methodist Episcopal Church,

April, 1882.)

" The Roman Catholic Register of Hong Kong gives
the following statistics of Roman Catholic Missions in the
Empire : — Bishops, 41 ; European Priests, 664 ; Native
Priests, 559; Colleges, 34; Convents, 34; Catholics,
1,092,818. Certain Catholic authorities assert that their
missionaries do not propagate the faith in China as ar-
dently as in the former century, and that the number of
adherents is on the dechne."


Cl/uia's lllrllrmrs.

By W. Kennedy Moore,

Far off, on Asia's eastern bound,
See ! ancient barriers break away ;

Even there is heard the joyous sound.
There gleams the dawn of better day :

More brightly, Jesus, may it shine,

Till China's millions all are Thine.

May dull stagnation cease to bind
That lettered race in chains of ill ;

With nobler knowledge rouse the mind.
With purer life the spirit thrill :

Fall, Buddhist school and idol shrine,

O Christ, be China's millions Thine !

in " At Home and Abroad."

Some hast Thou given to toil and die.
Touched with the true seraphic flame ;

May rising hosts their place supply.
And urge the triumphs of Thy name :

Fill the strange land with power divine, —

Be China's millions only Thine !

Each little flock, each gathered soul,

Watch Thou, and guard with gracious care,

When storms of trouble fiercely roll.
When Satan plies his deadly snare :

Make the small shoot a noble vine, —

May China's millions soon be Thine.


Mr. ADAMS, of Kin-hwa, writing on July 1st, refers to the
new station at Yung-k'ang, recently opened by the direct effort
of the native church at Kin-hwa. The premises secured for
preaching purposes and for residence of two native assistants are
very suitably situated, and aflbrd good opportunities of publicly
proclaiming the Gospel. "The people," Mr. Adams writes,
" the scholars, and even the boys, are most respectful, and some
are interested. A congregation of from forty to sixty regularly
attend every Sunday : at first the numbers were higher. It would
be a help to the work there if it were made a matter of special
prayer in spare moments.

' ' We received another man named Chang into fellowship last
coiijmunion. His son has asked for baptism. This makes
three restored since you were here [in February]. One of two
formerly expelled is now most penitent ; the other has not ap-
peared yet." On the 28th July, Mr. Adams spoke of having
more baptisms soon.

Mr. DORWARD writes on July 5th from Hu-nan :— "The
Lord is keeping us in peace. As I stated in my last letter, I am
endeavouring to work in as quiet a way as possible ; and, praise
the Lord ! we are having some opportunities of doing so. I
have begun to give medicine to men who wish to break off
opium-smoking. We have already had a good many applicants,
but purpose only to take in hand two or three at a time. One
man, who had not smoked long, appears to be cured, and one
who has smoked for over ten years has been taking medicine for
six days, and is progressing favourably."

Mr. Dorward pleads very earnestly in the remainder of his
letter for more labourers in Hu-NAN, where the need is so great.
He thinks a medical missionary might do much in the way of
starting the work.

On July 6th he writes: — "GOD alone can open our way in
Hu-NAN, and so far, I believe, He has wonderfully ordered our
steps. To His name alone be all the praise. Satan, however,
is on the look out, and unless the Lord undertake for us, our
difficulties may increase instead of becoming fewer. The young
man I have engaged as servant has a brother here, a tailor, who
has visited us two or three times. The night before last as he
was leaving he asked me for a book, and I gave him one. His
master, with whom he lives, saw him with the book, and was so
angry that he took it from him and burnt it, and I understand at
the same time dismissed him from his employ."

Mr. EASTON writes from Han-chung Fu on the 8th
July : — " We have not yet obtained possession of the shops rented
for a chapel ; the old tenant is in debt, and some restraint has
been put upon his goods, so that he has not been able to remove
them. Thermometer 84 deg. in the shade. There is very much

sickness among the people. I have been unwell myself for a
week past. A number of visitors come in in the cool of the
evenings and sit in our little garden for a talk about the

Writing on August 5th, Mr. Easton says: — "On July 25th
we opened our new chapel, or rather preaching-room
and book depot, in the main street of this city. It is a
large double shop, and, with a few repairs and alterations,
we have arranged for sitting accommodation for about sixty per-
sons. On the 25th we invited the Christians and inquirers to a
feast, which they much enjoyed, and afterwards we had an open-
air meeting in the little garden in front of our house. Mr. Ho, the
native Evangelist, lives at the Gospel-hall, and keeps the shop
open all day. I go myself every afternoon for a few hours and
generally get attentive hearers. I hope for much from that little
place if it is well prayed over and faithfully worked. On the i8th
ult. went to Peh-koh Shan, 80. /z south, to see the Christians and
inquirers. There are several hopeful inquirers there and else-
where, but most of them are very illiterate. My wife's meeting
for Christian women on Thursdays has been falling off during the
hot weather. Last Thursday it revived again, and eleven
women — Christians and others interested — came. Some of our
people occasionally grieve us by their backslidings, and some
even have given evidence that they never were of us, and have
not the love of God in their hearts. Another brother here
would enable us to do more aggressive work, and I believe the
church would prosper as a consequence, but one is increasingly
convinced that what we want is not so much more work, books,
services, etc., as the power of the Holy Spirit, and this, I pre-
sume, would apply to most mission stations. Hwang Keh-chung
is now very ill. His disease has been taking rapid strides lately.
A few days ago we thought he was passing away, but he holds
on in much suffering. "

Mr. HUNT 'writes from Fan-che'ng on July 1st :—" Yester-
day and the day before there has been some excitement among
the people of this city, owing to the rise of the Han river above
its proper level, caused by the heavy rains of this season. The

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